Summa Th. I-II EN
Benziger Bros. edition, 1947.
Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province

  • Benziger Bros. edition, 1947 - CCEL.ORG
  • Public domain

  • Tisch

    I-II

    Q1: OF MAN'S LAST END (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether it belongs to man to act for an end?
    Whether it is proper to the rational nature to act for an end?
    Whether human acts are specified by their end?
    Whether there is one last end of human life?
    Whether one man can have several last ends?
    Whether man will all, whatsoever he wills, for the last end?
    Whether all men have the same last end?
    Whether other creatures concur in that last end?
    Q2: OF THOSE THINGS IN WHICH MAN'S HAPPINESS CONSISTS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether man's happiness consists in wealth?
    Whether man's happiness consists in honors?
    Whether man's happiness consists in fame or glory?
    Whether man's happiness consists in power?
    Whether man's happiness consists in any bodily good?
    Whether man's happiness consists in pleasure?
    Whether some good of the soul constitutes man's happiness?
    Whether any created good constitutes man's happiness?
    Q3: WHAT IS HAPPINESS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether happiness is something uncreated?
    Whether happiness is an operation?
    Whether happiness is an operation of the sensitive part, or of the intellective part only?
    Whether, if happiness is in the intellective part, it is an operation of the intellect or of the will?
    Whether happiness is an operation of the speculative, or of the practical intellect?
    Whether happiness consists in the consideration of speculative sciences?
    Whether happiness consists in the knowledge of separate substances, namely, angels?
    Whether man's happiness consists in the vision of the divine essence?
    Q4: OF THOSE THINGS THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR HAPPINESS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether delight is required for happiness?
    Whether in happiness vision ranks before delight?
    Whether comprehension is necessary for happiness?
    Whether rectitude of the will is necessary for happiness?
    Whether the body is necessary for man's happiness?
    Whether perfection of the body is necessary for happiness?
    Whether any external goods are necessary for happiness?
    Whether the fellowship of friend is necessary for happiness?
    Q5: OF THE ATTAINMENT OF HAPPINESS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether man can attain happiness?
    Whether one man can be happier than another?
    Whether one can be happy in this life?
    Whether happiness once had can be lost?
    Whether man can attain happiness by his natural powers?
    Whether man attains happiness through the action of some higher creature?
    Whether any good works are necessary that man may receive happiness from God?
    Whether every man desires happiness?
    Q6: OF THE VOLUNTARY AND THE INVOLUNTARY (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether there is anything voluntary in human acts?
    Whether there is anything voluntary in irrational animals?
    Whether there can be voluntariness without any act?
    Whether violence can be done to the will?
    Whether violence causes involuntariness?
    Whether fear causes involuntariness simply?
    Whether concupiscence causes involuntariness?
    Whether ignorance causes involuntariness?
    Q7: OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF HUMAN ACTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether a circumstance is an accident of a human act?
    Whether theologians should take note of the circumstances of human acts?
    Whether the circumstances are properly set forth in the third book of Ethics?
    Whether the most important circumstances are "why" and "in what the act consists"?
    Q8: OF THE WILL, IN REGARD TO WHAT IT WILLS (THREE ARTICLES)
    Whether the will is of good only?
    Whether volition is of the end only, or also of the means?
    Whether the will is moved by the same act to the end and to the means?
    Q9: OF THAT WHICH MOVES THE WILL (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the will is moved by the intellect?
    Whether the will is moved by the sensitive appetite?
    Whether the will moves itself?
    Whether the will is moved by an exterior principle?
    Whether the will is moved by a heavenly body?
    Whether the will is moved by God alone, as exterior principle?
    Q10: OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE WILL IS MOVED (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the will is moved, of necessity, by its object?
    Whether the will is moved, of necessity, by the lower appetite?
    Whether the will is moved of necessity by the exterior mover which is God?
    Q11: OF ENJOYMENT [*Or, Fruition], WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether to enjoy is an act of the appetitive power?
    Whether to enjoy belongs to the rational creature alone, or also to irrational animals?
    Whether enjoyment is only of the last end?
    Whether enjoyment is only of the end possessed?
    Q12: OF INTENTION (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether intention is an act of the intellect or of the will?
    Whether intention is only of the last end?
    Whether one can intend two things at the same time?
    Whether intention of the end is the same act as the volition of the means?
    Whether intention is within the competency of irrational animals?
    Q13: OF CHOICE, WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL WITH REGARD TO THE MEANS (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether choice is an act of will or of reason?
    Whether choice is to be found in irrational animals?
    Whether choice is only of the means, or sometimes also of the end?
    Whether choice is of those things only that are done by us?
    Whether choice is only of possible things?
    Whether man chooses of necessity or freely?
    Q14: OF COUNSEL, WHICH PRECEDES CHOICE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether counsel is an inquiry?
    Whether counsel is of the end, or only of the means?
    Whether counsel is only of things that we do?
    Whether counsel is about all things that we do?
    Whether the process of counsel is one of analysis?
    Whether the process of counsel is indefinite?
    Q15: OF CONSENT, WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL IN REGARD TO THE MEANS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether consent is an act of the appetitive or of the apprehensive power?
    Whether consent is to be found in irrational animals?
    Whether consent to the act belongs only to the higher part of the soul?
    Q16: OF USE, WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL IN REGARD TO THE MEANS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether use is an act of the will?
    Whether use is to be found in irrational animals?
    Whether use regards also the last end?
    Whether use precedes choice?
    Q17: OF THE ACTS COMMANDED BY THE WILL (NINE ARTICLES)
    Whether command is an act of the reason or of the will?
    Whether command belongs to irrational animals?
    Whether use precedes command?
    Whether command and the commanded act are one act, or distinct?
    Whether the act of the reason is commanded?
    Whether the act of the sensitive appetite is commanded?
    Whether the act of the vegetal soul is commanded?
    Whether the acts of the external members are commanded?
    Q18: OF THE GOOD AND EVIL OF HUMAN ACTS, IN GENERAL (ELEVEN ARTICLES)
    Whether every human action is good, or are there evil actions?
    Whether the good or evil of a man's action is derived from its object?
    Whether man's action is good or evil from a circumstance?
    Whether a human action is good or evil from its end?
    Whether a human action is good or evil in its species?
    Whether an action has the species of good or evil from its end?
    Whether the species derived from the end is contained under the species derived from the object, as under its genus, or conversely?
    Whether any action is indifferent in its species?
    Whether an individual action can be indifferent?
    Whether a circumstance places a moral action in the species of good or evil?
    Whether every circumstance that makes an action better or worse, places a moral action in a species of good or evil?
    Q19: OF THE GOODNESS AND MALICE OF THE INTERIOR ACT OF THE WILL (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether the goodness of the will depends on the object?
    Whether the goodness of the will depends on the object alone?
    Whether the goodness of the will depends on reason?
    Whether the goodness of the will depends on the eternal law?
    Whether the will is evil when it is at variance with erring reason?
    Whether the will is good when it abides by erring reason?
    Whether the goodness of the will, as regards the means, depends on the intention of the end?
    Whether the degree of goodness or malice in the will depends on the degree of good or evil in the intention?
    Whether the goodness of the will depends on its conformity to the Divine will?
    Whether it is necessary for the human will, in order to be good, to be conformed to the Divine will, as regards the thing willed?
    Q20: OF GOODNESS AND MALICE IN EXTERNAL HUMAN AFFAIRS (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether goodness or malice is first in the action of the will, or in the external action?
    Whether the whole goodness and malice of the external action depends on the goodness of the will?
    Whether the goodness and malice of the external action are the same as those of the interior act?
    Whether the external action adds any goodness or malice to that of the interior act?
    Whether the consequences of the external action increase its goodness or malice?
    Whether one and the same external action can be both good and evil?
    Q21: OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN ACTIONS BY REASON OF THEIR GOODNESS AND MALICE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether a human action is right or sinful, in so far as it is good or evil?
    Whether a human action deserves praise or blame, by reason of its being good or evil?
    Whether a human action is meritorious or demeritorious in so far as it is good or evil?
    Whether a human action is meritorious or demeritorious before God, according as it is good or evil?
    Q22: OF THE SUBJECT OF THE SOUL'S PASSIONS (THREE ARTICLES)
    Whether any passion is in the soul?
    Whether passion is in the appetitive rather than in the apprehensive part?
    Whether passion is in the sensitive appetite rather than in the intellectual appetite, which is called the will?
    Q23: HOW THE PASSIONS DIFFER FROM ONE ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the passions of the concupiscible part are different from those of the irascible part?
    Whether the contrariety of the irascible passions is based on the contrariety of good and evil?
    Whether any passion of the soul has no contrariety?
    Whether in the same power, there are any passions, specifically different, but not contrary to one another?
    Q24: OF GOOD AND EVIL IN THE PASSIONS OF THE SOUL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether moral good and evil can be found in the passions of the soul?
    Whether every passion of the soul is evil morally?
    Whether passion increases or decreases the goodness or malice of an act?
    Whether any passion is good or evil in its species?
    Q25: OF THE ORDER OF THE PASSIONS TO ONE ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the irascible passions precede the concupiscible passions, or vice versa?
    Whether love is the first of the concupiscible passions?
    Whether hope is the first of the irascible passions?
    Whether these are the four principal passions: joy, sadness, hope and fear?
    Q26: OF THE PASSIONS OF THE SOUL IN PARTICULAR: AND FIRST, OF LOVE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether love is in the concupiscible power?
    Whether love is a passion?
    Whether love is the same as dilection?
    Whether love is properly divided into love of friendship and love of concupiscence?
    Q27: OF THE CAUSE OF LOVE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether good is the only cause of love?
    Whether knowledge is a cause of love?
    Whether likeness is a cause of love?
    Whether any other passion of the soul is a cause of love?
    Q28: OF THE EFFECTS OF LOVE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether union is an effect of love?
    Whether mutual indwelling is an effect of love?
    Whether ecstasy is an effect of love?
    Whether zeal is an effect of love?
    Whether love is a passion that wounds the lover?
    Whether love is cause of all that the lover does?
    Q29: OF HATRED (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether evil is the cause and object of hatred?
    Whether love is a cause of hatred?
    Whether hatred is stronger than love?
    Whether a man can hate himself?
    Whether a man can hate the truth?
    Whether anything can be an object of universal hatred?
    Q30: OF CONCUPISCENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether concupiscence is in the sensitive appetite only?
    Whether concupiscence is a specific passion?
    Whether some concupiscences are natural, and some not natural?
    Whether concupiscence is infinite?
    Q31: OF DELIGHT CONSIDERED IN ITSELF [*Or, Pleasure] (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether delight is a passion?
    Whether delight is in time?
    Whether delight differs from joy?
    Whether delight is in the intellectual appetite?
    Whether bodily and sensible pleasures are greater than spiritual and intellectual pleasures?
    Whether the pleasures of touch are greater than the pleasures afforded by the other senses?
    Whether any pleasure is not natural?
    Whether one pleasure can be contrary to another?
    Q32: OF THE CAUSE OF PLEASURE (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether operation is the proper cause of pleasure?
    Whether movement is a cause of pleasure?
    Whether hope and memory causes pleasure?
    Whether sadness causes pleasure?
    Whether the actions of others are a cause of pleasure to us?
    Whether doing good to another is a cause of pleasure?
    Whether likeness is a cause of pleasure?
    Whether wonder is a cause of pleasure?
    Q33: OF THE EFFECTS OF PLEASURE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether expansion is an effect of pleasure?
    Whether pleasure causes thirst or desire for itself?
    Whether pleasure hinders the use of reason?
    Whether pleasure perfects operation?
    Q34: OF THE GOODNESS AND MALICE OF PLEASURES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether every pleasure is evil?
    Whether every pleasure is good?
    Whether any pleasure is the greatest good?
    Whether pleasure is the measure or rule by which to judge of moral good or evil?
    Q35: OF PAIN OR SORROW, IN ITSELF (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether pain is a passion of the soul?
    Whether sorrow is the same as pain?
    Whether sorrow or pain is contrary to pleasure?
    Whether all sorrow is contrary to all pleasure?
    Whether there is any sorrow contrary to the pleasure of contemplation?
    Whether sorrow is to be shunned more than pleasure is to be sought?
    Whether outward pain is greater than interior sorrow?
    Whether there are only four species of sorrow?
    Q36: OF THE CAUSES OF SORROW OR PAIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether sorrow is caused by the loss of good or by the presence of evil?
    Whether desire is a cause of sorrow?
    Whether the craving for unity is a cause of sorrow?
    Whether an irresistible power is a cause of sorrow?
    Q37: OF THE EFFECTS OF PAIN OR SORROW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether pain deprives one of the power to learn?
    Whether the effect of sorrow or pain is to burden the soul?
    Whether sorrow or pain weakens all activity?
    Whether sorrow is more harmful to the body than the other passions of the soul?
    Q38: OF THE REMEDIES OF SORROW OR PAIN (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether pain or sorrow is assuaged by every pleasure?
    Whether pain or sorrow is assuaged by tears?
    Whether pain or sorrow are assuaged by the sympathy of friends?
    Whether pain and sorrow are assuaged by the contemplation of truth?
    Whether pain and sorrow are assuaged by sleep and baths?
    Q39: OF THE GOODNESS AND MALICE OF SORROW OR PAIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether all sorrow is evil?
    Whether sorrow can be a virtuous good?
    Whether sorrow can be a useful good?
    Whether bodily pain is the greatest evil?
    Q40: OF THE IRASCIBLE PASSIONS, AND FIRST, OF HOPE AND DESPAIR (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether hope is the same as desire of cupidity?
    Whether hope is in the apprehensive or in the appetitive power?
    Whether hope is in dumb animals?
    Whether despair is contrary to hope?
    Whether experience is a cause of hope?
    Whether hope abounds in young men and drunkards?
    Whether hope is a cause of love?
    Whether hope is a help or a hindrance to action?
    Q41: OF FEAR, IN ITSELF (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether fear is a passion of the soul?
    Whether fear is a special passion?
    Whether there is a natural fear?
    Whether the species of fear is suitably assigned?
    Q42: OF THE OBJECT OF FEAR (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the object of fear is good or evil?
    Whether evil of nature is an object of fear?
    Whether the evil of sin is an object of fear?
    Whether fear itself can be feared?
    Whether sudden things are especially feared?
    Whether those things are more feared, for which there is no remedy?
    Q43: OF THE CAUSE OF FEAR (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether love is the cause of fear?
    Whether defect is the cause of fear?
    Q44: OF THE EFFECTS OF FEAR (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether fear causes contraction?
    Whether fear makes one suitable for counsel?
    Whether fear makes one tremble?
    Whether fear hinders action?
    Q45: OF DARING (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether daring is contrary to fear?
    Whether daring ensues from hope?
    Whether some defect is a cause of daring?
    Whether the brave are more eager at first than in the midst of danger?
    Q46: OF ANGER, IN ITSELF (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether anger is a special passion?
    Whether the object of anger is good or evil?
    Whether anger is in the concupiscible faculty?
    Whether anger requires an act of reason?
    Whether anger is more natural than desire?
    Whether anger is more grievous than hatred?
    Whether anger is only towards those to whom one has an obligation of justice?
    Whether the species of anger are suitably assigned?
    Q47: OF THE CAUSE THAT PROVOKES ANGER, AND OF THE REMEDIES OF ANGER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the motive of anger is always something done against the one who is angry?
    Whether the sole motive of anger is slight or contempt?
    Whether a man's excellence is the cause of his being angry?
    Whether a person's defect is a reason for being more easily angry with him?
    Q48: OF THE EFFECTS OF ANGER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether anger causes pleasure?
    Whether anger above all causes fervor in the heart?
    Whether anger above all hinders the use of reason?
    Whether anger above all causes taciturnity?
    Q49: OF HABITS IN GENERAL, AS TO THEIR SUBSTANCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether habit is a quality?
    Whether habit is a distinct species of quality?
    Whether habit implies order to an act?
    Whether habits are necessary?
    Q50: OF THE SUBJECT OF HABITS (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether there is a habit in the body?
    Whether the soul is the subject of habit in respect of its essence or in respect of its power?
    Whether there can be any habits in the powers of the sensitive parts?
    Whether there is any habit in the intellect?
    Whether any habit is in the will?
    Whether there are habits in the angels?
    Q51: OF THE CAUSE OF HABITS, AS TO THEIR FORMATION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether any habit is from nature?
    Whether any habit is caused by acts?
    Whether a habit can be caused by one act?
    Whether any habits are infused in man by God?
    Q52: OF THE INCREASE OF HABITS (THREE ARTICLES)
    Whether habits increase?
    Whether habits increases by addition?
    Whether every act increases its habit?
    Q53: HOW HABITS ARE CORRUPTED OR DIMINISHED (THREE ARTICLES)
    Whether a habit can be corrupted?
    Whether a habit can diminish?
    Whether a habit is corrupted or diminished through mere cessation from act?
    Q54: OF THE DISTINCTION OF HABITS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether many habits can be in one power?
    Whether habits are distinguished by their objects?
    Whether habits are divided into good and bad?
    Whether one habit is made up of many habits?
    Q55: OF THE VIRTUES, AS TO THEIR ESSENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether human virtue is a habit?
    Whether human virtue is an operative habit?
    Whether human virtue is a good habit?
    Whether virtue is suitably defined?
    Q56: OF THE SUBJECT OF VIRTUE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the subject of virtue is a power of the soul?
    Whether one virtue can be in several powers?
    Whether the intellect can be the subject of virtue?
    Whether the irascible and concupiscible powers are the subject of virtue?
    Whether the sensitive powers of apprehension are the subject of virtue?
    Whether the will can be the subject of virtue?
    Q57: OF THE INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the habits of the speculative intellect are virtues?
    Whether there are only three habits of the speculative intellect, viz. wisdom, science and understanding?
    Whether the intellectual habit, art, is a virtue?
    Whether prudence is a distinct virtue from art?
    Whether prudence is a virtue necessary to man?
    Whether "eubulia, synesis, and gnome" are virtues annexed to prudence? [*(euboulia, synesis, gnome)]
    Q58: OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether every virtue is a moral virtue?
    Whether moral virtue differs from intellectual virtue?
    Whether virtue is adequately divided into moral and intellectual?
    Whether there can be moral without intellectual virtue?
    Whether there can be intellectual without moral virtue?
    Q59: OF MORAL VIRTUE IN RELATION TO THE PASSIONS (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether moral virtue is a passion?
    Whether there can be moral virtue with passion?
    Whether sorrow is compatible with moral virtue?
    Whether all the moral virtues are about the passions?
    Whether there can be moral virtue without passion?
    Q60: HOW THE MORAL VIRTUES DIFFER FROM ONE ANOTHER (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether there is only one moral virtue?
    Whether moral virtues about operations are different from those that are about passions?
    Whether there is only one moral virtue about operations?
    Whether there are different moral virtues about different passions?
    Whether the moral virtues differ in point of the various objects of the passions?
    Q61: OF THE CARDINAL VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether the moral virtues should be called cardinal or principal virtues?
    Whether there are four cardinal virtues?
    Whether any other virtues should be called principal rather than these?
    Whether the four cardinal virtues differ from one another?
    Whether the cardinal virtues are fittingly divided into social virtues, perfecting, perfect, and exemplar virtues?
    Q62: OF THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether there are any theological virtues?
    Whether the theological virtues are distinct from the intellectual and moral virtues?
    Whether faith, hope, and charity are fittingly reckoned as theological virtues?
    Whether faith precedes hope, and hope charity?
    Q63: OF THE CAUSE OF VIRTUES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether virtue is in us by nature?
    Whether any virtue is caused in us by habituation?
    Whether any moral virtues are in us by infusion?
    Whether virtue by habituation belongs to the same species as infused virtue?
    Q64: OF THE MEAN OF VIRTUE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether moral virtues observe the mean?
    Whether the mean of moral virtue is the real mean, or the rational mean?
    Whether the intellectual virtues observe the mean?
    Whether the theological virtues observe the mean?
    Q65: OF THE CONNECTION OF VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether the moral virtues are connected with one another?
    Whether moral virtues can be without charity?
    Whether charity can be without moral virtue?
    Whether faith and hope can be without charity?
    Whether charity can be without faith and hope?
    Q66: OF EQUALITY AMONG THE VIRTUES (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether one virtue can be greater or less than another?
    Whether all the virtues that are together in one man, are equal?
    Whether the moral virtues are better than the intellectual virtues?
    Whether justice is the chief of the moral virtues?
    Whether wisdom is the greatest of the intellectual virtues?
    Whether charity is the greatest of the theological virtues?
    Q67: OF THE DURATION OF VIRTUES AFTER THIS LIFE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the moral virtues remain after this life?
    Whether the intellectual virtues remain after this life?
    Whether faith remains after this life?
    Whether hope remains after death, in the state of glory?
    Whether anything of faith or hope remains in glory?
    Whether charity remains after this life, in glory?
    Q68: OF THE GIFTS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the Gifts differ from the virtues?
    Whether the gifts are necessary to man for salvation?
    Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost are habits?
    Whether the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are suitably enumerated?
    Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost are connected?
    Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost remain in heaven?
    Whether the gifts are set down by Isaias in their order of dignity?
    Whether the virtues are more excellent than the gifts?
    Q69: OF THE BEATITUDES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the beatitudes differ from the virtues and gifts?
    Whether the rewards assigned to the beatitudes refer to this life?
    Whether the beatitudes are suitably enumerated?
    Whether the rewards of the beatitudes are suitably enumerated?
    Q70: OF THE FRUITS OF THE HOLY GHOST (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the fruits of the Holy Ghost which the Apostle enumerates (@Ga 5@) are acts?
    Whether the fruits differ from the beatitudes?
    Whether the fruits are suitably enumerated by the Apostle?
    Whether the fruits of the Holy Ghost are contrary to the works of the flesh?
    Q71: OF VICE AND SIN CONSIDERED IN THEMSELVES (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether vice is contrary to virtue?
    Whether vice is contrary to nature?
    Whether vice is worse than a vicious act?
    Whether sin is compatible with virtue?
    Whether every sin includes an action?
    Whether sin is fittingly defined as a word, deed, or desire contrary to the eternal law?
    Q72: OF THE DISTINCTION OF SINS (NINE ARTICLES)
    Whether sins differ in species according to their objects?
    Whether spiritual sins are fittingly distinguished from carnal sins?
    Whether sins differ specifically in reference to their causes?
    Whether sin is fittingly divided into sin against God, against oneself, and against one's neighbor?
    Whether the division of sins according to their debt of punishment diversifies their species?
    Whether sins of commission and omission differ specifically?
    Whether sins are fittingly divided into sins of thought, word, and deed?
    Whether excess and deficiency diversify the species of sins?
    Whether sins differ specifically in respect of different circumstances?
    Q73: OF THE COMPARISON OF ONE SIN WITH ANOTHER (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether all sins are connected with one another?
    Whether all sins are equal?
    Whether the gravity of sins varies according to their objects?
    Whether the gravity of sins depends on the excellence of the virtues to which they are opposed?
    Whether carnal sins are of less guilt than spiritual sins?
    Whether the gravity of a sin depends on its cause?
    Whether a circumstance aggravates a sin?
    Whether sin is aggravated by reason of its causing more harm?
    Whether a sin is aggravated by reason of the condition of the person against whom it is committed?
    Whether the excellence of the person sinning aggravates the sin?
    Q74: OF THE SUBJECT OF SIN (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether the will is a subject of sin?
    Whether the will alone is the subject of sin?
    Whether there can be sin in the sensuality?
    Whether mortal sin can be in the sensuality?
    Whether sin can be in the reason?
    Whether the sin of morose delectation is in the reason?
    Whether the sin of consent to the act is in the higher reason?
    Whether consent to delectation is a mortal sin?
    Whether there can be venial sin in the higher reason as directing the lower powers?
    Whether venial sin can be in the higher reason as such?
    Q75: OF THE CAUSES OF SIN, IN GENERAL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether sin has a cause?
    Whether sin has an internal cause?
    Whether sin has an external cause?
    Whether one sin is a cause of another?
    Q76: OF THE CAUSES OF SIN, IN PARTICULAR (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether ignorance can be a cause of sin?
    Whether ignorance is a sin?
    Whether ignorance excuses from sin altogether?
    Whether ignorance diminishes a sin?
    Q77: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, ON THE PART OF THE SENSITIVE APPETITE (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the will is moved by a passion of the senstive appetite?
    Whether the reason can be overcome by a passion, against its knowledge?
    Whether a sin committed through passion, should be called a sin of weakness?
    Whether self-love is the source of every sin?
    Whether concupiscence of the flesh, concupiscence of the eyes, and pride of life are fittingly described as causes of sin?
    Whether sin is alleviated on account of a passion?
    Whether passion excuses from sin altogether?
    Whether a sin committed through passion can be mortal?
    Q78: OF THAT CAUSE OF SIN WHICH IS MALICE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether anyone sins through certain malice?
    Whether everyone that sins through habit, sins through certain malice?
    Whether one who sins through certain malice, sins through habit?
    Whether it is more grievous to sin through certain malice than through passion?
    Q79: OF THE EXTERNAL CAUSES OF SIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether God is a cause of sin?
    Whether the act of sin is from God?
    Whether God is the cause of spiritual blindness and hardness of heart?
    Whether blindness and hardness of heart are directed to the salvation of those who are blinded and hardened?
    Q80: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, AS REGARDS THE DEVIL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the devil is directly the cause of man's sinning?
    Whether the devil can induce man to sin, by internal instigations?
    Whether the devil can induce man to sin of necessity?
    Whether all the sins of men are due to the devil's suggestion?
    Q81: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, ON THE PART OF MAN (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether the first sin of our first parent is contracted by his descendants, by way of origin?
    Whether also other sins of the first parent or of nearer ancestors are transmitted to their descendants?
    Whether the sin of the first parent is transmitted, by the way of origin, to all men?
    Whether original sin would be contracted by a person formed miraculously from human flesh?

    Q82: OF ORIGINAL SIN, AS TO ITS ESSENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether original sin is a habit?
    Whether there are several original sins in one man?
    Whether original sin is concupiscence?
    Whether original sin is equally in all?
    Q83: OF THE SUBJECT OF ORIGINAL SIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether original sin is more in the flesh than in the soul?
    Whether original sin is in the essence of the soul rather than in the powers?
    Whether original sin infects the will before the other powers?
    Whether the aforesaid powers are more infected than the others?
    Q84: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, IN RESPECT OF ONE SIN BEING THE CAUSE OF ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether covetousness is the root of all sins?
    Whether pride is the beginning of every sin?
    Whether any other special sins, besides pride and avarice, should be called capital?
    Whether the seven capital vices are suitably reckoned?
    Q85: OF THE EFFECTS OF SIN, AND, FIRST, OF THE CORRUPTION OF THE GOOD OF NATURE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether sin diminishes the good of nature?
    Whether the entire good of human nature can be destroyed by sin?
    Whether weakness, ignorance, malice and concupiscence are suitably reckoned as the wounds of nature consequent upon sin?
    Whether privation of mode, species and order is the effect of sin?
    Whether death and other bodily defects are the result of sin?
    Whether death and other defects are natural to man?
    Q86: OF THE STAIN OF SIN (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether sin causes a stain on the soul?
    Whether the stain remains in the soul after the act of sin?
    Q87: OF THE DEBT OF PUNISHMENT (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the debt of punishment is an effect of sin?
    Whether sin can be the punishment of sin?
    Whether any sin incurs a debt of eternal punishment?
    Whether sin incurs a debt of punishment infinite in quantity?
    Whether every sin incurs a debt of eternal punishment?
    Whether the debt of punishment remains after sin?
    Whether every punishment is inflicted for a sin?
    Whether anyone is punished for another's sin?
    Q88: OF VENIAL AND MORTAL SIN (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether venial sin is fittingly condivided with mortal sin?
    Whether mortal and venial sin differ generically?
    Whether venial sin is a disposition to mortal sin?
    Whether a venial sin can become mortal?
    Whether a circumstance can make a venial sin to be mortal?
    Whether a mortal sin can become venial?
    Q89: OF VENIAL SIN IN ITSELF (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether venial sin causes a stain on the soul?
    Whether venial sins are suitably designated as "wood, hay, and stubble"?
    Whether man could commit a venial sin in the state of innocence?
    Whether a good or a wicked angel can sin venially?
    Whether the first movements of the sensuality in unbelievers are mortal sin?
    Whether venial sin can be in anyone with original sin alone?
    Q90: OF THE ESSENCE OF LAW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether law is something pertaining to reason?
    Whether the law is always something directed to the common good?
    Whether the reason of any man is competent to make laws?
    Whether promulgation is essential to a law?
    Q91: OF THE VARIOUS KINDS OF LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether there is an eternal law?
    Whether there is in us a natural law?
    Whether there is a human law?
    Whether there was any need for a Divine law?
    Whether there is but one Divine law?
    Whether there is a law in the fomes of sin?
    Q92: OF THE EFFECTS OF LAW (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether an effect of law is to make men good?
    Whether the acts of law are suitably assigned?
    Q93: OF THE ETERNAL LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the eternal law is a sovereign type [*Ratio] existing in God?
    Whether the eternal law is known to all?
    Whether every law is derived from the eternal law?
    Whether necessary and eternal things are subject to the eternal law?
    Whether natural contingents are subject to the eternal law?
    Whether all human affairs are subject to the eternal law?
    Q94: OF THE NATURAL LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the natural law is a habit?
    Whether the natural law contains several precepts, or only one?
    Whether all acts of virtue are prescribed by the natural law?
    Whether the natural law is the same in all men?
    Whether the natural law can be changed?
    Whether the law of nature can be abolished from the heart of man?
    Q95: OF HUMAN LAW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it was useful for laws to be framed by men?
    Whether every human law is derived from the natural law?
    Whether Isidore's description of the quality of positive law is appropriate?
    Whether Isidore's division of human laws is appropriate?
    Q96: OF THE POWER OF HUMAN LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether human law should be framed for the community rather than for the individual?
    Whether it belongs to the human law to repress all vices?
    Whether human law prescribes acts of all the virtues?
    Whether human law binds a man in conscience?
    Whether all are subject to the law?
    Whether he who is under a law may act beside the letter of the law?
    Q97: OF CHANGE IN LAWS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether human law should be changed in any way?
    Whether human law should always be changed, whenever something better occurs?
    Whether custom can obtain force of law?
    Whether the rulers of the people can dispense from human laws?
    Q98: OF THE OLD LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the Old Law was good?
    Whether the Old Law was from God?
    Whether the Old Law was given through the angels?
    Whether the Old Law should have been given to the Jews alone?
    Whether all men were bound to observe the Old Law?
    Whether the Old Law was suitably given at the time of Moses?
    Q99: OF THE PRECEPTS OF THE OLD LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the Old Law contains only one precept?
    Whether the Old Law contains moral precepts?
    Whether the Old Law comprises ceremonial, besides moral, precepts?
    Whether, besides the moral and ceremonial precepts, there are also judicial precepts?
    Whether the Old Law contains any others besides the moral, judicial, and ceremonial precepts?
    Whether the Old Law should have induced men to the observance of its precepts, by means of temporal promises and threats?
    Q100: OF THE MORAL PRECEPTS OF THE OLD LAW (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether all the moral precepts of the Old Law belong to the law of nature?
    Whether the moral precepts of the Law are about all the acts of virtue?
    Whether all the moral precepts of the Old Law are reducible to the ten precepts of the decalogue?
    Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably distinguished from one another?
    Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably set forth?
    Whether the ten precepts of the decalogue are set in proper order?
    Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably formulated?
    Whether the precepts of the decalogue are dispensable?
    Whether the mode of virtue falls under the precept of the law?
    Whether the mode of charity falls under the precept of the Divine law?
    Whether it is right to distinguish other moral precepts of the law besides the decalogue?
    Whether the moral precepts of the Old Law justified man?
    Q: 102
    Whether a suitable cause can be assigned for the ceremonies which pertained to sacrifices?
    Whether sufficient reason can be assigned for the ceremonies pertaining to holy things?
    Whether there can be any suitable cause for the sacraments of the Old Law?
    Whether there was any reasonable cause for the ceremonial observances?
    Q103: OF THE DURATION OF THE CEREMONIAL PRECEPTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the ceremonies of the Law were in existence before the Law?
    Whether, at the time of the Law, the ceremonies of the Old Law had any power of justification?
    Whether the ceremonies of the Old Law ceased at the coming of Christ?
    Whether since Christ's Passion the legal ceremonies can be observed without committing mortal sin?
    Q 104: OF THE JUDICIAL PRECEPTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the judicial precepts were those which directed man in relation to his neighbor?
    Whether the judicial precepts were figurative?
    Whether the judicial precepts of the Old Law bind for ever?
    Whether it is possible to assign a distinct division of the judicial precepts?
    Q105: OF THE REASON FOR THE JUDICIAL PRECEPTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the Old Law enjoined fitting precepts concerning rulers?
    Whether the judicial precepts were suitably framed as to the relations of one man with another?
    Whether the judicial precepts regarding foreigners were framed in a suitable manner?
    Whether the Old Law set forth suitable precepts about the members of the household?
    Q106: OF THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL, CALLED THE NEW LAW, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the New Law is a written law?
    Whether the New Law justifies?
    Whether the New Law should have been given from the beginning of the world?
    Whether the New Law will last till the end of the world?
    Q107: OF THE NEW LAW AS COMPARED WITH THE OLD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the New Law is distinct from the Old Law?
    Whether the New Law fulfils the Old?
    Whether the New Law is contained in the Old?
    Whether the New Law is more burdensome than the Old?
    Q108: OF THOSE THINGS THAT ARE CONTAINED IN THE NEW LAW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the New Law ought to prescribe or prohibit any external acts?
    Whether the New Law made sufficient ordinations about external acts?
    Whether the New Law directed man sufficiently as regards interior actions?
    Whether certain definite counsels are fittingly proposed in the New Law?
    Q109: OF THE NECESSITY OF GRACE (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether without grace man can know any truth?
    Whether man can wish or do any good without grace?
    Whether by his own natural powers and without grace man can love God above all things?
    Whether man without grace and by his own natural powers can fulfil the commandments of the Law?
    Whether man can merit everlasting life without grace?
    Whether a man, by himself and without the external aid of grace, can prepare himself for grace?
    Whether man can rise from sin without the help of grace?
    Whether man without grace can avoid sin?
    Whether one who has already obtained grace, can, of himself and without further help of grace, do good and avoid sin?
    Whether man possessed of grace needs the help of grace in order to persevere?
    Q110: OF THE GRACE OF GOD AS REGARDS ITS ESSENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether grace implies anything in the soul?
    Whether grace is a quality of the soul?
    Whether grace is the same as virtue?
    Whether grace is in the essence of the soul as in a subject, or in one of the powers?
    Q111: OF THE DIVISION OF GRACE (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether grace is fittingly divided into sanctifying grace and gratuitous grace?
    Whether grace is fittingly divided into operating and cooperating grace?
    Whether grace is fittingly divided into prevenient and subsequent grace?
    Whether gratuitous grace is rightly divided by the Apostle?
    Whether gratuitous grace is nobler than sanctifying grace?
    Q112: OF THE CAUSE OF GRACE (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Whether God alone is the cause of grace?
    Whether any preparation and disposition for grace is required on man's part?
    Whether grace is necessarily given to whoever prepares himself for it, or to whoever does what he can?
    Whether grace is greater in one than in another?
    Whether man can know that he has grace?
    Q113: OF THE EFFECTS OF GRACE (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether the justification of the ungodly is the remission of sins?
    Whether the infusion of grace is required for the remission of guilt, i.e. for the justification of the ungodly?
    Whether for the justification of the ungodly is required a movement of the free-will?
    Whether a movement of faith is required for the justification of the ungodly?
    Whether for the justification of the ungodly there is required a movement of the free-will towards sin?
    Whether the remission of sins ought to be reckoned amongst the things required for justification?
    Whether the justification of the ungodly takes place in an instant or successively?
    Whether the infusion of grace is naturally the first of the things required for the justification of the ungodly?
    Whether the justification of the ungodly is God's greatest work?
    Whether the justification of the ungodly is a miraculous work?
    Q114: OF MERIT (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether a man may merit anything from God?
    Whether anyone without grace can merit eternal life?
    Whether a man in grace can merit eternal life condignly?
    Whether grace is the principle of merit through charity rather than the other virtues?
    Whether a man may merit for himself the first grace?
    Whether a man can merit the first grace for another?
    Whether a man may merit restoration after a fall?
    Whether a man may merit the increase of grace or charity?
    Art. 9. Whether a man may merit perseverance?
    Whether temporal goods fall under merit?

    Version
    Lateinische