Summa Th. III EN
Benziger Bros. edition, 1947.
Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province

  • Benziger Bros. edition, 1947 - CCEL.ORG
  • Public domain

  • Headings

    TREATISE ON THE INCARNATION (Questions 1-59)

    Q1: OF THE FITNESS OF THE INCARNATION (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting that God should become incarnate?
    Whether it was necessary for the restoration of the human race that the Word of God should become incarnate?
    Whether, if man had not sinned, God would have become incarnate?
    Whether God became incarnate in order to take away actual sin, rather than to take away original sin?
    Whether it was fitting that God should become incarnate in the beginning of the human race?
    Whether the Incarnation ought to have been put off till the end of the world?
    Q2: OF THE MODE OF UNION OF THE WORD INCARNATE (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether the Union of the Incarnate Word took place in the nature?
    Whether the union of the Incarnate Word took place in the Person?
    Whether the union of the Word Incarnate took place in the suppositum or hypostasis?
    Whether after the Incarnation the Person or Hypostasis of Christ is composite?
    Whether in Christ there is any union of soul and body?
    Whether the human nature was united to the Word of God accidentally?
    Whether the union of the Divine nature and the human is anything created?
    Whether union is the same as assumption?
    Whether the union of the two natures in Christ is the greatest of all unions?
    Whether the union of the Incarnation took place by grace?
    Whether any merits preceded the union of the Incarnation?
    Q3: OF THE MODE OF UNION ON THE PART OF THE PERSON ASSUMING (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether it is befitting for a Divine Person to assume?
    Whether it is befitting to the Divine Nature to assume?
    Whether the Nature abstracted from the Personality can assume?
    Whether one Person without another can assume a created nature?
    Whether each of the Divine Persons could have assumed human nature?
    Whether several Divine Persons can assume one and the same individual nature?
    Whether one Divine Person can assume two human natures?
    Whether it was more fitting that the Person of the Son rather than any other Divine Person should assume human nature?
    Q4: OF THE MODE OF UNION ON THE PART OF THE HUMAN NATURE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether human nature was more assumable by the Son of God than any other nature?
    Whether the Son of God assumed a person?
    Whether the Divine Person assumed a man?
    Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed human nature abstracted from all individuals?
    Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed human nature in all individuals?
    Whether it was fitting for the Son of God to assume human nature of the stock of Adam?
    Q5: OF THE PARTS OF HUMAN NATURE WHICH WERE ASSUMED (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed a true body?
    Whether the Son of God ought to have assumed a carnal or earthly body?
    Whether the Son of God assumed a soul?
    Whether the Son of God assumed a human mind or intellect?
    Q6: OF THE ORDER OF ASSUMPTION (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the Son of God assumed flesh through the medium of the soul?
    Whether the Son of God assumed a soul through the medium of the spirit or mind?
    Whether the soul was assumed before the flesh by the Son of God?
    Whether the flesh of Christ was assumed by the Word before being united to the soul?
    Whether the whole human nature was assumed through the medium of the parts?
    Whether the human nature was assumed through the medium of grace?
    Q7: OF THE GRACE OF CHRIST AS AN INDIVIDUAL MAN (THIRTEEN ARTICLES)
    Whether in the Soul of Christ there was any habitual grace?
    Whether in Christ there were virtues?
    Whether in Christ there was faith?
    Whether in Christ there was hope?
    Whether in Christ there were the gifts?
    Whether in Christ there was the gift of fear?
    Whether the gratuitous graces were in Christ?
    Whether in Christ there was the gift of prophecy?
    Whether in Christ there was the fulness of grace?
    Whether the fulness of grace is proper to Christ?
    Whether the grace of Christ is infinite?
    Whether the grace of Christ could increase?
    Whether the habitual grace of Christ followed after the union?
    Q8: OF THE GRACE OF CHRIST, AS HE IS THE HEAD OF THE CHURCH (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ is the Head of the Church?
    Whether Christ is the Head of men as to their bodies or only as to their souls?
    Whether Christ is the Head of all men?
    Whether Christ is the Head of the angels?
    Whether the grace of Christ, as Head of the Church, is the same as His habitual grace, inasmuch as He is Man?
    Whether it is proper to Christ to be Head of the Church?
    Whether the devil is the head of all the wicked?
    Whether Anti-christ may be called the head of all the wicked?
    Q9: OF CHRIST'S KNOWLEDGE IN GENERAL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ had any knowledge besides the Divine?
    Whether Christ had the knowledge which the blessed or comprehensors have?
    Whether Christ had an imprinted or infused knowledge?
    Whether Christ had any acquired knowledge?
    Q10: OF THE BEATIFIC KNOWLEDGE OF CHRIST'S SOUL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the soul of Christ comprehended the Word or the Divine Essence?
    Whether the Son of God knew all things in the Word?
    Whether the soul of Christ can know the infinite in the Word?
    Whether the soul of Christ sees the Word or the Divine Essence more clearly than does any other creature?
    Q11: OF THE KNOWLEDGE IMPRINTED OR INFUSED IN THE SOUL OF CHRIST (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether by this imprinted or infused knowledge Christ knew all things?
    Whether Christ could use this knowledge by turning to phantasms?
    Whether this knowledge is collative?
    Whether in Christ this knowledge was greater than the knowledge of the angels?
    Whether this knowledge was habitual?
    Whether this knowledge was distinguished by divers habits?
    Q12: OF THE ACQUIRED OR EMPIRIC KNOWLEDGE OF CHRIST'S SOUL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ knew all things by this acquired or empiric knowledge?
    Whether Christ advanced in acquired or empiric knowledge?
    Whether Christ learned anything from man?
    Whether Christ received knowledge from the angels?
    Q13: OF THE POWER OF CHRIST'S SOUL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence?
    Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence with regard to the transmutation of creatures?
    Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence with regard to His own body?
    Whether the soul of Christ had omnipotence as regards the execution of His will?
    Q14: OF THE DEFECTS OF BODY ASSUMED BY THE SON OF GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the Son of God in human nature ought to have assumed defects of body?
    Whether Christ was of necessity subject to these defects?
    Whether Christ contracted these defects?
    Whether Christ ought to have assumed all the bodily defects of men?
    Q15: OF THE DEFECTS OF SOUL ASSUMED BY CHRIST (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether there was sin in Christ?
    Whether there was the "fomes" of sin in Christ?
    Whether in Christ there was ignorance?
    Whether Christ's soul was passible?
    Whether there was sensible pain in Christ?
    Whether there was sorrow in Christ?
    Whether there was fear in Christ?
    Whether there was wonder in Christ?
    Whether there was anger in Christ?
    Whether Christ was at once a wayfarer and a comprehensor?
    Q16: OF THOSE THINGS WHICH ARE APPLICABLE TO CHRIST IN HIS BEING AND BECOMING (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether this is true: "God is man"?
    Whether this is true: "Man is God"?
    Whether Christ can be called a lordly man?
    Whether what belongs to the human nature can be predicated of God?
    Whether what belongs to the human nature can be predicated of the Divine Nature?
    Whether this is true: "God was made man"?
    Whether this is true: "Man was made God"?
    Whether this is true: "Christ is a creature"?
    Whether this Man, i.e. Christ, began to be?
    Whether this is true: "Christ as Man is a creature"?
    Whether this is true: "Christ as Man is God"?
    Whether this is true: "Christ as Man is a hypostasis or person"?
    Q17: OF CHRIST'S UNITY OF BEING (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ is one or two?
    Whether there is only one being in Christ?
    Q18: OF CHRIST'S UNITY OF WILL (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether there are two wills in Christ?
    Whether in Christ there was a will of sensuality besides the will of reason?
    Whether in Christ there were two wills as regards the reason?
    Whether there was free-will in Christ?
    Whether the human will of Christ was altogether conformed to the Divine will in the thing willed?
    Whether there was contrariety of wills in Christ?
    Q19: OF THE UNITY OF CHRIST'S OPERATION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether in Christ there is only one operation of the Godhead and Manhood?
    Whether in Christ there are several human operations?
    Whether the human action of Christ could be meritorious to Him?
    Whether Christ could merit for others?
    Q20: OF CHRIST'S SUBJECTION TO THE FATHER (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether we may say that Christ is subject to the Father?
    Whether Christ is subject to Himself?
    Q21: OF CHRIST'S PRAYER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it is becoming of Christ to pray?
    Whether it pertains to Christ to pray according to His sensuality?
    Whether it was fitting that Christ should pray for Himself?
    Whether Christ's prayer was always heard?
    Q22: OF THE PRIESTHOOD OF CHRIST (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether it is fitting that Christ should be a priest?
    Whether Christ was Himself both priest and victim?
    Whether the effect of Christ's priesthood is the expiation of sins?
    Whether the effect of the priesthood of Christ pertained not only to others, but also to Himself?
    Whether the priesthood of Christ endures for ever?
    Whether the priesthood of Christ was according to the order of Melchisedech?
    Q23: OF ADOPTION AS BEFITTING TO CHRIST (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it is fitting that God should adopt sons?
    Whether it is fitting that the whole Trinity should adopt?
    Whether it is proper to the rational nature to be adopted?
    Whether Christ as man is the adopted Son of God?
    Q24: OF THE PREDESTINATION OF CHRIST (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it is befitting that Christ should be predestinated?
    Whether this proposition is false: "Christ as man was predestinated to be the Son of God"?
    Whether Christ's predestination is the exemplar of ours?
    Whether Christ's predestination is the cause of ours?
    Q25: OF THE ADORATION OF CHRIST (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ's humanity and Godhead are to be adored with the same adoration?
    Whether Christ's humanity should be adored with the adoration of "latria"?
    Whether the image of Christ should be adored with the adoration of "latria"?
    Whether Christ's cross should be worshipped with the adoration of "latria"?
    Whether the Mother of God should be worshipped with the adoration of "latria"?
    Whether any kind of worship is due to the relics of the saints?
    Q26: OF CHRIST AS CALLED THE MEDIATOR OF GOD AND MAN (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether it is proper to Christ to be the Mediator of God and man?
    Whether Christ, is the Mediator of God and men?
    ST. THOMAS AND THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION (EDITORIAL NOTE)
    Q27: OF THE SANCTIFICATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the Blessed Virgin was sanctified before her birth from the womb?
    Whether the Blessed Virgin was sanctified before animation?
    Whether the Blessed Virgin was cleansed from the infection of the fomes?
    Whether by being sanctified in the womb the Blessed Virgin was preserved from all actual sin?
    Whether, by her sanctification in the womb, the Blessed Virgin received the fulness of grace?
    Whether after Christ, it was proper to the Blessed Virgin to be sanctified in the womb?
    Q28: OF THE VIRGINITY OF THE MOTHER OF GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the Mother of God was a virgin in conceiving Christ?
    Whether Christ's Mother was a virgin in His birth?
    Whether Christ's Mother remained a virgin after His birth?
    Whether the Mother of God took a vow of virginity?
    Q29: OF THE ESPOUSALS OF THE MOTHER OF GOD (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ should have been born of an espoused virgin?
    Whether there was a true marriage between Mary and Joseph?
    Q30: OF THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it was necessary to announce to the Blessed Virgin that which was to be done in her?
    Whether the annunciation should have been made by an angel to the Blessed Virgin?
    Whether the angel of annunciation should have appeared to the Virgin in a bodily vision?
    Whether the Annunciation took place in becoming order?
    Q31: OF THE MATTER FROM WHICH THE SAVIOUR'S BODY WAS CONCEIVED (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the flesh of Christ was derived from Adam?
    Whether Christ took flesh of the seed of David?
    Whether Christ's genealogy is suitably traced by the evangelists?
    Whether the matter of Christ's body should have been taken from a woman?
    Whether the flesh of Christ was conceived of the Virgin's purest blood?
    Whether Christ's body was in Adam and the other patriarchs, as to something signate?
    Whether Christ's flesh in the patriarchs was infected by sin?
    Whether Christ paid tithes in Abraham's loins?
    Q32: OF THE ACTIVE PRINCIPLE IN CHRIST'S CONCEPTION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether the accomplishment of Christ's conception should be attributed to the Holy Ghost?
    Whether it should be said that Christ was conceived of [de] the Holy Ghost?
    Whether the Holy Ghost should be called Christ's father in respect of His humanity?
    Whether the Blessed Virgin cooperated actively in the conception of Christ's body?
    Q33: OF THE MODE AND ORDER OF CHRIST'S CONCEPTION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ's body was formed in the first instant of its conception?
    Whether Christ's body was animated in the first instant of its conception?
    Whether Christ's flesh was first of all conceived and afterwards assumed?
    Whether Christ's conception was natural?
    Q34: OF THE PERFECTION OF THE CHILD CONCEIVED (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ was sanctified in the first instant of His conception?
    Whether Christ as man had the use of free-will in the first instant of His conception?
    Whether Christ could merit in the first instant of His conception?
    Whether Christ was a perfect comprehensor in the first instant of His conception?
    Q35: OF CHRIST'S NATIVITY (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether nativity regards the nature rather than the person?
    Whether a temporal nativity should be attributed to Christ?
    Whether the Blessed Virgin can be called Christ's Mother in respect of His temporal nativity?
    Whether the Blessed Virgin should be called the Mother of God?
    Whether there are two filiations in Christ?
    Whether Christ was born without His Mother suffering?
    Whether Christ should have been born in Bethlehem?
    Whether Christ was born at a fitting time?
    Q36: OF THE MANIFESTATION OF THE NEWLY BORN CHRIST (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ's birth should have been made known to all?
    Whether Christ's birth should have been made known to some?
    Whether those to whom Christ's birth was made known were suitably chosen?
    Whether Christ Himself should have made His birth know?
    Whether Christ's birth should have been manifested by means of the angels and the star?
    Whether Christ's birth was made known in a becoming order?
    Whether the star which appeared to the Magi belonged to the heavenly system?
    Whether it was becoming that the Magi should come to adore Christ and pay homage to Him?
    Q37: OF CHRIST'S CIRCUMCISION, AND OF THE OTHER LEGAL OBSERVANCES ACCOMPLISHED IN REGARD TO THE CHILD CHRIST (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ should have been circumcised?
    Whether His name was suitably given to Christ?
    Whether Christ was becomingly presented in the temple?
    Whether it was fitting that the Mother of God should go to the temple to be purified?
    Q38: OF THE BAPTISM OF JOHN (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting that John should baptize?
    Whether the baptism of John was from God?
    Whether grace was given in the baptism of John?
    Whether Christ alone should have been baptized with the baptism of John?
    Whether John's baptism should have ceased after Christ was baptized?
    Whether those who had been baptized with John's baptism had to be baptized with the baptism of Christ?
    Q39: OF THE BAPTIZING OF CHRIST (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting that Christ should be baptized?
    Whether it was fitting for Christ to be baptized with John's baptism?
    Whether Christ was baptized at a fitting time?
    Whether Christ should have been baptized in the Jordan?
    Whether the heavens should have been opened unto Christ at His baptism?
    Whether it is fitting to say that when Christ was baptized the Holy Ghost came down on Him in the form of a dove?
    Whether the dove in which the Holy Ghost appeared was real?
    Whether it was becoming, when Christ was baptized that the Father's voice should be heard, bearing witness to the Son?
    Q40: OF CHRIST'S MANNER OF LIFE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ should have associated with men, or led a solitary life?
    Whether it was becoming that Christ should lead an austere life in this world?
    Whether Christ should have led a life of poverty in this world?
    Whether Christ conformed His conduct to the Law?
    Q41: OF CHRIST'S TEMPTATION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it was becoming that Christ should be tempted?
    Whether Christ should have been tempted in the desert?
    Whether Christ's temptation should have taken place after His fast?
    Whether the mode and order of the temptation were becoming?
    Q42: OF CHRIST'S DOCTRINE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ should have preached not only to the Jews, but also to the Gentiles?
    Whether Christ should have preached to the Jews without offending them?
    Whether Christ should have taught all things openly?
    Whether Christ should have committed His doctrine to writing?
    Q43: OF THE MIRACLES WORKED BY CHRIST, IN GENERAL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ should have worked miracles?
    Whether Christ worked miracles by Divine power?
    Whether Christ began to work miracles when He changed water into wine at the marriage feast?
    Whether the miracles which Christ worked were a sufficient proof of His Godhead?
    Q44: OF (CHRIST'S) MIRACLES CONSIDERED SPECIFICALLY (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether those miracles were fitting which Christ worked in spiritual substances?
    Whether it was fitting that Christ should work miracles in the heavenly bodies?
    Whether Christ worked miracles fittingly on men?
    Whether Christ worked miracles fittingly on irrational creatures?
    Q45: OF CHRIST'S TRANSFIGURATION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting that Christ should be transfigured?
    Whether this clarity was the clarity of glory?
    Whether the witnesses of the transfiguration were fittingly chosen?
    Whether the testimony of the Father's voice, saying, "This is My beloved Son," was fittingly added?
    Q46: THE PASSION OF CHRIST (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether it was necessary for Christ to suffer for the deliverance of the human race?
    Whether there was any other possible way of human deliverance besides the Passion of Christ?
    Whether there was any more suitable way of delivering the human race than by Christ's Passion?
    Whether Christ ought to have suffered on the cross?
    Whether Christ endured all suffering?
    Whether the pain of Christ's Passion was greater than all other pains?
    Whether Christ suffered in His whole soul?
    Whether Christ's entire soul enjoyed blessed fruition during the Passion?
    Whether Christ suffered at a suitable time?
    Whether Christ suffered in a suitable place?
    Whether it was fitting for Christ to be crucified with thieves?
    Whether Christ's Passion is to be attributed to His Godhead?
    Q47: OF THE EFFICIENT CAUSE OF CHRIST'S PASSION (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ was slain by another or by Himself?
    Whether Christ died out of obedience?
    Whether God the Father delivered up Christ to the Passion?
    Whether it was fitting for Christ to suffer at the hands of the Gentiles?
    Whether Christ's persecutors knew who He was?
    Whether the sin of those who crucified Christ was most grievous?
    Q48: OF THE EFFICIENCY OF CHRIST'S PASSION (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ's Passion brought about our salvation by way of merit?
    Whether Christ's Passion brought about our salvation by way of atonement?
    Whether Christ's Passion operated by way of sacrifice?
    Whether Christ's Passion brought about our salvation by way of redemption?
    Whether it is proper to Christ to be the Redeemer?
    Whether Christ's Passion brought about our salvation efficiently?
    Q49: OF THE EFFECTS OF CHRIST'S PASSION (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether we were delivered from sin through Christ's Passion?
    Whether we were delivered from the devil's power through Christ's Passion?
    Whether men were freed from the punishment of sin through Christ's Passion?
    Whether we were reconciled to God through Christ's Passion?
    Whether Christ opened the gate of heaven to us by His Passion?
    Whether by His Passion Christ merited to be exalted?
    Q50: OF THE DEATH OF CHRIST (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting that Christ should die?
    Whether the Godhead was separated from the flesh when Christ died?
    Whether in Christ's death there was a severance between His Godhead and His soul?
    Whether Christ was a man during the three days of His death?
    Whether Christ's was identically the same body living and dead?
    Whether Christ's death conduced in any way to our salvation?
    Q51: OF CHRIST'S BURIAL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting for Christ to be buried?
    Whether Christ was buried in a becoming manner?
    Whether Christ's body was reduced to dust in the tomb?
    Whether Christ was in the tomb only one day and two nights?
    Q52: OF CHRIST'S DESCENT INTO HELL (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting for Christ to descend into hell?
    Whether Christ went down into the hell of the lost?
    Whether the whole Christ was in hell?
    Whether Christ made any stay in hell?
    Whether Christ descending into hell delivered the holy Fathers from thence?
    Whether Christ delivered any of the lost from hell?
    Whether the children who died in original sin were delivered by Christ?
    Whether Christ by His descent into hell delivered souls from purgatory?
    Q53: OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it was necessary for Christ to rise again?
    Whether it was fitting for Christ to rise again on the third day?
    Whether Christ was the first to rise from the dead?
    Whether Christ was the cause of His own Resurrection?
    Q54: OF THE QUALITY OF CHRIST RISING AGAIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ had a true body after His Resurrection?
    Whether Christ's body rose glorified?
    Whether Christ's body rose again entire?
    Whether Christ's body ought to have risen with its scars?
    Q55: OF THE MANIFESTATION OF THE RESURRECTION (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ's Resurrection ought to have been manifested to all?
    Whether it was fitting that the disciples should see Him rise again?
    Whether Christ ought to have lived constantly with His disciples after the Resurrection?
    Whether Christ should have appeared to the disciples "in another shape"?
    Whether Christ should have demonstrated the truth of His Resurrection by proofs?
    Whether the proofs which Christ made use of manifested sufficiently the truth of His Resurrection?
    Q56: OF THE CAUSALITY OF CHRIST'S RESURRECTION (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ's Resurrection is the cause of the resurrection of our bodies?
    Whether Christ's Resurrection is the cause of the resurrection of souls?
    Q57: OF THE ASCENSION OF CHRIST (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether it was fitting for Christ to ascend into heaven?
    Whether Christ's Ascension into heaven belonged to Him according to His Divine Nature?
    Whether Christ ascended by His own power?
    Whether Christ ascended above all the heavens?
    Whether Christ's body ascended above every spiritual creature?
    Whether Christ's Ascension is the cause of our salvation?
    Q58: OF CHRIST'S SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF THE FATHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether it is fitting that Christ should sit at the right hand of God the Father?
    Whether it belongs to Christ as God to sit at the right hand of the Father?
    Whether it belongs to Christ as man to sit at the right hand of the Father?
    Whether it is proper to Christ to sit at the right hand of the Father?
    Q59: OF CHRIST'S JUDICIARY POWER (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether judiciary power is to be specially attributed to Christ?
    Whether judiciary power belongs to Christ as man?
    Whether Christ acquired His judiciary power by His merits?
    Whether judiciary power belongs to Christ with respect to all human affairs?
    Whether after the Judgment that takes place in the present time, there remains yet another General Judgment?
    Whether Christ's judiciary power extends to the angels?

    THE SACRAMENTS IN GENERAL (Questions [60]-65)

    Q60: WHAT IS A SACRAMENT? (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether a sacrament is a kind of sign?
    Whether every sign of a holy thing is a sacrament?
    Whether a sacrament is a sign of one thing only?
    Whether a sacrament is always something sensible?
    Whether determinate things are required for a sacrament?
    Whether words are required for the signification of the sacraments?
    Whether determinate words are required in the sacraments?
    Whether it is lawful to add anything to the words in which the sacramental form consists?
    Q61: OF THE NECESSITY OF THE SACRAMENTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether sacraments are necessary for man's salvation?
    Whether before sin sacraments were necessary to man?
    Whether there should have been sacraments after sin, before Christ?
    Whether there was need for any sacraments after Christ came?
    Q62: OF THE SACRAMENTS' PRINCIPAL EFFECT, WHICH IS GRACE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the sacraments are the cause of grace?
    Whether sacramental grace confers anything in addition to the grace of the virtues and gifts?
    Whether the sacraments of the New Law contain grace?
    Whether there be in the sacraments a power of causing grace?
    Whether the sacraments of the New Law derive their power from Christ's Passion?
    Whether the sacraments of the Old Law caused grace?
    Q63: OF THE OTHER EFFECT OF THE SACRAMENTS, WHICH IS A CHARACTER (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether a sacrament imprints a character on the soul?
    Whether a character is a spiritual power?
    Whether the sacramental character is the character of Christ?
    Whether the character be subjected in the powers of the soul?
    Whether a character can be blotted out from the soul?
    Whether a character is imprinted by each sacrament of the New Law?
    Q64: OF THE CAUSES OF THE SACRAMENTS (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether God alone, or the minister also, works inwardly unto the sacramental effect?
    Whether the sacraments are instituted by God alone?
    Whether Christ as man had the power of producing the inward sacramental effect?
    Whether Christ could communicate to ministers the power which He had in the sacraments?
    Whether the sacraments can be conferred by evil ministers?
    Whether wicked men sin in administering the sacraments?
    Whether angels can administer sacraments?
    Whether the minister's intention is required for the validity of a sacrament?
    Whether faith is required of necessity in the minister of a sacrament?
    Whether the validity of a sacrament requires a good intention in the minister?
    Q65: OF THE NUMBER OF THE SACRAMENTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether there should be seven sacraments?
    Whether the order of the sacraments, as given above, is becoming?
    Whether the Eucharist is the greatest of the sacraments?
    Whether all the sacraments are necessary for salvation?

    BAPTISM (Questions [66]-71)

    Q66: OF THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether Baptism is the mere washing?
    Whether Baptism was instituted after Christ's Passion?
    Whether water is the proper matter of Baptism?
    Whether plain water is necessary for Baptism?
    Whether this be a suitable form of Baptism: "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost"?
    Whether Baptism can be conferred in the name of Christ?
    Whether immersion in water is necessary for Baptism?
    Whether trine immersion is essential to Baptism?
    Whether Baptism may be reiterated?
    Whether the Church observes a suitable rite in baptizing?
    Whether three kinds of Baptism are fittingly described---viz. Baptism of Water, of Blood, and of the Spirit?
    Whether the Baptism of Blood is the most excellent of these?
    Q67: OF THE MINISTERS BY WHOM THE SACRAMENT OF BAPTISM IS CONFERRED (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether it is part of a deacon's duty to baptize?
    Whether to bap tize is part of the priestly office, or proper to that of bishops?
    Whether a layman can baptize?
    Whether a woman can baptize?
    Whether one that is not baptized can confer the sacrament of Baptism?
    Whether several can baptize at the same time?
    Whether in Baptism it is necessary for someone to raise the baptized from the sacred font?
    Whether he who raises anyone from the sacred font is bound to instruct him?
    Q68: OF THOSE WHO RECEIVE BAPTISM (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether all are bound to receive Baptism?
    Whether a man can be saved without Baptism?
    Whether Baptism should be deferred?
    Whether sinners should be baptized?
    Whether works of satisfaction should be enjoined on sinners that have been baptized?
    Whether sinners who are going to be baptized are bound to confess their sins?
    Whether the intention of receiving the sacrament of Baptism is required on the part of the one baptized?
    Whether faith is required on the part of the one baptized?
    Whether children should be baptized?
    Whether children of Jews or other unbelievers be baptized against the will of their parents?
    Whether a child can be baptized while yet in its mother's womb?
    Whether madmen and imbeciles should be baptized?
    Q69: OF THE EFFECTS OF BAPTISM (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether all sins are taken away by Baptism?
    Whether man is freed by Baptism from all debt of punishment due to sin?
    Whether Baptism should take away the penalties of sin that belong to this life?
    Whether grace and virtues are bestowed on man by Baptism?
    Whether certain acts of the virtues are fittingly set down as effects of Baptism, to wit---incorporation in Christ, enlightenment, and fruitfulness?
    Whether children receive grace and virtue in Baptism?
    Whether the effect of Baptism is to open the gates of the heavenly kingdom?
    Whether Baptism has an equal effect in all?
    Whether insincerity hinders the effect of Baptism?
    Whether Baptism produces its effect when the insincerity ceases?
    Q70: OF CIRCUMCISION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether circumcision was a preparation for, and a figure of Baptism?
    Whether circumcision was instituted in a fitting manner?
    Whether the rite of circumcision was fitting?
    Whether circumcision bestowed sanctifying grace?
    Q71: OF THE PREPARATIONS THAT ACCOMPANY BAPTISM (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether catechism should precede Baptism?
    Whether exorcism should precede Baptism?
    Whether what is done in the exorcism effects anything, or is a mere sign?
    Whether it belongs to a priest to catechize and exorcize the person to be baptized?

    CONFIRMATION (Question [72])

    Q72: OF THE SACRAMENT OF CONFIRMATION (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether confirmation is a sacrament?
    Whether chrism is a fitting matter for this sacrament?
    Whether it is essential to this sacrament that the chrism which is its matter be previously consecrated by a bishop?
    Whether the proper form of this sacrament is: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross," etc.?
    Whether the sacrament of Confirmation imprints a character?
    Whether the character of Confirmation presupposes of necessity, the baptismal character?
    Whether sanctifying grace is bestowed in this sacrament?
    Whether this sacrament should be given to all?
    Whether this sacrament should be given to man on the forehead?
    Whether he who is confirmed needs one to stand* for him? [*Literally, "to hold him"]
    Whether only a bishop can confer this sacrament?
    Whether the rite of this sacrament is appropriate?

    EUCHARIST (Questions [73]-83)

    Q73: OF THE SACRAMENT OF THE EUCHARIST (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the Eucharist is a sacrament?
    Whether the Eucharist is one sacrament or several?
    Whether the Eucharist is necessary for salvation?
    Whether this sacrament is suitably called by various names?
    Whether the institution of this sacrament was appropriate?
    Whether the Paschal Lamb was the chief figure of this sacrament?
    Q74: OF THE MATTER OF THIS SACRAMENT (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the matter of this sacrament is bread and wine?
    Whether a determinate quantity of bread and wine is required for the matter of this sacrament?
    Whether wheaten bread is required for the matter of this sacrament?
    Whether this sacrament ought to be made of unleavened bread?
    Whether wine of the grape is the proper matter of this sacrament?
    Whether water should be mixed with the wine?
    Whether the mixing with water is essential to this sacrament?
    Whether water should be added in great quantity?
    Q75: OF THE CHANGE OF BREAD AND WINE INTO THE BODY AND BLOOD OF CHRIST (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the body of Christ be in this sacrament in very truth, or merely as in a figure or sign?
    Whether in this sacrament the substance of the bread and wine remains after the consecration?
    Whether the substance of the bread or wine is annihilated after the consecration of this sacrament, or dissolved into their original matter?
    Whether bread can be converted into the body of Christ?
    Whether the accidents of the bread and wine remain in this sacrament after the change?
    Whether the substantial form of the bread remains in this sacrament after the consecration?
    Whether this change is wrought instantaneously?
    Whether this proposition is false: "The body of Christ is made out of bread"?
    Q76: OF THE WAY IN WHICH CHRIST IS IN THIS SACRAMENT (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the whole Christ is contained under this sacrament?
    Whether the whole Christ is contained under each species of this sacrament?
    Whether Christ is entire under every part of the species of the bread and wine?
    Whether the whole dimensive quantity of Christ's body is in this sacrament?
    Whether Christ's body is in this sacrament as in a place?
    Whether Christ's body is in this sacrament movably?
    Whether the body of Christ, as it is in this sacrament, can be seen by any eye, at least by a glorified one?
    Whether Christ's body is truly there when flesh or a child appears miraculously in this sacrament?
    Q77: OF THE ACCIDENTS WHICH REMAIN IN THIS SACRAMENT (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether the accidents remain in this sacrament without a subject?
    Whether in this sacrament the dimensive quantity of the bread or wine is the subject of the other accidents?
    Whether the species remaining in this sacrament can change external objects?
    Whether the sacramental species can be corrupted?
    Whether anything can be generated from the sacramental species?
    Whether the sacramental species can nourish?
    Whether the sacramental species are broken in this sacrament?
    Whether any liquid can be mingled with the consecrated wine?
    Q78: OF THE FORM OF THIS SACRAMENT (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether this is the form of this sacrament: "This is My body," and "This is the chalice of My blood"?
    Whether this is the proper form for the consecration of the bread: "This is My body"?
    Whether this is the proper form for the consecration of the wine: "This is the chalice of My blood," etc.?
    Whether in the aforesaid words of the forms there be any created power which causes the consecration?
    Whether the aforesaid expressions are true?
    Whether the form of the consecration of the bread accomplishes its effect before the form of the consecration of the wine be completed?
    Q79: OF THE EFFECTS OF THIS SACRAMENT (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether grace is bestowed through this sacrament?
    Whether the attaining of glory is an effect of this sacrament?
    Whether the forgiveness of mortal sin is an effect of this sacrament?
    Whether venial sins are forgiven through this sacrament?
    Whether the entire punishment due to sin is forgiven through this sacrament?
    Whether man is preserved by this sacrament from future sins?
    Whether this sacrament benefit others besides the recipients?
    Whether the effect of this sacrament is hindered by venial sin?
    Q80: OF THE USE OR RECEIVING OF THIS SACRAMENT IN GENERAL (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Whether there are two ways to be distinguished of eating Christ's body?
    Whether it belongs to man alone to eat this sacrament spiritually?
    Whether the just man alone may eat Christ sacramentally?
    Whether the sinner sins in receiving Christ's body sacramentally?
    Whether to approach this sacrament with consciousness of sin is the gravest of all sins?
    Whether the priest ought to deny the body of Christ to the sinner seeking it?
    Whether the seminal loss that occurs during sleep hinders anyone from receiving this sacrament?
    Whether food or drink taken beforehand hinders the receiving of this sacrament?
    Whether those who have not the use of reason ought to receive this sacrament?
    Whether it is lawful to receive this sacrament daily?
    Whether it is lawful to abstain altogether from communion?
    Whether it is lawful to receive the body of Christ without the blood?
    Q81: OF THE USE WHICH CHRIST MADE OF THIS SACRAMENT AT ITS INSTITUTION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ received His own body and blood?
    Whether Christ gave His body to Judas?
    Whether Christ received and gave to the disciples His impassible body?
    Whether, if this sacrament had been reserved in a pyx, or consecrated at the moment of Christ's death by one of the apostles, Christ Himself would have died there?
    Q82: OF THE MINISTER OF THIS SACRAMENT (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether the consecration of this sacrament belongs to a priest alone?
    Whether several priests can consecrate one and the same host?
    Whether dispensing of this sacrament belongs to a priest alone?
    Whether the priest who consecrates is bound to receive this sacrament?
    Whether a wicked priest can consecrate the Eucharist?
    Whether the mass of a sinful priest is of less worth than the mass of a good priest?
    Whether heretics, schismatics, and excommunicated persons can consecrate?
    Whether a degraded priest can consecrate this sacrament?
    Whether it is permissible to receive communion from heretical, excommunicate, or sinful priests, and to hear mass said by them?
    Whether it is lawful for a priest to refrain entirely from consecrating the Eucharist?
    Q83: OF THE RITE OF THIS SACRAMENT (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether Christ is sacrificed in this sacrament?
    Whether the time for celebrating this mystery has been properly determined?
    Whether this sacrament ought to be celebrated in a house and with sacred vessels?
    Whether the words spoken in this sacrament are properly framed?
    Whether the actions performed in celebrating this sacrament are becoming?
    Whether the defects occurring during the celebration of this sacrament can be sufficiently met by observing the Church's statutes?

    PENANCE (Questions [84]-90)

    Q84: OF THE SACRAMENT OF PENANCE (TEN ARTICLES)
    Whether Penance is a sacrament?
    Whether sins are the proper matter of this sacrament?
    Whether the form of this sacrament is: "I absolve thee"?
    Whether the imposition of the priest's hands is necessary for this sacrament?
    Whether this sacrament is necessary for salvation?
    Whether Penance is a second plank after shipwreck?
    Whether this sacrament was suitably instituted in the New Law?
    Whether Penance should last till the end of life?
    Whether Penance can be continuous?
    Whether the sacrament of Penance may be repeated?
    Q85: OF PENANCE AS A VIRTUE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether Penance is a virtue?
    Whether Penance is a special virtue?
    Whether the virtue of penance is a species of justice?
    Whether the will is properly the subject of penance?
    Whether penance originates from fear?
    Whether penance is the first of the virtues?
    Q86: OF THE EFFECT OF PENANCE, AS REGARDS THE PARDON OF MORTAL SIN (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether all sins are taken away by Penance?
    Whether sin can be pardoned without Penance?
    Whether by Penance one sin can be pardoned without another?
    Whether the debt of punishment remains after the guilt has been forgiven through Penance?
    Whether the remnants of sin are removed when a mortal sin is forgiven?
    Whether the forgiveness of guilt is an effect of Penance?
    Q87: OF THE REMISSION OF VENIAL SIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether venial sin can be forgiven without Penance?
    Whether infusion of grace is necessary for the remission of venial sins?
    Whether venial sins are removed by the sprinkling of holy water and the like?
    Whether venial sin can be taken away without mortal sin?
    Q88: OF THE RETURN OF SINS WHICH HAVE BEEN TAKEN AWAY BY PENANCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether sins once forgiven return through a subsequent sin?
    Whether sins that have been forgiven, return through ingratitude which is shown especially in four kinds of sin?
    Whether the debt of punishment that arises through ingratitude in respect of a subsequent sin is as great as that of the sins previously pardoned?
    Whether the ingratitude whereby a subsequent sin causes the return of previous sins, is a special sin?
    Q89: OF THE RECOVERY OF VIRTUE BY MEANS OF PENANCE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether the virtues are restored through Penance?
    Whether, after Penance, man rises again to equal virtue?
    Whether, by Penance, man is restored to his former dignity?
    Whether virtuous deeds done in charity can be deadened?
    Whether deeds deadened by sin, are revived by Penance?
    Whether the effect of subsequent Penance is to quicken even dead works?
    Q90: OF THE PARTS OF PENANCE, IN GENERAL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether Penance should be assigned any parts?
    Whether contrition, confession, and satisfaction are fittingly assigned as parts of Penance?
    Whether these three are integral parts of Penance?
    Whether Penance is fittingly divided into penance before Baptism, penance for mortal sins, and penance for venial sins?

    THIRD PART (TP) OF THE SUMMA THEOLOGICA (Questions [1]-90)

    PROLOGUE

    Version
    Latin