Speeches 1994 - Friday, 18 February 1994
Friday 4 March 1994
Dear Brothers and Sisters in Christ,
1. It always a pleasure for me to meet the members of the Pontifical Council for Social Communications on the occasion of your Plenary Meeting. This year, your assembly marks the thirtieth anniversary of the establishment of this particular fruit of the Second Vatican Council. The Fathers of the Council were fully aware of the importance of the communications media, and in the Decree "Inter Mirifica" they asked for the annual celebration of a "World Communications Day" and for the establishment of an Office to consider questions, theoretical and practical, relating to the media—especially press, radio, cinema and television. Just three months after the promulgation of "Inter Mirifica" Pope Paul VI established that special department of the Roman Curia, which thus became one of the first visible results of the Council.
The problems and opportunities which existed thirty years ago in the field of social communications have an even greater urgency now. Now as then, the principal task of your Council is to explore ways in which the mystery of salvation in Jesus Christ can be more effectively communicated through the marvellous instruments of contact and interaction between human beings which modern technology has made available to almost everyone.
2. A very evident but perhaps not sufficiently appreciated task in this regard is that of maintaining a positive and constructive relationship—a continuing dialogue—with the communications media.There are many men and women of goodwill in the media who realize that the Church in the name of Christ unselfishly seeks to serve the poor, the sick, the young and those who are too easily forgotten. They are open to reporting these stories and to supporting these efforts—if only they are told about them in a way which will elicit solidarity in the hearts of communicators themselves and their vast audiences. This work of public relations is valid for all the media, not only for the world of news reporting, but also for the media of cinema, theatre, videocassettes and audio recordings, which are hungry for ideas and perhaps even more hungry for the truths and values which give meaning and purpose to life and to every human endeavour.
3. So many of the masterpieces of painting, sculpture and architecture which you see around you in this city of Rome are clear evidence that the mysteries of faith and the transcendent truth about man can be presented with great power by the arts. One striking example which immediately comes to mind as we await its unveiling after the work of restoration is Michelangelo's fresco of "The Last Judgment" in the Sistine Chapel, which speaks with great eloquence and immediacy of that day when Christ "the Judge will take his seat and all that is hidden will be revealed" (Sequentia Dies Irae). The material reality of the fresco, because it is a work of human genius, raises the spectator's heart and mind to reflect on the transcendent reality of man's ultimate dependence on God, our loving Creator and our just Judge.
In our own day there are new art forms, which are not restricted to static—even if powerful—depictions in paint, plaster and stone. Can the epic of Christian faith and love not also be told in an attractive way via these forms—on television and theatre screens, via the radio and recordings? What more should Christians be doing to inspire and stimulate today's media to create masterpieces which can rival those which surround us here, in their spiritual power to transmit a message which can deeply touch the human heart?
4. The Catholic presence in the media is a way of fulfilling the Church's mission of proclaiming the Kingdom of God and inviting all to enter (Mc 1,15). It is an expression of evangelical love and pastoral concern. Especially in this "Year of the Family", artists and media personnel should be challenged to create works which will inspire a richer, deeper and more fruitful family life. Human love has been one of the most powerful themes in literature and drama throughout history, and the pre-eminent beauty of human love in family life offers an inexhaustible source of inspiration for the creative imagination. The unselfish sacrifices which husbands and wives make for one another and for their children, and the loving response of those children, can provide inspiration to creative artists in the media, as well as to audiences open to messages which sustain hope and elevate the spirit.
In my Message for this year's "World Communications Day" I discussed the impact which the means of social communications, especially television, can have on families.That Message sought to offer guidance in the use of television to enrich individual and family life, and in the avoidance of what can damage the moral fabric of the family and of society itself. Likewise, the communications media have the potential to make us realize that we are all members of the one human family. The media can be powerful promoters of understanding and unity among peoples; they can elicit expressions of solidarity with those who suffer through natural disasters or violent conflicts; they can help make the joys and sufferings of our brothers and sisters around the world our own joys and sufferings. Both the news and entertainment media can be our eyes and ears, open to the world, and can offer insight into the longings and aspirations, as well as the difficulties and frustrations of the entire human family.
5. In your reflections during these days, you have seen that the Christian message has been and can be presented in many ways in the communications media, not least through the example, personal integrity and faith of committed Catholics in all parts of the world. To them and especially to you here today, and to your families and associates, I impart my Apostolic Blessing, and I pray that— through the communications media—the Good News of Jesus Christ will be more widely heard and accepted.
Dear Brother Bishops,
1. I give thanks to God always for you - the Bishops of Bangladesh and the People of God entrusted to your pastoral care - "remembering before our God and Father your work of faith and labour of love and steadfastness of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ" (1Th 1,2-3). I still recall with deep gratitude my Pastoral Visit eight years ago when I came "as a pilgrim to the ‘soul’ of the Bangladeshi people" (John Paul II, Address at the International Airport of Dacca (Bangladesh), 2, [19 Nov. 1986]) . You are "a little flock", but you are strong in the Lord (cf. Ps. Ps 46,1), and on your account I take great comfort. I pray that this "ad Limina" visit will further strengthen the bonds of unity, charity and peace, which link the Church in Bangladesh to this Apostolic See. Through the Petrine Ministry, which is essentially related to every particular Church, the Bishop of Rome offers you his support, confirming you in the fulfilment of your pastoral duty of building up the one Body of Christ (cf. Ep 4,12).
2. Because Pastors share in the fullness of the Priesthood of Christ, the Bridegroom of the Church, they too must "give themselves up for her" (Ibid., 5:25). We are servants of the koinonia: both in our shared solicitude for the whole Church as members of the Episcopal College (cf. Lumen Gentium LG 23) and in the care of the particular Church where Christ has placed each one of us as the visible sign of unity. The Bishop stands in a spousal relationship with respect to his community, representing Christ, the divine Spouse. Like his Lord, the Bishop is to love his People with a totally generous heart, nourish them with the refreshing word of truth and the grace of the Sacraments, and he is to inspire them to "do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him" (Col 3,17).
Our first thoughts on the occasion of your "ad Limina" visit must therefore turn to our own ministry as Successors of the Apostles in the service of the Gospel. The Second Vatican Council reminds all Pastors of their responsibility to be "heralds of the faith who bring new disciples to Christ" (Lumen Gentium LG 25). This calling can only be rendered fruitful through an interior life invigorated by the love of Christ. Reaping an abundant harvest in the Lord’s vineyard depends upon our hearing the word of God with reverence (cf. Dei Verbum DV 1) and pondering it lovingly in our hearts (cf. Lk. Lc 2,19). This requires time for prayer and that interior serenity which produces true apostles who can be "contemplatives in action". As credible witnesses we will then pass on to others what we have heard with our ears, seen with our eyes, looked upon and touched with our hands: the Word of Life (cf. 1Jn 1,1)!
3. In fulfilling your pastoral responsibilities you rightly look to your brother priests, your primary co-workers in the sacred ministry. To them goes my encouragement and the assurance of my prayers, knowing the often difficult circumstances of their ministry. Just as Christ called his disciples "friends" (Jn 15,15), so must a Bishop regard his priests as "sons and friends... ready to listen to them and cultivate an atmosphere of easy familiarity with them, thus facilitating the pastoral work of the entire Diocese" (Christus Dominus CD 16). On the Bishop’s shoulders falls the burden of fostering the sanctification and continuing education of his presbyterate.
The "gift of God" conferred through Ordination needs to be unceasingly "rekindled" (cf. 2Tm 1,6). The "burning wick" must not be quenched (Is 42,3). Through the dynamism of his grace, the Holy Spirit is ever calling priests to conversion of life, fervent prayer and pastoral charity. The Bishop "is responsible for their ongoing formation, the purpose of which is to ensure that all his priests are generously faithful to the gift and ministry received, that they are priests such as the People of God wishes to have and has a ‘right’ to" (John Paul II, Pastores Dabo Vobis PDV 79). I encourage you to work together to establish a systematic and comprehensive programme of priestly formation, both in your seminaries and for priests who have already spent some years in the active ministry.
Likewise, the consecrated life needs your support, especially as religious institutes seek to improve the spiritual and intellectual formation of their members. Religious are a very great part of the life of the Church in Bangladesh: their consecration is a powerful sign of God’s kingdom at work in the lives of your people and their apostolate is the fruitful source of so much good. I am sure that you will continue to encourage Religious to reflect on ways of increasing the number of suitable candidates. The whole Catholic community is called to an increasing awareness of the christological and ecclesial motivation which lies behind every form of vocation (cf. John Paul II, Redemptionis Donum, 3).
4. Only where there is a commitment to serious and prayerful study is it possible for the "one faith" to penetrate the very marrow of the various cultures, especially in Asia, where ancient religious traditions have profoundly moulded people’s character and way of life. It is no small challenge for you to oversee the authentic inculturation of the faith among your flocks (cf. John Paul II, Redemptoris Missio RMi 55). Christianity is a stranger to no culture and to no people. The proclamation of the Gospel ennobles "those things which every individual, people and nation and every culture throughout history recognizes and brings into being as goodness, truth and beauty" (cf. John Paul II, Slavorum Apostoli, 18). The Redemptive Incarnation of the Saviour enriches the genuine values of every people, enabling them to bring forth new and abundant fruit.
Vigour and creativity should inspire your work of evangelization, especially in those regions which are more open to receiving the Gospel. In your Pastoral Plan for the Church in Bangladesh, you rightly recognize that planning and consultation at all appropriate levels favour communion and service "with" and "for" others. As a small flock of the "company of those who believe", it is particularly important that you should remain "of one heart and soul" (Ac 4,32) and that you should all be moved by a great sense of unity and mutual solidarity. The apparent success of sects in certain parts of your country is already causing you concern. This challenge should stimulate you to spare no efforts in proclaiming the truth of the Gospel, which is "the only fully valid response...to the problems and hopes that life poses to every person and society" (John Paul II, Christifideles Laici CL 34).
The particular situation of your Nation makes it necessary for those who preach "the truth of the Gospel" (Ga 2,14) to be familiar with the religious traditions of their fellow-citizens. While humbly but firmly confessing that "there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus" (1Tm 2,5), those who evangelize must ever be respectful of the "seeds of the Word" sown among peoples and religions by the Spirit which "blows where it wills" (Jn 3,8). To discern his presence and activity, not only in individuals but in societies, peoples and cultures, is essential if the Church’s proclamation is to bear a rich harvest (John Paul II, Redemptoris Missio RMi 28). The future of evangelization and interreligious harmony passes by way of respect, dialogue and co-operation for the common good.
Religious belief is a source of social peace, and only the perversion of religious sentiment leads to discrimination and conflict. The demands of truth proscribe the use of coercive proselytism and any curtailing of the right to profess personal convictions (John Paul II, Message for the World Day of Peace 1991, 4 [8 Dec. 1990]). Repression of the right to freedom of religion is to be deplored as an affront to the dignity of the persons involved.
5. Dear Brothers, I deeply share your concern, indeed your profound sorrow, at the poverty which afflicts so many of your fellow citizens. The moral disorder represented by the ever widening gap between wealthy and impoverished nations, but also between the affluent and the poor within countries, calls for a determined response on the part of the Church. "To teach and spread her social doctrine pertains to the Church’s evangelizing mission and is an essential part of the Christian message" (John Paul II, Centesimus Annus CA 5). As your own efforts in this area so clearly testify, the Church has a special love of the poor, neglected, marginalized and suffering, and a particular duty towards them. I am pleased to know that with the Holy See’s assistance the Pope John Paul II Centre has recently been opened in Mugaipar. I pray that this Centre - and all the works of education, health care and social services so generously served by Religious and laity - will be visible and enduring signs of God’s universal love for each person, regardless of creed, class or ethnic origin.
6. This International “ Year of the Family ” is a significant step on our path towards the approaching "hour" of the Third Millennium. The Lord is beckoning us to increase our pastoral attention to the "gospel of the family" (cf. John Paul II, Gratissimam Sane, 23) and to recognize that the defence and promotion of the dignity of the family are a principal responsibility of our ministry. For the Church in Bangladesh, you are teachers and watchmen of the truth about the family. I am aware that you are already taking initiatives in this "priority sector of pastoral care" (John Paul II, Familiaris Consortio FC 73), and I wish to encourage the whole Church in Bangladesh - Bishops, priests, Religious, catechists and all the lay faithful - to ask themselves in what specific ways they can safeguard and promote the holiness of marriage and the family. I hope that my recently published Letter to Families, when read together with the relevant chapters of "Gaudium et Spes"(Gaudium et Spes GS 47,52), "Humanae Vitae" and "Familiaris Consortio", will serve to guide every level of pastoral planning regarding families.
Among your concerns you will no doubt give special attention to marriage preparation for engaged couples, to associations of families for families, to the youth apostolate and to efforts aimed at ending the "habitual discrimination against women" which is an "inheritance of sin" (John Paul II, Mulieris Dignitatem MD 14). With particular satisfaction I commend the support you have given to education in responsible fatherhood and motherhood through natural family planning. These methods involve a way of living the gift of conjugal fruitfulness which enhances the freedom and responsibility of the spouses, and ensures an unconditional respect for the dignity of the person and the true nature of marriage.
7. My dear brothers, one of the consolations of my ministry to the universal Church is the steadfast and enthusiastic love for Christ which animates the "young" Churches throughout the world. I am supported by the power of their witness and the fervour of their prayers (cf. Acts Ac 12,5). With firm confidence that the Church in Bangladesh will experience a "great springtime for Christianity", I entrust all your priests, Religious and laity to the maternal intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary. As the "Mother of Fairest Love", she is the "sign" that the Almighty continues to do great things for us; and holy is his name (cf. Lk. Lc 1,49). With my Apostolic Blessing.
Friday, 18 March 1994
Dear Brothers in the Episcopate,
1. I welcome you this morning with joy, members, counsellors and co-workers of the Pontifical Council for Culture. You have gathered under the presidency of Cardinal Paul Poupard for the first plenary session of the dicastery in its present form, after the merging of the former Pontifical Councils for Dialogue with Non-Believers and for Culture prescribed by the Motu Proprio Inde a Pontificatus of 25 March 1993.
You know that from the beginning of my Pontificate I have insisted on the crucial significance of the links between the Church and culture. In my letter on the occasion of the foundation of the Pontifical Council for Culture, I recalled: "a faith that does not become culture is not fully accepted, not entirely thought out, not faithfully lived" (cf. John Paul II, Address to the Italian National Congress of the Ecclesial Movement for Cultural Commitment, 2 [16 Jan. 1982]).
Two points should be made: most of the countries with a Christian tradition are experiencing a serious rift between the Gospel message and large areas of their culture, while an acute problem in the young Churches is the relationships between local cultures and the Gospel. This situation already points the way ahead for your task of evangelizing cultures and inculturating faith. I should like to clarify a few points which I consider particularly important.
2. The phenomenon of non-belief, together with its practical consequences—the secularization of social and private life, religious indifference or even the unequivocal rejection of all religion—remains one of the most urgent matters for your reflection and your pastoral concern. It would be appropriate to seek its historical, cultural, social and intellectual causes, and at the same time to promote a respectful and open dialogue with those who do not believe in God or who profess no religion; organizing meetings and exchanges with them, as you have done in the past, cannot but be productive.
3. The inculturation of the faith is the other major task of your Dicastery. Specialized research centres will help you to carry it out. But it must not be forgotten that this "must involve the whole people of God, and not a few experts, since the people reflect the authentic sensus fidei" (Redemptoris Missio, RMi 54). Through a lengthy process of reflection the Church gradually becomes aware of all the wealth of the deposit of faith through the life of God's people: the process of inculturation is a transition from implicit lived experience to explicit consciousness. Similarly, baptized persons, who live Christ's mystery in the Holy Spirit under the guidance of their pastors, are led little by little to discern within the various cultures those elements that are compatible with the Catholic faith and to reject others. This slow maturing process demands great patience and wisdom, great openness of heart, an informed sense of Tradition and a healthy apostolic daring, like that of the Apostles, the Fathers and the Doctors of the Church.
4. In creating the Pontifical Council for Culture, it was my intention to give "the whole Church a common impulse in the continuously renewed encounter between the salvific message of the Gospel and the multiplicity of cultures". I also gave it the mandate "to become a participant in the cultural concerns which the departments of the Holy See encounter in the evangelization of cultures, and to ensure co-operation between the cultural institutions of the Holy See" (John Paul II, Letter of Foundation of the Pontifical Council for Culture, 2 [20 May 1982]). In this perspective I commissioned you to oversee and co-ordinate the activity of the Pontifical Academies, in conformity with their aims and statutes, and to remain in regular contact with the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church, "to assure a harmony of purpose and a fruitful mutual co-operation" (John Paul II, Inde a Pontificatus).
5. In order to accomplish your task better, you are called to establish closer links with the Episcopal Conferences and especially with the cultural commissions which should exist within all the Conferences, as you have recently requested. These commissions are meant to promote Christian culture in the different countries and to dialogue with cultures that are strangers to Christianity. The many Catholic cultural centres throughout the world, whose work you support and seek to spread, are certainly privileged institutions for the promotion of Christian culture and dialogue with non-Christian cultural environments. In this regard, the first international meeting which you have just organized at Chantilly bodes well for further fruitful exchanges.
6. On the same lines, you co-operate with International Catholic Organizations, especially those that bring intellectuals, scientists and artists together, and undertake "appropriate initiatives concerning the dialogue between faith and cultures, and intercultural dialogue" (cf. John Paul II, Inde a Pontificatus, 3).
In addition, you follow the policy and the cultural activity of governments and international organizations, such as UNESCO, the Council of Europe's Council for Cultural Co-operation and other bodies, in your concern to give a fully human dimension to their cultural policies.
7. Your intervention, whether direct or indirect in the areas where the great policies and thought of the third millennium are forged, aims at giving a new impulse to Christian contributions in the field of culture, which has its place in the contemporary world as a whole. In this vast enterprise, as urgent as it is necessary, you are to continue a dialogue that appears very promising, with the representatives of agnostic trends or with non-believers, whether their inspiration is derived from ancient civilizations or from more recent intellectual endeavours.
8. Christianity "is a creator of culture in its very foundation" (John Paul II, Address to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) [2 June 1980]). In the Christian world, a truly prestigious culture has flourished throughout the centuries, as much in the area of literature and philosophy as in the sciences and the arts. The very concept of beauty in ancient Europe is largely the result of the Christian culture of its peoples, and its landscape reflects this inspiration. The centre around which this culture has developed is the heart of our faith, the eucharistic mystery. Cathedrals, humble country churches, religious music, architecture, sculpture and painting all radiate the mystery of the verum Corpus, natum de Maria Virgine, towards which everything converges in a movement of wonder. As for music, I am glad to commemorate Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina this year, on the occasion of the fourth centenary of his death. It would seem that, after a troubled period, the Church regained a voice made peaceful through contemplation of the Eucharistic mystery, like the calm breathing of a soul that knows it is loved by God.
Christian culture admirably reflects man's relationship with God, made new in the redemption. It opens us to the contemplation of the Lord, true God and true man. This culture is enhanced by the love that Christ pours into our hearts (cf. Rom. Rm 5,5) and by the experience of disciples called to emulate their Master. Such sources have given rise to an intense awareness of the meaning of life, a strength of character that blossoms in the heart of Christian families and a sense of finesse unknown in the past. Grace awakens, frees, purifies, orders and expands the creative powers of man. While it invites asceticism and renunciation, it does so in order to free the heart, a freedom eminently conducive to artistic creation as well as to thought and action based on truth.
9. In this culture, therefore, the influence of the saints is decisive: through the light that they emanate, through their inner freedom, through the power of their personality, they have made a mark on the artistic thought and expression of entire periods of our history. It is enough to mention St. Francis of Assisi. He had a poet's temperament, something which is amply confirmed by his words, his attitude, his innate sense of symbolic gesture. Although his concerns were far removed from the world of literature, he was, nevertheless, the creator of a new culture, both in thought and in art. A St Bonaventure or a Giotto could not have developed had it not been for him.
This, dear friends, is where the true requirements of Christian culture dwell. This marvellous creation of man can flow only from contemplating the mystery of Christ and from listening to his word, put into practice with total sincerity and unreserved commitment, following the example of the Virgin Mary. Faith frees thought and opens new horizons to the language of poetry and literature, to philosophy, to theology, and to other forms of creativity proper to the human genius.
You are called to develop and to promote this culture: some of you will attend to dialogue with non-believers, while others will search for new expressions of Christian life, all through a more vigorous cultural presence of the Church in this world which is seeking beauty and truth, unity and love.
My Apostolic Blessing and my affectionate gratitude, accompany you as you carry out these beautiful, noble and necessary tasks.
18 March 1994
Friday, 18 March 1994
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I extend a warm welcome this morning to the Principals and friends of the Metropolitan Separate School Board of Toronto. Catholic educators offer an irreplaceable service to the People of God, a service for which the Church is extremely grateful, and I take this occasion to express, in the Church’s name, my thanks to each one of you: for your love for the Mystical Body of Christ, for your loyalty to her Pastors, and for your faithful witness to the liberating "truth of the Gospel" (Ga 2,14).
If Catholic schools are to remain authentically Catholic – and that is their vocation and grace – they must encourage a living encounter with Jesus Christ, "the way, and the truth, and the life" (Jn 2,14). Promoting the genuinely Catholic character of your schools requires a willingness on the part of everyone involved to find ways of promoting the institution’s ecclesial mission and of building a community of life and solidarity based on the saving word of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Because of the persevering efforts of Ontario Catholics, you are blessed in having an extensive system of separate schools justly proud of their own identity and their specific contributions to "the Canadian mosaic". Catholic schools help parents to carry out their obligation to be "the first and most important educators of their own children" (John Paul II, Gratissimam Sane, 16). A genuinely free society recognizes the "irreplaceable and inalienable" right of parents to oversee their children’s schooling (cf. John Paul II, Familiaris Consortio FC 36). In this view, the responsibility of the State for education is always complementary and should never replace the fundamental competence of parents. I am pleased to recall that, in keeping with its traditions of democracy, the pursuit of justice and the defense of human rights, the Province of Ontario recognizes its duty "to ensure that public subsidies to schools are so allocated that parents are truly free to select schools for their children in accordance with their conscience" (Gravissimum Educationis GE 6).
Dear friends: as you return to Canada, it is my hope that you will be strengthened in faith and renewed in joy and enthusiasm for the great work entrusted to you. With this prayer, I commend all of you to the intercession of Saint Joseph, Guardian of the Redeemer and Patron of Canada, and I cordially impart my Apostolic Blessing.
Thursday, 7 April 1994
Ladies and Gentlemen,
This is indeed a significant meeting, and I am especially pleased to welcome this distinguished group of Jewish leaders and persons responsible for the organization of the Concert in commemoration of the Shoah, to be held this evening in the Paul VI Hall in the Vatican. In particular, I welcome the survivors of the terrible experience of the concentration camps who honour us with their presence. A word of greeting also goes to Maestro Gilbert Levine, who has done so much to make this event possible.
Your visit inevitably brings to my mind the times I have gone on pilgrimage to Auschwitz and Dachau. During the first year of my Pontificate I again went to Auschwitz, and before the memorial stone with its Hebrew inscription I sought to express the profound emotion evoked in me by "the memory of the People whose sons and daughters were destined for total extermination". As I said on that occasion: "This People has its origin in Abraham, who is our father in faith (cf. Rom. Rm 4,12), as Paul of Tarsus expressed it. It is precisely this People, which had received from God the commandment, ‘Thou shalt not kill’, which has experienced in itself to a particular degree what killing means. No one may pass by this inscription with indifference" (John Paul II, Homily at the Concentration Camp of Brzezinka, 2 [7 June 1979]). I used these same words in 1986 when I visited the Rome Synagogue. In this city too the Jewish community paid a high price in blood for the simple reason of being Jewish. As on that occasion, so once again today I express "a word of abhorrence for the genocide decreed against the Jewish people during the Second World War, which led to the holocaust of millions of innocent people" (John Paul II, Address to the Jewish Community of Rome, 3 [13 April 1986]).
The Concert this evening is a commemoration of those horrifying events. The candles which will burn as we listen to the music will keep before us the long history of anti–semitism which culminated in the Shoah. But it is not enough that we remember; for in our own day, regrettably, there are many new manifestations of the anti-semitism, xenophobia and racial hatred which were the seeds of those unspeakable crimes. Humanity cannot permit all that to happen again. Our shared hope is that the music which we shall listen to together will confirm our resolve to consolidate the good relations between our two communities, so that with the help of Almighty God we can work together to prevent the repetition of such heinous evil.
Speeches 1994 - Friday, 18 February 1994