Cyril of Jerus. 2200

Lecture XXII. (on the Mysteries. IV). On the Body and Blood of Christ.

2200 1Co 11,23.

I received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, how that the Lord Jesus, in the night in which He was betrayed, took bread, &c.

1. Even of itself1 the teaching of the Blessed Paul is sufficient to give you a full assurance concerning those Divine Mysteries, of which having been deemed worthy, ye are become of the same bad2 and blood with Christ. For you have just heard him say distinctly, That our Lord Jesus Christ in the night in which He was betrayed, took bread, and when He had given thanks He brake it, and gave to His disciples, saying, Take, eat, this is My Body: and having taken the cup and given thanks, lie said, Take, drink, this is My Blood3 . Since then He Himself declared and said of the Bread, This is My Body, who shall dare to doubt any longer? And since He has Himself affirmed and said, This is My Blood, who shall ever hesitate, saying, that it is not His blood?

2. He once in Cana of Galilee, turned the water into wine, akin to blood4 , and is it incredible that He should have turned wine into blood? When called to a bodily marriage, He miraculously wrought5 that wonderful work; and on the children of the bride-chamber6 , shall He not much rather be acknowledged to have bestowed the fruition of His Body and Blood7 ?

3. Wherefore with full assurance let us partake as of the Body and Blood of Christ: for in the figure8 of Bread is given to thee His Body, and in the figure of Wine His Blood; that thou by partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ, mayest be made of the same body and the same blood with Him. For thus we come to bear Christ9 in us, because His Body and Blood are distributed10 through our members; thus it is that, according to the blessed Peter, we became partakers of the divine nature11 .

4. Christ on a certain occasion discoursing with the Jews said, Except ye eat My flesh and drink My blood, ye have no life in you12 . They not having heard His saying in a spiritual sense were offended, and went back, supposing that He was inviting them to eat flesh.

5. In the Old Testament also there was shew-bread; but this, as it belonged to the Old Testament, has come to an end; but in the New Testament there is Bread of heaven, and a Cup of salvation, sanctifying soul and body; for as the Bread corresponds to our body, so is the Word13 appropriate to our soul.

6. Consider therefore the Bread and the Wine not as bare elements, for they are, according to the Lord’s declaration, the Body and Blood of Christ; for even though sense suggests this to thee, yet let faith establish thee. Judge not the matter from the taste, but from faith be fully assured without misgiving, that the Body and Blood of Christ have been vouch-safed to thee.

7. Also the blessed David shall advise thee the meaning of this, saying, Thou hast prepared a table before me in the presence of them that afflict me14 . What he says, is to this effect: Before Thy coming, the evil spirits prepared a table for men15 , polluted and defiled and full of devilish influence16 ; but since Thy coming. O Lord, Thou hast prepared a table before me. When the man says to God, Thou hast prepared before me a table, what other does he indicate but that mystical and spiritual Table, which God hath prepared for us over against, that is, contrary and in opposition to the evil spirits? And very truly; for that had communion with devils, but this, with God. Thou hast anointed my head with oil17 . With oil He anointed thine head upon thy forehead, for the seal which thou hast of God; that thou mayest be made the engraving of the signet, Holiness unto God18 . And thy cup intoxicateth me, as very strong19 . Thou seest that cup here spoken of, which Jesus took in His hands, and gave thanks, and said, This is My blood, which is shed far many for the remission of sins20 .

8. Therefore Solomon also, hinting at this grace, says in Ecclesiastes, Come hither, eat thy bread with joy (that is, the spiritual bread; Came hither, he calls with the call to salvation and blessing), and drink thy wine with a merry heart (that is, the spiritual wine); and let oil be poured out upon thy head (thou sees he alludes even to the mystic Chrism); and let thy garments be always white, far the Lord is well pleased with thy works21 ; for before thou camest to Baptism, thy works were vanity of vanities22 . But now, having put off thy old garments, and put on those which are spiritually white, thou must be continually robed in white: of course we mean not this, that thou art always to wear white raiment; but thou must be clad in the garments that are truly white and shining and spiritual, that thou mayest say with the blessed Esaias, My saul shall be joyful in my God; far He hath clothed me with a garment of salvation, and put a robe of gladness around me23 .

9. Having learn these things, and been fully assured that the seeming bread is not bread, though sensible to taste, but the Body of Christ; and that the seeming wine is not wine, though the taste will have it so, but the Blood of Christ24 ; and that of this David sung of old, saying, And bread strengtheneth man’s heart, to make his face to shine with oil25 , “strengthen thou thine heart,” by partaking thereof as spiritual, and “make the face of thy soul to shine.” And so having it unveiled with a pure conscience, mayest thou reflect as a mirror the glory of the Lord26 , and proceed from glory to glory, in Christ Jesus our Lord:—To whom be honour, and might, and glory, for ever and ever. Amen).

1 auAEth` found in all Mss. is changed for the worse into au[th by the Benedictine Editor.
2 Introduction, “Eucharist.” The word suvsswmoi has a different sense in Ep 3,6, where it is applied to the Gentiles as having been made members of Christ’s body the Church.
3 (1Co 11,23, clause “and gave to His disciples” is an addition taken form Mt 26,26, part relating to the cup does not correspond exactly either with St. Paul’s language or with the Evangelist’.
4 oiAEkei`on ai[mati. Cod. Scirlet. (Grodecq), Mesm. (Morel), Vindob.; Ben. Ed). oiAEkeivw neuvmati, Codd. Monac. 1, 2, Genovef Vatt. (Prevot).. Rupp. The whole passage is omitted in Codd. Coisl. R. Casaub. owing to the repetition of ai\ma
The reading oiAEkeivw neuvmati, “by His own will,” introduces a superfluous thought, and destroys the very point of Cyril’s argument, in which the previous change of water into an element so different as wine is regarded as giving an a fortiori probability t the change of that which is already “akin to blood” into blood itself.
If Cyril thus seems to teach a physical change of the wine, it must be remembered that we are not bound to accept his view, but only to state it accurately. See however the section of the introduction on his Eucharistic doctrine.
5 e Jqanmatouvrghse th;n paradoxopoiivan. Cf. Chryost). Epist I). ad Olympiad. de Deo, § 1, c.: tovte qaumatourgei` kai; paradoxopoiei`.
6 (Mt 9,15).
7 Ben. Ed.: “That the force of Cyril’s argument may be the better understood, we must observe that in Baptism is celebrated the marriage of Christ with the Christian soul; and that the consummation of this marriage is perfected through the union of bodies in the mystery of the Eucharist. Read Chrysostom’s Hom. 20,in Ephes.” Chrysostom’s words are: “In like manner therefore we become one flesh with Christ by participation (metousiva").” But the participation expressed by metonsiva does not necessarily refer to the Eucharist. From the use of the word in Cat. 23,11, and in Athanasius (Contra Arianos, Or. i.;; de Synodis. 19, 22, 25) the meaning rather seems to be that we are one flesh with Christ not by nature but by His gift.
8 See Index, Tuvpo",m and the references there, and Waterland, On the Eucharist, c. 7,
9 Cristofovroi ginovmeqa. Procat. 15.
10 Ben. Ed.: “jAnadidomevnou. The Codices Coisl. Roe, Casaub. Scirlet. Ottob. 2. Genovef. have aAEnadedegmevnoi, which does not agree well with the Genitives tou` swvmato" and tou` ai[mato". It is evident that it was an ill-contrived emendation of aAEnadidomevnon, the transcribers being offended at the distribution of Christ’s Body among our members. But Cyril uses even the same word in Cat. 23,9: Ou|to" o J a[rto". . . . eiAE" pa`savn sou th;n suvstasin aAEnadivdotai, ei`" wAEfevleian swvmato" kai; yuch`", ‘This Bread is distributed into thy whole system, to the benefit of body and soul.0’” jAnadidomevnon is the reading of Milles and Rupp. For similar language see Justin M). Apol. 1,66; Iren. V. 2,2.
11 (2P 1,4.
12 (Jn 6,53.
13 Ben. Ed.: “Here we are to understand (by o J Lovgo") the Divine Word, not the bare discourse of God, but the second Person of the Holy Trinity, Christ Himself, the Bread of Heaven, as He testifies of Himself, John, 6,51: Him Cyril contrasts with the earthly shew-bread in the O.T.; otherwise he could not rightly from this sentence infer, by the particle ou\n, “therefore, ”that the Eucharist is truly the Body and Blood of Christ. And since he says, in Cat. 23,15, that the Eucharistic food is “appointed for the substance of the soul,” for its benefit, that cannot be said of Christ’s body or of His soul, but only of the Word which is conjoined with both. Moreover that the Divine Word is the food of Angels and of the soul, is a common mode of speaking with all the Fathers. They often play on the ambiguity of this word (lovgo"), saying sometimes that the Divine Word, sometimes the word and oracles of God, are the food of our souls: both statements are true. For the whole life-giving power of the Eucharist is derived from the Word of God untied to the flesh which He assumed: and the whole benefit of Eucharistic eating consists in the union of our soul with the Word, in meditation on His mysteries and sayings, and conformity thereto.”
14 (Ps 23,5.
15 hAElisghmevnhn, a good restoration by Milles, with Codd. Roe, Casaub, Coislin. The earlier printed texts had hAElugismivhn, “overshadowed.” Cf. Ml 1,7: a[rtou" hAElisghmevnou", . . . ). Travpeza Kupivou hAElisghmevnh eAEstivn.
16 Cyril refers to the idolatrous feasts, which St. Paul calls “the table of devils,” 1Co 10,21.
17 (Ps 23,5.
18 (Ex 28,36: Si 45,12, plate of pure gold on the forefront of Aaron’s mitre was engraved with the motto, Holy unto the Lord. This symbolism Cyril transfers to the sacramental Chism, in which the forehead is signed with ointment, and the soul with the seal of God.
19 (Ps 23,5: My cup runneth over. Eusebius (Dem. Evang. I. c. 10, § 28) applies the Psalm, as Cyril does, to the Eucharist.
20 (Mt 26,28.
21 (Qo 9,7-8.
22 For prosevlqh" (Bened). we must read prosh`lqe", or with Monac. 1, proselqei`n.
23 (Is 61,10.
24 On this passage see the section of the Introduction referred to in the Index, “Eucharist.”
25 (Ps 104,15.
26 (2Co 3,18.

Lecture XXIII. (on the Mysteries. V). On the Sacred Liturgy and Communion1 .

2300 1P 2,1.

Wherefore putting away all filthiness, and all guile, and evil speaking2 , &c.

1. By the loving-kindness of God ye have heard sufficiently at our former meetings concerning Baptism, and Chrism, and partaking of the Body and Blood of Christ; and now it is necessary to pass on to what is next in order, meaning to-day to set the crown on the spiritual building of your edification.

2. Ye have seen then the Deacon who gives to the Priest water to wash3 , and to the Presbyters who stand round God’s altar. He gave it not at all because of bodily defilement; it is not that; for we did not enter the Church at first4 with defiled bodies. But the washing of hands is a symbol that ye ought to be pure from all sinful and unlawful deeds; for since the hands are a symbol of action, by washing5 them, it is evident, we represent the purity and blamelessness of our conduct. Didst thou not hear the blessed David opening this very mystery, and saying, I wall wash my hands in innocency, and so will compass Thine Altar, O Lord6 ? The washing therefore of hands is a symbol of immunity7 from sin.

3. Then the Deacon cries aloud, “Receive ye one another; and let us kiss one another8 .” Think not that this kiss is of the same character with those given in public by common friends. It is not such: but this kiss blends souls one with another, and courts entire forgiveness for them. The kiss therefore is the sign that our souls are mingled together, and banish all remembrance of wrongs. For this cause Christ said, If thou art offering thy gift at the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against time, leave there thy gift upon the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift9 . The kiss therefore is reconciliation, and for this reason holy: as the blessed Paul somewhere cried, saying, Greet ye one another with a holy kiss10 ; and Peter, with a kiss of charity11 .

4. After this the Priest cries aloud, “Lift up your hearts12 .” For truly ought we in that most awful hour to have our heart on high with God, and not below, thinking of earth and earthly things. In effect therefore the Priest bids all in that hour to dismiss all cares of this life, or household anxieties, and to have their heart in heaven with the merciful God. Then ye answer, “We lift them up unto the Lord:” assenting to it, by your avowal. But let no one come here, who could say with his mouth, “We lift up our hearts unto the Lord,” but in his thoughts have his mind concerned with the cares of this life At all times, rather, God should be in our memory but if this is impossible by reason of human infirmity, in that hour above all this should be our earnest endeavour.

5. Then the Priest says, “Let us give thanks unto the Lord.” For verily we are bound to give thanks, that He called us, unworthy as we were, to so great grace; that He reconciled us when we were His foes; that He vouch-safed to us the Spirit of adoption. Then ye say, “It is meet and right:” for in giving thanks we do a meet thing and a right; but He did not right, but more than right, in doing us good, and counting us meet for such great benefits.

6. After this, we make mention of heaven. and earth, and sea13 ; of sun and moon; of stars and all the creation, rational and irrational, visible and invisible; of Angels, Archangels, Virtues, Dominions, Principalities, Powers, Thrones; of the Cherubim with many faces: in effect repeating that call of David’s Magnify the Lord with me14 . We make mention also of the Seraphim, whom Esaias in the Holy Spirit saw standing around the throne of God, and with two of their wings veiling their face, and with twain their feet, while with twain they did fly, crying Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of Sabaoth15 . For the reason of our reciting this confession of God16 , delivered down to us from the Seraphim, is this, that so we may be partakers with the hosts of the world above in their Hymn of praise.

7. Then having sanctified ourselves by these spiritual Hymns, we beseech the merciful God to send forth His Holy Spirit upon the gifts lying before Him; that He may make the Bread the Body of Christ, and the Wine the Blood of Christ17 ; for whatsoever the Holy Ghost has touched, is surely sanctified and changed.

8. Then, after the spiritual sacrifice, the bloodless service, is completed, over that sacrifice of propitiation18 we entreat God for the common peace of the Churches, for the welfare of the world19 ; for kings; for soldiers and allies; for the sick; for the afflicted; and, in a word, for all who stand in need of succour we all pray and offer this sacrifice.

9. Then we commemorate also those who have fallen asleep before us, first Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, that at their prayers and intercessions God would receive our petition20 . Then on behalf also of the Holy Fathers and Bishops who have fallen asleep before us, and in a word of all who in past years have fallen asleep among us, believing that it will be a very great benefit to the souls21 , for whom the supplication is put up, while that holy and most awful sacrifice is set forth.

10. And I wish to persuade you by an illustration. For I know that many say, what is a soul profited, which departs from this world either with sins, or without sins, if it be commemorated in the prayer? For if a king were to banish certain who had given him of-fence, and then those who belong to them22 should weave a crown and offer it to him on behalf of those under punishment, would he not grant a remission of their penalties? In the same way we, when we offer to Him our supplications for those who have fallen asleep, though they be sinners, weave no crown, but offer up Christ sacrificed for our sins23 , propitiating our merciful God for them as well as for ourselves.

11. Then, after these things, we say that Prayer which the Saviour delivered to His own disciples, with a pure conscience entitling God our Father, and saying, Our Father, which art in heaven. O most surpassing loving-kindness of God! On them who revolted from Him and were in the very extreme at misery has He bestowed such a complete forgiveness of evil deeds, and so great participation of grace, as that they should even call Him Father. Our Father, which art in heaven; and they also are a heaven who bear the image of the heavenly24 , in whom is God, dwelling and walking in them25 .

12. Hollowed be Thy Name. The Name of God is in its nature holy, whether we say so or not; but since it is sometimes profaned among sinners, according to the words, Through you My Name is continually blasphemed among the Gentiles26 , we pray that in us God’s Name may be hollowed; not that it comes to be holy from not being holy, but because it becomes holy in us, when we are made holy, and do things worthy of holiness.

13. Thy kingdom come. A pure soul can say with boldness, Thy kingdom come; for he who has heard Paul saying, Let not therefore sin reign in your mortal body27 , and has cleansed himself in deed, and thought, and word, will say to God, Thy kingdom come.

14. Thy will be done as in heaven so an earth. God’s divine and blessed Angels do the will of God, as David said in the Psalm, Bless the Lord, all ye Angels of His, mighty in strength, that do His pleasure28 . So then in effect thou meanest this by thy prayer, “as in the Angels Thy will is done, so likewise be it done on earth in me, O Lord.”

15. Give us this day our substantial bread. This common bread is not substantial bread, but this Holy Bread is substantial, that is, appointed for the substance of the soul29 . For this Bread goeth not into the belly and is cast out into the draught30 , but is distributed into thy whole system for the benefit of body and soul31 . But by this day, he means, “each day,” as also Paul said, While it is called to-day32 .

16. And forgive us our debts as we also forgive our debtors. For we have many sins. For we offend both in word and in thought, and very many things we do worthy of condemnation; and if we say that we have no sin, we lie, as John says33 . And we make a covenant with God, entreating. Him to forgive us our sins, as we also forgive our neighbours their debts. Considering then what we receive and in return for what, let us not put off nor delay to forgive one another. The offences committed against us are slight and trivial, and easily settled; but those which we have committed against God are great, and need such mercy as His only is. Take heed therefore, lest for the slight and trivial sins against thee thou shut out for thyself forgiveness from God for thy very grievous sins.

17. And lead us not into temptation, O Lord. Is this then what the Lord teaches us to pray, that we may not be tempted at all? How then is it said elsewhere, “a man untempted, is a man unproved34 ;” and again, My brethren, count it all joy when ye fail into divers temptations35 ? But does perchance the entering into temptation mean the being overwhelmed by the temptation? For temptation is, as it were, like a winter torrent difficult to cross. Those therefore who are not overwhelmed in temptations, pass through, shewing themselves excellent swimmers, and not being swept away by them at all; while those who are not such, enter into them and are overwhelmed. As for example, Judas having entered into the temptation of the love of money, swam not through it, but was overwhelmed and was strangled36 both in body and spirit. Peter entered into the temptation of the denial; but having entered, he was not overwhelmed by it, but manfully swam through it, and was delivered from the temptation37 . Listen again, in another place, to a company of unscathed saints, giving thanks for deliverance from temptation, Thou, O God hast prayed us; Thou hast tried us by, fire like as silver is tried. Thou broughtest us into the net; Thou layedst afflictions upon our loins. Thou hast caused men to ride over our heads; we went through fire and water; and thou broughtest us out into a place of rest38 . Thou seest them speaking boldly in regard to their having passed through and not been pierced39 . But Thou broughtest us out into a place of rest; now their coming into a place of rest is their being delivered from temptation.

18. But deliver us from the evil. If Lead us not into temptation implied the not being tempted at all, He would not have said, But deliver us from the evil. Now evil is our adversary the devil, from whom we pray to be delivered40 . Then after completing the prayer thou sayest, Amen41 ; by this Amen, which means “So be it,” setting thy seal to the petitions of the divinely-taught prayer.

19. After this the Priest says, “Holy things to holy men.” Holy are the gifts presented, having received the visitation of the Holy Ghost; holy are ye also, having been deemed worthy of the Holy Ghost; the holy things therefore correspond to the holy persons42 . Then ye say, “One is Holy, One is the Lord, Jesus Christ43 .” For One is truly holy, by nature holy; we too are holy, but not by nature, only by participation, and discipline, and prayer.

20. After this ye hear the chanter inviting you with a sacred melody to the communion of the Holy Mysteries, and saying, O taste and see that the Lord is good44 . Trust not the judgment to thy bodily palate45 no, but to faith unfaltering; for they who taste are bidden to taste, not bread and wine, but the anti-typical46 Body and Blood of Christ.

21. In approaching47 therefore, come not with thy wrists extended, or thy fingers spread; but make thy left hand a throne for the fight, as for that which is to receive a King48 . And having hollowed thy palm, receive the Body of Christ, saying over it, Amen. So then after having carefully hollowed thine eyes by the touch of the Holy Body, partake of it; giving heed lest thou lose any portion thereof49 ; for whatever thou losest, is evidently a loss to thee as it were from one of thine own members. For tell me, if any one gave thee grains of gold, wouldest thou not hold them with all carefulness, being on thy guard against losing any of them, and suffering loss? Wilt thou not then much more carefully keep watch, that not a crumb fall from thee of what is more precious than gold and precious stones?

22. Then after thou hast partaken of the Body of Christ, draw near also to the Cup of His Blood; not stretching forth thine hands, but bending50 , and saying with an air of worship and reverence, Amen51 , hallow thyself by partaking also of the Blood of Christ. And while the moisture is still upon thy lips, touch it with thine hands, and hallow thine eyes and brow and the other organs of sense52 . Then wait for the prayer, and give thanks unto God, who hath accounted thee worthy of so great mysteries53 ).

23. Hold fast these traditions undefiled and, keep yourselves free from offence. Sever not yourselves from the Communion; deprive not yourselves, through the pollution of sins, of these Holy and Spiritual Mysteries). And the God of peace sanctify you wholly; and may your spirit, and soul, and body be preserved entire without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ :—To whom be glory and honour and might, with the Father and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and world without end. Amen).

1 This title is added by the Benedictine Editor. There is nothing corresponding to it in the Greed.
2 The text is made up from memory of Jc 1,21: dio; aAEpoqevmenoi pa`san r Juparivan, and 1P 2,1: aAEpoqevmenoi ou\n pa`san kakivan kai` pavnta dovlon kai` u Jpokrivsei" kai; pavsa" katalaliva".
3 In the Apostolic Constitutions, VIII. xi this duty is assigned to a sub-deacon: “Let one of the sub-deacons bring water to wash the hands of the priests, which is a symbol of the purity of those souls that e are devoted to God.” See Dictionary of Christian Antiquities,, “Lavabo.” The Priest who celebrates the Eucharist is here distinguished by the title i Jereuv" from the other Presbyters who stood round the altar.
4 Cyril evidently refers to the custom of placing vessels of water outside the entrance of the Church. Bingham, Antiquities, VIII. 3,6. Chrysost). In Johannem Hom. 73,3: “"Do we then wash our hands when going into Church, and shall we not wash our hearts also?” That the same custom was observed in heathen Temples appears form Herod. I. 51: perirAEr Janthvria duvo aAEnevqhke (See Bähr’s note). compare also Joseph). Ant. Jud. III. 6,2.
5 [tw`] viyasqai. Rupp: “Tw` ex conjectura addidi.” Possibly the original reading was niyavmenoi which would easily become altered through the presence of niyasqai in the preceding line. This washing is not mentioned in the Liturgy of St. James.
6 (Ps 26,6, the Liturgy of Constantinople this Psalm was changed by the Priest and Deacon while washing their hands at the Prothesis or Credence.
7 aAEnupeuvquno".
8 These two directions by the Deacon are separated in the Liturgy of St. James: after the dismissal of the Catechumens, the Deacon says, “Take note one of another;” and after the Incense, Cherubic hymn, Oblation, Creed, and a short prayer “that we may be united one to another in the bond of peace and charity,” the Deacon says, “Let us salute (aAEgapw`men) one another with a holy kiss.” In the Apostolic Constitutions, VIII. 11, there is but one such direction, and this comes before the washing of hands and the dismissal of the Catechumens, “Salute (aAEspavsasqe) ye one another with a holy kiss.”
9 (Mt 5,23, Cyril’s reference to this passage “it may inferred that the kiss of peace had been given before the gifts were brought to the altar, according to ancient custom attested by Justin M). Apolog. 1,c. 65 ‘Having ended the prayers0’ (for the newly baptized) ‘we salute one another with a kiss. Then there is brought to the President of the brethren bread, and a cup of wine mixed with water0’” (Ben. Ed).. There is the same order in the Apost. Const. VIII. 12,, and in the 19th Canon, of the Synod of Laodicea; but in the Liturgy of S. James the gifts are offered before the kiss of peace.
10 (1Co 16,20
11 (1P 3,15.
12 The words are slightly varied in the Liturgies: thus in the Liturgy of St. James, “Let us lift up our mind and hearts;” in the Apost. Const. 8,12, “Lift up your mind.”
13 Compare the noble Eucharistic Preface in the Liturgy of St. James: “It is verily meet, right, becoming, and our bounded duty to praise Thee, to sing of Thee, to bless Thee, to worship Thee, to glorify Thee, to give thanks to Thee the Maker of every creature, visible and invisible, the Treasure of eternal blessings; the Fount of life and immortality, the God and Lord of all, whom the heavens of heavens do praise, and all the powers thereof, sun and moon and all the choir of the stars, earth, sea, and all that in them is, Jerusalem the heavenly assembly, Church of the firstborn that are written in the heavens, spirits of righteous men and prophets, souls of martyrs and Apostles. Angels, Archangels, Thrones, Dominions, Principalities, Authorities, and Powers dread, also the many —eyed Cherubim, and the six-winged Seraphim, which with twain of their wings cover their faces, and with twain their feet, and with twain do fly, crying one to another with unresting lips, in unceasing praises, singing with loud voice the triumphant hymn of Thy majestic glory, shouting, and glorifying, and crying aloud, and saying, —Holy, Holy, Holy, O Lord of Hosts, heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest; blessed is He that cometh in the mane of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest.”
14 (Ps 34,3.
15 (Is 6,2-3.
16 qeologivan, “the doctrine of the Godhead,” either of the Son in particular, or, ads here, of the whole Trinity: cf. Athanas). Contra Arianos, Or. I. § 18: nu`n eAEn trivadi h J qeologiva teleiva eAEstivn .
17 In the Liturgy of St. James the Triumphal Hymn is followed by the ‘Recital of the work of Redemption.0’ and of ‘the Institution.0’ by the ‘Great Olbation,0’ and then by the ‘Invocation,0’ as follows: “Have mercy upon us, O God, after Thy great mercy, and send forth on us, and on these gifts here set before Thee, Thine all-holy Spirit,. . . . that He may come, and by His holy, good, and glorious advent (parousiva) may sanctify this Bread and make it the holy Body of Thy Christ (Amen). and this Cup the precious Blood of Thy Christ” (Amen). In Cat. 19,7, Cyril calls this prayer “the holy Invocation of the Adorable Trinity,” and in xxi. 3, “the Invocation of the Holy Ghost.”
18 See Index, "Sacrifice," and the reference there to the Introduction. Compare Athenagoras (Apol. c. xiii).: “What have I to do with burnt-offerings, of which God has no need? Though indeed it behoves us to bring a bloodless sacrifice, and the reasonable service.”
19 Cyril here gives a brief summary of the “Great Intercession,” in which, according to the common text of the Liturgy of St. James, there is a suffrage “for the peace and welfare (euAEstavqeia) of the whole world, and of the holy Churches of God.” Mr. Hammond thinks that it has been taken form the Deacon’s Litany, and repeated by mistake in the Great Intercession. But from Chrysotom’s language (In Phil. Hom. 3,p. 218; Guame, T. 11,p. 251), we must infer that the prayer u Jpe;r eiAErivnh" kai; euAEstaqeiva" tou` kovsmon formed part of the ‘Great Intercession0’in his Liturgy, as it does in the Clementine (Apost. Constit. VIII. § 10).
20 In the Liturgies of St. James and St. Mark, and in the Clementine, there are similar commemorations of departed saints, especially “patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs,” but nothing corresponding to the words, “that at their prayers and intercessions God would receive our petition.” See Index, Prayer and Intercession.
21 So Cyrysostom (In 1 Cor. Hom. 41, p. 457 A): “Not in vain was this rule ordained by the Apostles, that in the dread Mysteries remembrance should be made of the departed: for they know that it is a great gain to them, and a great benefit.”
22 oi; touvtoi" diafevronte". “Hesychius, Diafevrei, aAEnhvkei). Ubi Kesterus ait, aAEnhvkei, id est. “pertinet,” vel “attinet” Routh, Scriptor. Eccles, Opuscula, p. 441). Dr. Routh’s note refers to Nicoeni Conc.Can. xvi.: u Jfarpavsai to;n tw` e Jtevrw diafevpouta. Cf). Synodi Nic. ad Alexandrinos Epist.: diafevronta th` AiAEguvptw kai` th; aAEgiwtavth jAlexandrevwn eAEkklhoiv".
23 According to the Ben. Ed. the meaning is not “We offer Christ, who was sacrificed for our sins,” but “We offer for our sins Christ sacrificed.” i.e. “Christ lying on the altar as a victim sacrificed,” in allusion to Apoc. V. 6, 12. See Index, “Sacrifice.”
24 (1Co 1549.
25 (2Co 6,16.
26 (Is 52,5 Rm 2,24,
27 (Rm 6,12.
28 (Ps 103,20.
29 “It is manifest that the author derives the word eAEpiouvsio" form the tow words eAEpiv and ouAEsiva, as do many others: although the explanation which derives it from eAEpiouvsh h Jmevra is more probable. We render it “substantial” in accordance with Cyril’s meaning, with which the word “super-substantial does to agree” (Ben. Ed)..
30 (Mt 15,17.
31 Cat. xxii. § 3, note 1. Ben. Ed. “We are not to think that Cyril supposed the Body of Christ to be distributed and digested into our body; but in the usual way o speaking he attributes to the Holy Body that which belongs only to the species under which It is hidden. Nor does he deny that those species pass into the draught, but only the Body of Christ.” Cf. Iren. V. 2,2,3, and “Eucharistic Doctrine” in the Introduction.
32 (He 3,15.
33 (1Jn 1,8). We deceive ourselves.
34 Tertull). De Bapt. c. 20: “For the word had gone before ‘that no one untempted should attain to the celestial kingdoms.0’” Apost. Conste.II. viii.: “The Scripture says, ‘A man that is a reprobate (aAEdovkimo") is not tried (aAEpeivrasto") by God.0’” Resch, Agrapha, Logion 26, p. 188, quotes allusions to the saying in Jc 1,12-13 2Co 13,5-7, and concludes that it was recorded as a saying of our Lord in one of the un-canonical gospels (Lc 1,1), where it occurred in the context of the incident narrated in Mt 26,41 Mc 14,38.
35 (Jc 1,2,
36 aAEpepnivgh. Mt 27,5: aAEphvgxato.
37 Compare the description of Peter’s repentance in Cat. 2,19.
38 (.
39 For eAEmparh`nai the Ben. Ed. conjectures eAEmpagh`nai “to have been stuck fast.”
40 Cyril is here a clear witness for the reference of tou` ponhrou` to “the wicked one.”
41 From § 14, euAEcovmeno" tou`to levgei", it seems probable that the whole Prayer was said by the people as well as by the Priest. See Introduction, “Eucharistic Rites.”
42 Compare Waterland on this passage, c. X. p 688.
43 Apost. Const. VIII. c. 13,“Let the Bishop speak thus to the people: Holy things for holy persons. And let the people answer: There is One that is holy; there is one Lord, one Jesus Christ, blessed for ever, to the glory of God the Father.” The Liturgies of St. James and of Constantinople have nearly the same words: in the Liturgy of St. Mc the answer of the people is: One Father holy, one Son holy, one Spirit holy, in the unity of the Holy Spirit.
44 (Ps 34,9. In the Apolstolic Constitutions the “Sacnat Sanctis” and its response are immediately followed by the “Gloria in excelsis,” and the “Hosanna.” Then the Clergy partake, and there follows a direction that this Psalm 34,is to be said while all the rest are partaking. In the Liturgy of Constantinople there is the direction: “The Choir sings the communion antiphon (to; koinwnikovn) of the day or the saint.”
45 For mh; e Jpitrevphte, probably an itacism, we should read mh; eAEpitrevpetai, as a question, the propriety of the change being indicated by the answer ouvciv. “Is the judgment of this entrusted to the bodily palate? No, but, &c.”
46 a;ntituvpou swvmato", “the antitypical Body,” not “the antitype of the Body,” which would require tou` swvmato”. Cf. Cat. 21,§ 1, note 6.
47 Cat. xviii. 32: “with what reverence and order you must go form Baptism to the Holy Altar of God.”
48 Cyril appears to be the earliest authority for thus placing the hands in the form of a Cross. A similar direction is given in the 101st Canon of the Trullan Council (a692), and by Joh. Damasc. (De Fid. Orthod. iv. 14)). Dict. Chr. Ant.Communion.” That the communicant was to receive the Bread in his own hands I clear from the language of Cyril and other Fathers. Cf. Clem. Alex). Strom. I. c. 1,§ 5: “Some after dividing the Eucharist according to custom allow each of the laity himself to take his part.” See the passage of Origen quoted in the next note, and Tertull). Cor. Mil. c. 3,“The Sacrament of the Eucharist, which the Lord commanded both (to be taken) at meal-times and by all, we take even in assemblies before dawn, and form the hand of none but the presidents.”
49 Origen). Hom. xiii. in Exod.§ 3: “I wish to admonish you by examples form your own religion: ye, who have been accustomed to attend the Sacred Mysteries, know how, when you receive the Body of the Lord, you guard it with all care and reverence, that no little part of it fall down, no portion of the consecrated gift slip away. For ;you believe yourselves guilty, and rightly so believe, if any part thereof fall through carelessness.”
50 kuvptwn, not kneeling, but standing in a bowing posture. Cf. Bingham, XV. c. 5, § 3.
51 Apost. Const. VIII. c. 13: “Let the Bishop give the Oblation (prosforavn) saying, The Body of Christ. And let him that receiveth say, Amen. And let the Deacon hold the Cup, and when he delivers it say, The Blood of Christ, the Cup of Life. And let him that drinketh say, Amen.”
52 Cat. xxi. 3, note 8.
53 In the Liturgy of St. James, after all have communicated, “The Deacons and the People say: Fill our mouths with Thy praise, O Lord, and fill our lips with joy, that we may sing of Thy glory, of Thy greatness, all the day). And again: We render thanks to Thee, Christ our God, that Thou hast accounted us worthy to partake of Thy Body and Blood, &c.”


[i]Roberts, Alexander and Donaldson, James, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series: Volume VII, (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc). 1997.

Cyril of Jerus. 2200