Golden Chain MT-MK 7538
7538 Mc 15,38-41
(p. 327) Gloss: After the Evangelist has related the Passion and the death of Christ, he now goes on to mention those things which followed after the death of our Lord.
Wherefore it is said: "And the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom."
Pseudo-Jerome: The veil of the temple is rent, that is, the heaven is opened.
Theophylact: Again, God by the rending of the veil implied that the grace of the Holy Spirit goes away and is rent from the temple, so that the Holy of holies might be seen by all; (ed. note: The sense of the passage by reference to Theophylact appears to be, that as the Jews used to rend their clothes as a sign of grief, so the temple by the rending of its veil might be said to mourn.) also that the temple will mourn amongst the Jews, when they shall deplore their calamities, and rend their clothes.
This also is a figure of the living temple, that is, the body of Christ, in whose Passion His garment is torn, that is, His flesh.
Again, it means another thing; for the flesh is the veil of our temple, that is, of our mind. But the power of the flesh is torn in the Passion of Christ, from the top to the bottom, that is, from Adam even down to the latest man; for also Adam was made whole by the Passion of Christ, and his flesh does not remain under the curse, nor does it deserve corruption, but we all are gifted with incorruption.
"And when the centurion who stood over against Him saw." He who commands a hundred soldiers is called a centurion. But seeing that He died with such power as the Lord, he wondered and confessed.
Bede: Now the cause of the centurion's wonder is clear, that seeing that the Lord died in that way, that is, sent forth His Spirit, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God." For no one can send forth his own spirit, but He who is the Creator of souls.
Augustine: This also he most of all wondered at, that after that voice which He sent forth as a figure of our sin, He immediately gave up His Spirit. For the Spirit of the Mediator shewed that no penalty of sin could have had power (p. 328) to cause the death of His flesh; for it did not leave the flesh unwillingly, but as it willed, for it was joined to the Word of God in the unity of person.
Pseudo-Jerome: But the last are now made the first. The Gentile people confesses. The blinded Jew denies, so that their error is worse than the first.
Theophylact: And so the order is inverted, for the Jew kills, and the Gentile confesses; the disciples fly, and the women remain.
For there follows: "There were also women looking on afar off, amongst whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome."
Origin, in Matt. Tract. 35: But it seems to me, that here three women are chiefly named, by Matthew and Mark. Two indeed are set down by each Evangelist, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James; the third is called by Matthew, the mother of the sons of Zebedee, but by Mark she is called Salome.
Bede: He means by James the Less, the son of Alphaeus, who was also called the brother of our Lord, because he was the son of Mary, our Lord's mother's sister, whom John mentions, saying, "Now there stood by the cross of Jesus His mother and His mother's sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene." (Jn 19,25)
And he seems to call her Mary of Cleophas, from her father or some relation. But he was called James the Less, to distinguish him from James the Great, that is, the son of Zebedee, who was called amongst the first of the Apostles by our Lord. Further, it was a Jewish custom, nor was it thought blamable after the manners of an ancient people, that women should furnish to teachers food and clothing out of their substance.
Wherefore there follows: "Who also when He was in Galilee followed Him, and ministered unto Him."
They ministered unto the Lord of their substance, that He might reap their carnal things whose spiritual things they reaped, and that He might shew forth a type for all masters, who ought to be content with food and clothing from their disciples. But let us see what companions He had with Him, for it goes on: "And many other women which came up with Him into Jerusalem."
Pseudo-Jerome: As the female sex through the Virgin Mary is not shut out from salvation, so it is not thrust away from the knowledge of the Mystery of the Cross, and of the Resurrection, through the widow Mary Magdalene, and the others, who were mothers.
7542 Mc 15,42-47
Gloss: After the Passion and Death of Christ, the Evangelist relates His burial, saying, "And now when the even was come, because it was the preparation, that is, the day before the sabbath, Joseph of Arimathaea."
Bede: What is called "parasceue" in Greek, is in Latin "praeparatio"; by which name those Jews, who lived amongst Greeks, used to call the sixth day of the week, because on that day they used to prepare what was necessary for the rest of the sabbath day. Because then man was made on the sixth day, but on the seventh the Creator rested from all His work, fitly was our Saviour crucified on the sixth day, and thus fulfilled the mystery of man's restoration.
But on the sabbath, resting in the tomb, He was waiting for the event of the Resurrection, which was to come on the eighth day. So we must also in this age of time be crucified to the world; but in the seventh day, that is, when a man has paid the debt to death, our bodies indeed must rest in the grave, but our souls after good works in hidden peace with God; till in the eighth period, even our (p. 330) bodies themselves, glorified in the resurrection, receive incorruption together with our souls. But the man who buried the body of the Lord must needs by his righteous merits have been worthy, and by the nobility of worldly power able to perform this service.
Therefore it is said, "An honourable counsellor, which also waited for the kingdom of God." He is called in Latin, "decurio", because he is of the order of the "curia", and served the office of a provincial magistracy; this officer was also called "curialis", from his care of civic duties. Arimathaea is the same as Ramathain, the city of Elkanah and Samuel.
Pseudo-Jerome: It it interpreted, "taking down," of which was Joseph, who came to take down the body of Christ from the cross.
There follows: "Came and went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus."
Theophylact: He was bold with a praiseworthy boldness; for he did not consider within himself, I shall fall from my rich estate, and I shall be expelled by the Jews, if I beg for the body of Him, who was condemned as a blasphemer.
It goes on: "And Pilate marvelled if he were already dead." For he thought that He should continue long alive upon the cross, as also the thieves used to live long, upon the instrument of their execution.
It goes on: "And calling unto him the centurion, he asked him if he had been any while dead;" that is, before the time when other executed persons usually died.
There follows: "And when he knew it of the centurion, (that is, that He was dead,) he gave the body to Joseph."
Bede: But it was not an obscure person, nor a man of mean rank, who could come to the governor and obtain the body.
There follows: "And he brought fine linen, and took Him down, and wrapped Him in the linen."
Theophylact: Burying the precious body preciously; for being a disciple of our Lord, he knew how greatly the Lord's body ought to be honoured.
Bede: By this however, according to a spiritual meaning, we may understand that the body of the Lord should not be wrapped in gold or gems, or silk, but in a clean linen cloth. Hence it became a custom in the Church that the sacrifice of the altar should not be celebrated in silk, or in a dyed cloth, but in linen produced from the earth, just as the body of the Lord was wrapped in clean linen; as, we read in the Pontifical acts, it was ordered by the blessed (p. 331) Sylvester (ed. note: St. Sylvester was Pope from 314 to 335. On his decree respecting the Corporal used in the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, see Bona de Rebns Lit., i.e. 25. 11).
Though it has also another meaning, that he who receives Jesus in a pure mind wraps Him in a clean linen. There follows: "And laid Him in a sepulchre which was hewn out of a rock, and rolled a stone unto the door of the sepulchre."
It is said that the sepulchre of the Lord is a round cell, hewn out of the rock which was around it, so high, that a man standing upright could scarcely touch the roof with his outstretched hand; and it has an entrance to the east, to which the great stone was rolled, and placed upon it. In the northern part of it is the tomb itself, that is, the place where our Lord's body lay, made of the same rock, seven feet in length, raised three palms higher than the floor. It is not open from above, but on the south side, the whole of which is open, and through which the body was brought in. The colour of the sepulchre and of the recess is said to be a mixed white and red.
Pseudo-Jerome: By the burial of Christ we rise again, by His going down into hell we mount up into heaven; here is found the honey in the mouth of the dead lion.
Theophylact: Let us too imitate Joseph, taking to ourselves the body of Christ by Unity, and let us place it in a sepulchre, hewn out of the rock, that is, in a soul recollected, never forgetful of God; for this is a soul hewn out of the rock, that is, out of Christ, for He is our rock, who holds together our strength. We ought also to wrap Him in linen, that is, to receive Him in a pure body; for the linen is the body which is the clothing of the soul. We must, however, not throw open, but wrap Him up; for He is secret, closed and hidden.
There follows: "And Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses beheld where he was laid."
Bede: We read in Luke, that His acquaintances and the women who had followed Him stood afar off. When these then who were known to Jesus returned home after the burial of His body, the women alone, who were bound to Him with a closer love, after following the funeral, took care to see how He was laid, that they might be able at a fitting season to offer Him the sacrifice of their devotion.
But on the day of the "parasceue", that is, of the preparation, the holy women, that (p. 332) is, humble souls, do the same, when they burn with love for the Saviour, and diligently follow the steps of His Passion in this life, where their future rest is to be prepared; and they weigh with a pious minuteness the order in which His Passion was accomplished, if perchance they be able to imitate it.
Pseudo-Jerome: These things also fit the Jewish people, which finally is believing, which is ennobled by faith to become the child of Abraham. It lays aside its despair, it waits for the kingdom of God, it goes in to the Christians, that is may be baptized; which is implied by the name of Pilate, which is interpreted.
'One who works with a hammer,' that is, he who subdues the iron nations, that he may rule them with a rod of iron. It seeks for the Sacrifice, that is, the Viaticum, which is given to penitents at their last end, and wraps it up in a heart clean and dead to sin; it makes it firm in the safeguard of faith, and shuts it up with the covering of hope, through works of charity; (for the end of the commandment is charity; (1Tm 1,5)) whilst the elect, who are the stars of the sea, are looking on from afar, for, if it be possible, the very elect shall be offended.
7601 Mc 16,1-8
(p. 334) Pseudo-Jerome: After the sadness of the sabbath, a happy day dawns upon them, which holds the chief place amongst days, for in it the chief light shines forth, and the Lord rises in triumph.
Wherefore it is said: "And when the sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Salome, had brought sweet spices."
Gloss: For these religious women after the burial of the Lord, as long as it was lawful to work, that is, up to sunset, prepared ointment, as Luke says. And because they could not finish their work from the shortness of the time, when the sabbath was over, that is, at sunset, as soon as the time for working came round again, they hastened to buy spices, as Mark says, that they might go in the morning to anoint the body of Jesus. Neither could they come to the sepulchre on the evening of the sabbath, for night prevented them.
Wherefore it goes on: "And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun."
Severianus, ap. Chrysologum, sermon 89: The women in this place run abroad with womanly devotion, for they do not bring Him faith as though He were alive, but ointments as to one dead; and they prepare the service of their grief for Him as buried, not the joys of heavenly triumph for Him as risen.
Theophylact: For they do not understand the greatness and dignity of the wisdom of Christ. But they came according to the custom of the Jews to anoint the body of Christ, that it might remain sweet-smelling, and might not burst forth into moisture, for spices have the property of drying up, and absorb the moisture of the body, so that they keep the body from corruption.
Greg., Hom. in. Evan., 21: But if we believe on Him who is dead, and are filled with the sweet smell of virtue, and seek the Lord with the fame of good works, we come to His sepulchre with spices.
There follows: "And very early in the morning the first day of the week, they came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun."
Augustine, Con. Evang., iii, 24: What Luke expresses by "very early in the morning," and John by "early when it was yet dark," Mark must be understood to mean, when he says, "very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun," that is, when the sky was growing bright in the east, as is usual in places near the rising sun; for this is the light which we call the dawning. Therefore there is no discrepancy with the report which says, "while it (p. 335) was yet dark."
For when the day is dawning, the remains of darkness lessen in proportion as the light grows brighter; and we must not take the words "very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun," to mean that the sun himself was seen upon the earth, but as expressing the near approach of the sun into those parts, that is, when his rising begins to light up the sky.
Pseudo-Jerome: By "very early in the morning," he means what another Evangelist expresses by at the dawning (Lc 24,1, dilueulo). But the dawn is the time between the darkness of night, and the brightness of day, in which the salvation of man is coming forth with a happy closeness, to be declared in the Church, just as the sun, when he is rising and the light is near, sends before him the rosy dawn, that with prepared eyes she may bear to see the graciousness of his glorious brightness, when the time of our Lord's Resurrection has dawned; that then the whole Church, after the example of the women, may sing the praises of Christ, since He has quickened the race of man after the pattern of His Resurrection, since He has given life, and has poured upon them the light of belief.
Bede, in Marc., 4, 40: As then the women shew the great fervency of their love, by coming very early in the morning to the sepulchre, as the history relates, according to the mystical sense an example is given to us, that with a shining face, and shaking off the darkness of wickedness, we may be careful to offer the fragrance of good works and the sweetness of prayer to the Lord.
Theophylact: He says, On the first of the sabbaths, that is, on the first of the days of the week. For the days of the week are called sabbaths, and by the word "una" is meant "prima".
Bede: Or else, by this phrase is meant the first day from the day of sabbaths, or rests, which were kept on the sabbath.
There follows: "And they said among themselves, Who shall roll us away the stone from the door of the sepulchre?"
Severianus, Chrysologus: Your breast was darkened, your eyes shut, and therefore ye did not before see the glory of the opened sepulchre.
It goes on: "And they looked, and saw that the stone was rolled away."
Bede: Matthew shews clearly enough, that the stone was rolled away by an Angel. This rolling away of the stone means mystically the opening of the Christian Sacraments, which were held under the veil of the letter of the law; for the (p. 336) law was written on stone.
I goes on: "For it was very great."
Severianus, Chrysologus: Great indeed by its office rather than its size, for it can shut in and throw open the body of the Lord.
Greg.: But the women who came with spices see the Angels; because those minds who come to the Lord with their virtues, through holy desires, see the heavenly citizens.
Wherefore it goes on: "And entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment; and they were affrighted."
Theophylact: Though Matthew says that the Angel was sitting on stone, whilst Mark relates that the women entering into the sepulchre saw a young man sitting, yet we need not wonder, for they afterwards saw sitting within the sepulchre the same Angel as sat without on the stone.
Augustine: Either let us suppose that Matthew was silent about that Angel, whom they saw on entering, whilst Mark said nothing of him, whom they say outside sitting on the stone, so that they saw two and heard separately from two, the things which the Angels said concerning Jesus; or we must understand by "entering into the sepulchre," their coming within some inclosure, by which is it probable that the place was surrounded a little space before the stone, by the cutting out of which the burial place had been made, so that they saw sitting on the right hand in that space him whom Matthew designates as sitting on the stone.
Theophylact: But some say the women mentioned by Matthew were different from those in Mark. But Mary Magdalene was with all parties, from her burning zeal and ardent love.
Severianus: The women, then, entered the sepulchre, that being buried with Christ, they might rise again from the tomb with Christ. They see the young man, that is, they see the time of the Resurrection, for the Resurrection has no old age, and the period, in which man knows neither birth nor death, admits of no decay, and requires no increase. Wherefore what they saw was a young man, not an old man, nor an infant, but the age of joy.
Bede: Now they saw a young man sitting on the right side, that is, on the south part of the place where the body was laid. For the body, which was lying on its back, and had its head to the west, must have had its right to the south.
Greg.: But what is meant by the left hand, but this present life, and what by the right, but everlasting (p. 337) life? Because then our Redeemer had already gone through the decay of this present life, fitly did the Angel, who had come to announce His everlasting life, sit on the right hand.
Severianus, Chrysologus: Again, they saw a young man sitting on the right, because the Resurrection has nothing sinister in it. They also see him dressed in a long white robe; that robe is not from mortal fleece, but of living virtue, blazing with heavenly light, not of an earthly dye, as saith the Prophet, "Thou deckest thyself with light as with a garment;" (Ps 104,2) and of the just it is said, "Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun." (Mt 13,43)
Greg.: Or else, he appeared covered with a white robe, because he announced the joys of our festivity, for the whiteness of the robe shews the splendour of our solemnity.
Pseudo-Jerome: The white robe is also true joy, now that the enemy is driven away, the kingdom won, the King of Peace sought for and found and never let go by us. This young man then shews an image of the Resurrection to them who feared death. But their being frightened shews that "Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man to conceive the things which God hath prepared for them that love Him." (1Co 2,9)
There follows: "And he saith unto them, Be not affrighted."
Greg.: As though he had said, Let them fear, who love not the coming of the inhabitants of heaven; let them fear, who, weighed down with carnal desires, despair that they can ever attain to their company; but why should ye fear, ye who see your own fellow citizens.
Pseudo-Jerome: For there is no fear in love. Why should they fear, who had found Him whom they sought?
Greg.: But let us hear what the Angel adds; "Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth." Jesus means the Saviour, but at that time there may have been many a Jesus, not indeed really, but in name, therefore the place Nazareth is added, that it might be evident of what Jesus it was spoken. And immediately he subjoins the reason, "Which was crucified."
Theophylact: For he does not blush at the Cross, for in it is the salvation of men, and the beginning of the Blessed.
Pseudo-Jerome: But the bitter root of the Cross has disappeared. The flower of life has burst forth with its fruits, that is, He who lay in death has risen in glory.
Wherefore he adds, "He is risen; He is not here."
Greg.: "He is not here," is spoken of His carnal presence, for He was not absent (p. 338) from any place as to the presence of His majesty.
Theophylact: As if he had said, Do ye wish to be certain of His Resurrection, he adds, "Behold the place where they laid Him."
This too was the reason why he had rolled away the stone, that he might shew them the place.
Pseudo-Jerome: But immortality is shewn to mortals as (debita, ap. Pseudo-Hier.) due to thankfulness, that we may understand what we were, and that we may know what we are to be.
There follows: "But go your way, tell His disciples and Peter that He goeth before you into Galilee."
The women are ordered to tell the Apostles, that as by a woman death was announced, so also might life rising again. But He says specially unto Peter, because he had shewn himself unworthy of being a disciple, since he had thrice denied his Master; but past sins cease to hurt us when they cease to be pleasing to us.
Greg.: If again the Angel had not expressly name him who had denied his Master, he would not have dared to come amongst the disciples; he is therefore called by name, lest he should despair on account of his denial.
Augustine, de. Con. Evan., iii, 25: By saying, "He will go before you into Galilee, there shall ye see Him, and He said unto you," he seems to imply, that Jesus would not shew Himself to His disciples after His Resurrection except in Galilee, which shewing of Himself Mark himself has not ('sec', ap. Aug. (?)) mentioned. For that which He has related, "Early the first day of the week He appeared to Mary Magdalene," and "after that to two of them as they walked and went into the country," we know took place in Jerusalem, on the very day of the resurrection; then he comes to His last manifestation, which we know was on the Mount of Olives, not far from Jerusalem.
Mark therefore never relates the fulfilment of that which was foretold by the Angel; but Matthew does not mention any place at all, where the disciples saw the Lord after He arose, except Galilee, according to the Angel's prophecy. But since it is not set down when this happened, whether first, before He was seen any where else, and since the very place where Matthew says that He went into Galilee to the mountain, does not explain the day, or the order of the narration, Matthew does not oppose the account of the others, but assists in explaining and receiving them.
But nevertheless, since the Lord was not first to shew Himself there, but sent (p. 339) word that He was to be seen in Galilee, where He was seen subsequently, it makes every faithful Christian on the look out, to find out in what mysterious sense it may be understood.
Greg.: For Galilee mean 'a passing over' (transmigratio); for our Redeemer had already passed from His Passion to His Resurrection, from death unto life, and we shall have joy in seeing the glory of His Resurrection, if only we pass over from vice to the heights of virtue. He then who is announced at the tomb, is shewn in 'passing over,' because He who is first known in mortification of the flesh, is seen in this passing over of the soul.
Pseudo-Jerome: This sentence is but short in the number of syllables, but the promise is vast in its greatness. Here is the fountain of our joy, and the source of everlasting life is prepared. Here all that are scattered are brought together, and the contrite hearts are healed. There, he says, ye shall see Him, but not as ye have seen Him.
Augustine: It is also signified that the grace of Christ is about to pass over from the people of Israel to the Gentiles, by whom the Apostles would never have been received when they preached, if the Lord had not gone before them and prepared a way in their hearts; and this is what is meant by, "He goeth before you into Galilee, there shall ye see Him," that is, there shall ye find His members.
There follows: "And they went out quickly, and fled from the sepulchre, for they trembled and were amazed."
Theophylact: That is, they trembled because of the vision of Angels, and were amazed because of the Resurrection.
Severianus, Chrysologus: The Angel sits on the sepulchre, the women fly from it; he, on account of his heavenly substance, is confident, that are troubled because of their earthly frame. He who cannot die, cannot fear the tomb, but the women both fear from what was then done, and still, as being mortals, fear the sepulchre as mortals are wont.
Pseudo-Jerome: This also is spoken of the life to come, in which grief and groaning will flee away. For the women prefigure before the Resurrection all that is to happen to them after the Resurrection, namely, they flee away from death and fear.
There follows: "Neither said they any thing to any man, for they were afraid."
Theophylact: Either on account of the Jews, or else they said nothing because the fear of the vision prevented them.
Augustine, de Con. Evan., iii, 24: We may however enquire how Mark can say this, when Matthew says, "they departed (p. 340) quickly from the sepulchre with fear and great joy, and did run to bring His disciples word," (Mt 28,8) unless we understand it to mean, that they did not dare to say a word to any of the Angels themselves, that is, to answer the words which they had spoken to them; or else to the guards whom they saw lying there; for that joy of which Matthew speaks is not inconsistent with the fear which Mark mentions. For we ought to have understood that both feelings were in their minds, even though Matthew had not mentioned the fear. But since he has also said that they came out with fear and great joy, he does not allow room for any question to be raised.
Severianus, Chrysologus: It is said also in a marked manner, that they said nothing to any one, because it is the part of women to hear, and not to speak, to learn, not to teach.
7609 Mc 16,9-13
Augustine, de Con. Evan., iii, 25: Now we must consider how the Lord appeared after the Resurrection. For Mark says, "Now when Jesus was risen early the first day of the week, He appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom He had cast seven devils."
Bede: John tells us most fully how and when this appearance took place. But the Lord rose in the morning from the sepulchre in which He had been laid in the evening, that those words of the Psalm might be fulfilled, "Heaviness may endure for a night, but joy cometh in the morning." (Ps 29,6)
Theophyact: Or else put a stop at, "Now when Jesus was risen," and then read, "early the first day of the week He appeared," &c. [p. 341]
Greg.: For as Samson at midnight not only left Gaza, but also carried away the gates of it, so also our Redeemer rising before the light, did not only come out free from hell, but destroyed also the very gates of hell.
[Hom. in Evan., 33] But Mark here testifies that seven devils were cast out of Mary; and what is meant by "seven devils" save all vices? for as by seven days is understood all time, so by the number seven (see note d, p.149) a whole is fitly figured.
Theophylact: But Mary had seven devils, because she was filled with all vices. Or else, by seven devils are meant seven spirits contrary to the seven virtues, as a spirit without fear, without wisdom, without understanding, and whatsoever else is opposed to the gifts of the Holy Ghost.
Pseudo-Jerome: Again, He is shewn to her, out of whom He had cast seven devils, because harlots and publicans shall go before the synagogue into the kingdom of heaven, as the thief reached it before the Apostles.
Bede: In the beginning also woman brought man into sin, now she, who first tasted death, first sees the Resurrection, lest she should have to bear the reproach of perpetual guilt amongst men; and she who had been the channel of guilt to man, now has become the first channel of grace.
For it goes on: "And she went and told them that had been with Him as they mourned and wept."
Pseudo-Jerome: They mourn and weep because they had not yet seen, but after a short time they shall receive a consolation. For blessed are they that weep now, for they shall be comforted.
Bede: Fitly too is this woman, who was the first to announce the joy of our Lord's Resurrection, said to have been cured of seven devils, lest any one worthily repenting of his sins should despair of pardon for what he had done, and that is might be shewn that "where sin abounded, grace did much more abound." (Rm 5,20)
Severianus, Chrysologus: Mary brings the news, not now as a woman, but in the person of the Church, so that, as above woman was silent, here as the Church she might bring tidings and speak.
There follows: "And they when they heard that He was alive and had been seen by her, believed not."
Greg.: That the disciples were slow in believing our Lord's Resurrection was not so much a weakness of theirs as it is our strength. For the Resurrection itself through their doubts was manifested by many proofs; and whilst we read and acknowledge them, what do we but become firmer through their doubting?
There follows: "After this He appeared in (p. 342) another form unto two of them as they walked and went to a farm house."
Augustine: Luke relates the whole story respecting these two, one of whom was Cleophas, but Mark here touches but slightly upon it. That village of which Luke speaks may without absurdity be supposed to be what is here called a farm house, and indeed in some Greek manuscripts it is called, the country. But by this name are understood not only villages, but also boroughs and country towns, because they are without the city, which is the head and mother of all the rest.
That which Mark expresses by the Lord's appearance "in another form," is what Luke means by saying that "their eye were holden that they could not know Him." For something was upon their eyes, which was allowed to remain there, until the breaking of bread.
Severianus, Chrysologus: But let no one suppose that Christ changed the form of His face by His Resurrection, but the form is changed when of mortal it becomes immortal, so that this means that He gained a glorious countenance, not that He lost the substance of His countenance. But He was seen of two; because faith in the Resurrection is to be preached and shewn to two people, that is, the Gentiles and the Jews.
There follows: "And they went and told it unto the residue, neither believed they them."
How are we to understand the words of Mark compared with the account of Luke, that they then said, "The Lord hath risen indeed, and hath appeared unto Simon," (Lc 24,34) if we do not suppose that there were some there who would not believe?
Theophylact: For he does not say this of the eleven, but of some others, whom He calls the residue.
Pseudo-Jerome: But in a mystic sense we may understand that faith here labours, leading the active life, but there it reigns secure in the contemplative vision. Here we see His face through a glass, there we shall see the truth face to face, wherefore He was shewn to them as they were walking, that is, labouring, in another form. And when it was told, the disciples did not believe, because they saw, like Moses, that which was not enough for them, for he said, "Shew me Thyself;" (Ex 33,18) forgetting his flesh, he prays in this life for that which we hope for in the life to come.
Golden Chain MT-MK 7538