Golden Chain MT-MK 3102
3102 (Mt 1,2)
2. Abraham began Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren.
Aug., de Con. Evan., ii, 1: Matthew, by beginning with Christ's genealogy, shews that he has undertaken to relate Christ's birth according to the flesh. But Luke, as rather describing Him as a Priest for the atonement of sin, gives Christ's genealogy not in the beginning of his Gospel, but at His baptism, when John bare that testimony, "Lo, He that taketh away the sins of the world." (Jn 1,29)
In the genealogy of Matthew is figured to us the taking on Him of our sins by the Lord Christ: in the genealogy of Luke, the taking away of our sins by the same; hence Matthew gives them in a descending, Luke in an ascending, series. But Matthew, describing Christ's human generation in descending order, begins his enumeration with Abraham.
Ambrose, in Luc. cap. 3. lib. iii. n. 7,8: For Abraham was the first who deserved the witness of faith; "He believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness." It behoved therefore that he should be set forth as the first in the line of descent, who was the first to deserve the promise of the restoration of the Church, "In thee shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." And it is again brought to a period in David, for that Jesus should be called his Son; hence to him is preserved the privilege, that from him should come the beginning of the Lord's genealogy.
Chrys., Hom. iii, and Aug. City of God, 15, 15: Matthew then, desiring to preserve in memory the lineage of the Lord's humanity through the succession of His parents, begins with Abraham, saying, "Abraham begat Isaac." Why does he not mention Ismael, his first-born? And again, "Isaac began Jacob;" why does he not speak of Esau his first-born? Because through them he could not have come down to David.
Gloss.: Yet he names all the brethren of Judah with him in the lineage. Ismael and Esau had not remained in the worship of the true God; but the brethren of Judah were reckoned in God's people. (p. 18)
Chrys., Hom. iii: Or, he names all the twelve Patriarchs that he may lower that pride which is drawn from a line of noble ancestry. For many of these were born of maidservants, and yet were Patriarchs and heads of tribes.
Gloss: But Judah is the only one mentioned by name, and that because the Lord was descended from him only. But in each of the Patriarchs we must note not their history only, but the allegorical and moral meaning to be drawn from them; allegory, in seeing whom each of the Fathers foreshewed; moral instruction in that through each one of the Fathers some virtue may be edified in us either through the signification of his name, or through his example.
(ed. note: Origen considered that there were three senses of Scripture, the literal or historical, the moral, and the mystical or spiritual, corresponding to the three parts of man, body, and soul, and spirit. Hom. in Lev. ii, 5, de Princio iv, p. 168. By the moral sense is meant, as the name implies, a practical application of the text; by mystical one which interprets it of the invisible and the spiritual world.)
Abraham is in many respects a figure of Christ, and chiefly in his name, which is interpreted the Father of many nations, and Christ is Father of many believers. Abraham moreover went out from his own kindred, and abode in a strange land; in like manner Christ, leaving the Jewish nation, went by His preachers throughout the Gentiles.
Pseudo-Chys.: Isaac is interpreted, 'laughter,' but the laughter of the saints is not the foolish convulsion of the lips, but the rational joy of the heart, which was the mystery of Christ. For as he was granted to his parents in their extreme age to their great joy, that it might be known that he was not the child of nature, but of grace, thus Christ also in this last time came of a Jewish mother to be the joy of the whole earth; the one of a virgin, the other of a woman past the age, both contrary to the expectation of nature.
Remig.: Jacob is interpreted, 'supplanter,' and it is said of Christ, "Thou hast cast down beneath Me them that rose up against Me." (Ps 18,43)
Pseudo-Chrys.: Our Jacob in like manner begot the twelve Apostles in the Spirit, not in the flesh; in word, not in blood. Judah is interpreted, 'confessor,' for he was a type of Christ who was to be the confessor of His Father, as He spake, "I confess to Thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth."
Gloss: Morally; Abraham signifies to us the virtue of faith in Christ, as an example himself, as it (p. 19) is said of him, "Abraham believed God, and it was accounted unto Him for righteousness." Isaac may represent hope; for Isaac is interpreted, 'laughter,' as he was the joy of his parents; and hope is our joy, making us to hope for eternal blessings and to joy in them. "Abraham begat Isaac," and faith begets hope. Jacob signifies, 'love,' for love embraces two lives; active in the love of our neighbour, contemplative in the love of God; the active is signified by Leah, the contemplative by Rachel. For Leah is interpreted 'labouring,' (ed. note, h: Leah full of labour, Jerom. de nomin. Hebr. from , to weary one's self.) for she is active in labour; Rachel 'having seen the beginning,' (ed. note, i: Rachel, in ewe, (as Gn 31,38, &c.)
Jerom. ibid. who also gives the interpretation in the text, from and ( beginning.] because by the contemplative, the beginning, that is God, is seen. Jacob is born of two parents, as love is born of faith and hope; for what we believe, we both hope for and love.
3103 (Mt 1,3-6)
Gloss: Passing over the other sons of Jacob, the Evangelist follows the family of Judah, saying, "But Judah begat Phares and Zara of Thamar."
Augustine, City of God, 15, 15: Neither was Judah himself first-born, nor of these two sons was either his first-born; he had already had three before them. So that he keeps in that line of descent, by which he shall arrive at David, and from him whither he purposed.
Jerome: It should be noted, that none of the holy women are taken into the Saviour's genealogy, but rather such as Scripture has condemned, that He who came for sinners being born of sinners might so put away the sins of all; thus Ruth the Moabitess follows among the rest.
Ambrose, in Luc. 3: But Luke has avoided the mention of these, that he might set forth the series of the priestly race immaculate. But the plan of St. Matthew did not exclude the (p. 20) righteousness of natural reason; for when he wrote in his Gospel, that He who should take on Him the sins of all, was born in the flesh, was subject to wrongs and pain, he did not think it any detraction from His holiness that He did not refuse the further humiliation of a sinful parentage.
Nor, again, would it shame the Church to be gathered from among sinners, when the Lord Himself was born of sinners; and, lastly, that the benefits of redemption might have their beginning with His own forefathers: and that none might imagine that a stain in their blood was any hindrance to virtue, nor again any pride themselves insolently on nobility of birth.
Chrys.: Besides this, it shews that all are equally liable to sin; for here is Thamar accusing Judah of incest, and David begat Solomon with a woman with whom he had committed adultery. But if the Law was not fulfilled by these great ones, neither could it be by their less great posterity, and so all have sinned, and the presence of Christ is become necessary.
Ambrose: Observe that Matthew does not name both without a meaning; for though the object of his writing only required the mention of Phares, yet in the twins a mystery is signified; namely, the double life of the nations, one by the Law, the other by Faith.
Pseudo-Chys.: By Zarah is denoted the people of the Jews, which first appeared in the light of faith, coming out of the dark womb of the world, and was therefore marked with the scarlet thread of the circumciser, for all supposed that they were to be God's people; but the Law was set before their face as it had been a wall or hedge. Thus the Jews were hindered by the Law, but in the times of Christ's coming the hedge of the Law was broken down that was between Jews and Gentiles, as the Apostle speaks, "Breaking down the middle wall of partition;" (Ep 2,14) and thus it fell out that the Gentiles, who were signified by Phares, as soon as the Law was broken through by Christ's commandments, first entered into the faith, and after followed the Jews.
Gloss: Judah begat Phares and Zarah before he went into Egypt, whither they both accompanied their father. In Egypt, "Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram; Aram begat Aminadab; Aminadab begat Naasson;" and then Moses led them out of Egypt. Naasson was head of the tribe of Judah under Moses in the desert, where he begat Salmon; and this Salmon it was who, as prince of the tribe (p. 21) of Judah, entered the land of promise with Joshua.
Pseudo-Chrys.: But as we believe that the names of these Fathers were given for some special reason under the providence of God, it follows, but "Naasson begat Salmon." This Salmon after his father's death entered the promised land with Joshua as prince of the tribe of Judah. He took a wife of the name of Rahab. This Rahab is said to have been that Rahab the harlot of Jericho who entertained the spies of the children of Israel, and hid them safely. For Salmon being noble among the children of Israel, inasmuch as he was of the tribe of Judah, and son of the prince thereof, beheld Rahab so ennobled through her great faith, that she was worthy whom he should take to wife. Salmon is interpreted 'receive a vessel,' (ed. note: . Probably as if from Ch. a vessel; perhaps ) perhaps as if invited in God's providence by his very name to receive Rahab a vessel of election.
Gloss: This Salmon in the promised land begat Booz of this Rahab. Booz begat Obeth of Ruth.
Pseudo-Chrys.: How Booz took to wife a Moabitess whose name was Ruth, I thought it needless to tell, seeing the Scripture concerning them is open to all. We need but say thus much, that Ruth married Booz for the reward of her faith, for that she had cast off the gods of her forefathers, and had chosen the living God. And Booz received her to wife for reward of his faith, that from such sanctified wedlock might be descended a kingly race.
Ambrose: But how did Ruth who was an alien marry a man that was a Jew? and wherefore in Christ's genealogy did His Evangelist so much as mention a union, which in the eye of the law was bastard? Thus the Saviour's birth of a parentage not admitted by the law appears to us monstrous, until we attend to that declaration of the Apostle, "The Law was not given for the righteous, but for the unrighteous." (1Tm 1,9)
For this woman who was an alien, a Moabitess, a nation with whom the Mosaic Law forbad all intermarriage, and shut them totally out of the Church, how did she enter into the Church, unless that she were holy and unstained in her life above the Law? Therefore she was exempt from this restriction of the Law, and deserved to be numbered in the Lord's lineage, chosen from the kindred of her mind, not of her body.
To us she is a great example, for (p. 22) that in her was prefigured the entrance into the Lord's Church of all of us who are gathered out of the Gentiles.
Jerome: Ruth the Moabitess fulfils the prophecy of Isaiah, "Send forth, O Lord, the Lamb that shall rule over the earth, out of the rock of the desert to the mount of the daughter of Sion." (Is 16,1)
Gloss: Jesse, the father of David, has two names, being more frequently called Isai. But the Prophet says, "There shall come a rod from the stem of Jesse;" (Is 11,1) therefore to shew that this prophecy was fulfilled in Mary and Christ, the Evangelist puts Jesse.
Remig.: It is asked, why this epithet King is thus given by the holy Evangelist to David alone? Because he was the first king in the tribe of Judah. Christ Himself is Phares 'the divider,' as it is written, "Thou shalt divide the sheep from the goats;" (Mt 25,33) He is Zaram (ed. note, l: ; in Za 6,12, it is ), 'the east,' "Lo the man, the east is His name;" (Za 6,12); He is Esrom (ed. note, m: , as if from , and so Jerome.), 'an arrow,' "He hath set me as a polished shaft." (Is 49,2)
Raban.: Or following another interpretation, according to the abundance of grace, and the width of love. He is Aram the chosen (ed. note, n: to be lofty, vid. infr. p.23), according to that, "Behold my Servant whom I have chosen." (Is 42,1) He is Aminadab, that is 'willing,' (ed. note, o: My people is willing, - Jerome; comp. Ps 110,3), in that He says, "I will freely sacrifice to Thee." (Is 54,6) Also He is Naasson (ed. note, p: , from to augur from serpents, and so Jerome), i.e. 'augury,' as He knows the past, the present, and the future; or, 'like a serpent,' according to that, "Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness." (Jn 3,14) He is Salmon (ed. note, q: And so Jerome), i.e. 'the feeleth,' as He said, "I feel that power is gone forth out of me." (Lc 8,46)
Gloss: Christ Himself espouses Rahab, i.e. the Gentile Church; for Rahab (ed. note, r: , to be wide or broad. ( might hunger)) is interpreted either 'hunger' or 'breadth' or 'might;' for the Church of the Gentiles hungers and thirsts after righteousness, and converts philosophers and kings by the might of her doctrine. Ruth is interpreted either 'seeing' or 'hastening' (ed. note, s: And so Jerome, from , and perhaps for the second.), and denotes the Church which in purity of heart sees God, and hastens to the prize of the heavenly call.
Remig. Christ is also Booz (ed. note, t: And so Jerome; perhaps = activity; here, as if "with might."), because He is strength, for, (p. 23) "When I am lifted up, I will draw all men unto Me." (Jn 12,32) He is Obeth, 'a servant' (ed. note, u: Obed, and so Jerome), for "the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister." (Mt 20,28) He is Jesse, or 'burnt' (ed. note, x: As if from ), for, "I am come to send fire on earth." (Lc 12,49) He is David (ed. note, y: And so Jerome), 'mighty in arm,' for, "the Lord is great and powerful;" (Ps 24,8) 'desirable,' for, "He shall come, the Desire of all nations;" (Hag 2:7) 'beautiful to behold,' according to that, "Beautiful in form before the sons of men." (Ps 45,3)
Gloss: Let us now see what virtues they be which these fathers edify in us; for faith, hope, and charity are the foundation of all virtues; those that follow are like additions over and above them. Judah is interpreted 'confession,' of which there are two kinds, confession of faith, and of sin. If then, after we be endowed with the three forementioned virtues, we sin, confession not of faith only but of sin is needful for us.
Phares is interpreted, 'division,' Zamar 'the east,' and Thamar, 'bitterness.' (ed note, z: bitterness, from Jr 31,15, Hos 12:15) Thus confession begets separation from vice, the rise of virtue, and the bitterness of repentance.
After Phares follows Esron, 'an arrow,' for when one is separated from vice and secular pursuits, he should become a dart wherewith to slay by preaching the vices of others.
Aram is interpreted 'elect' or 'lofty' (ed. note, a: Lofty from ), for as soon as one is detached from this world, and profiteth for another, he must needs be held to be elect of God, famous amongst men, high in virtue.
Naasson is 'augury,' but this augury is of heaven, not of earth. It is that of which Joseph boasted when he said, "Ye have taken away the cup of my Lord, wherewith He is wont to divine." (Gn 44,5) The cup is the divine Scripture wherein is the draught of wisdom; by this the wise man divines, since in it he sees things future, that is, heavenly things.
Next is Salomon (ed. note, b: peace, and so Jerome), 'that perceiveth,' for he who studies divine Scripture becomes perceiving, that is, he discerns by the taste of reason, good from bad, sweet from bitter.
Next is Booz, that is, 'brave,' for who is well taught in Scripture becomes brave to endure all adversity.
Pseudo-Chrys.: This brave one is the son of Rahab, that is, of the Church; for Rahab signifies 'breadth' or 'spread out,' for because the (p. 24) Church of the Gentiles was called from all quarters of the earth, it is called, 'breadth.'
Gloss: Then follows Obeth, i.e. 'servitude,' for which none is fit but he who is strong; and this servitude is begotten of Ruth, that is 'haste,' for it behoves a slave to be quick, not slow.
Pseudo-Chrys.: They who look to wealth and not temper, to beauty and not faith, and require in a wife such endowments as are required in harlots, will not beget sons obedient to their parents or to God, but rebellious to both; that their children may be punishment of their ungodly wedlock. Obeth begat Jesse, that is, 'refreshment,' for whoever is subject to God and his parents, begets such children as prove his 'refreshment.'
Gloss: Or Jesse may be interpreted, 'incense.' (ed. note: See p. 29, note i) For if we serve God in love and fear, there will be a devotion in the heart, which in the heat and desire of the heart offers the sweetest incense to God. But when one is become a fit servant, and a sacrifice of incense to God, it follows that he becomes David (ie. 'of a strong hand'), who fought mightily against his enemies, and made the Idumeans tributary.
In like manner ought he to subdue carnal men to God by teaching and example.
The Evangelist has now finished the first fourteen generations, and is come to the second, which consists of royal personages, and therefore beginning with David, who was the first king in the tribe of Judah, he calls him "David the king."
Aug., de Cons. Evan., ii, 4: Since in Matthew's genealogy is shewed forth the taking on Him by Christ of our sins, therefore he descends from David to Solomon, in whose mother David had sinned. Luke ascends to David through Nathan, for through Nathan the prophet of God punished David's sin; because Luke's genealogy is to shew the putting away of our sins.
Aug., Lib. Retract., ii, 16: That (p. 25) is it, must be said, through a prophet of the same name, for it was not Nathan the son of David who reproved him, but a prophet of the same name.
Remig.: Let us enquire why Matthew does not mention Bathsheba by name as he does the other women. Because the others, though deserving of much blame, were yet commendable for many virtues. But Bathsheba was not only consenting in the adultery, but in the murder of her husband, hence her name is not introduced in the Lord's genealogy.
Gloss: Besides, he does not name Bathsheba, that, by naming Urias, he may recall to memory that great wickedness which she was guilty of towards him.
Ambrose: But the holy David is the more excellent in this, that he confessed himself to be but man, and neglected not to wash out with the tears of repentance the sin of which he had been guilty, in so taking away Urias' wife. Herein shewing us that none ought to trust in his own strength, for we have a mighty adversary whom we cannot overcome without God's aid. And you will commonly observe very heavy sins befalling to the share of illustrious men, that they may not from their other excellent virtues be thought more than men, but that you may see that as men they yield to temptation.
Pseudo-Chrys.: Solomon is interpreted, 'peace-maker,' because having subdued all the nations round about, and made them tributary, he had a peaceful reign. Roboam in interpreted, 'by a multitude of people,' for multitude is the mother of sedition; for where many are joined in a crime, that is commonly unpunishable. But a limit in numbers is the mistress of good order.
3108 (Mt 1,8-11)
Jerome: In the fourth book of Kings we read, that Ochozias was the son of Joram. On his death, Josabeth, sister of (p. 26) Ochozias and daughter of Joram, took Joash, her brother's son, and preserved him from the slaughter of the royal seed by Athalias. To Joash succeeded his son Amasias; after him his son Azarias, who is called Ozias; after him his son Joatham. Thus you see according to historical truth there were three intervening kings, who are omitted by the Evangelist. Joram, moveover, begot not Ozias, but Ochozias, and the rest as we have related.
But because it was the purpose of the Evangelist to make each of the three periods consist of fourteen generations, and because Joram had connected himself with Jezebel's most impious race, therefore his posterity to the third generation is omitted in tracing the lineage of the holy birth.
Hilary: Thus the stain of the Gentile alliance being purged, the royal race is again taken up in the fourth following generation.
Pseudo-Chrys.: What the Holy Spirit testified through the Prophet, saying, that He would cut off every male from the house of Ahab, and Jezebel, that Jehu the son of Nausi fulfilled, and received the promise that his children to the fourth generation should sit on the throne of Israel. As great a blessing then as was given upon the house of Ahab, so great a curse was given on the house of Joram, because of the wicked daughter of Ahab and Jazebel, that his sons to the fourth generation should be cut out of the number of the Kings.
Thus his sin descended on his posterity as it had been written, "I will visit the sins of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation." (Ex 20,5) Thus see how dangerous it is to marry with the seed of the ungodly.
Aug., Hilsr. Amast. V. et N. Test. q. 85: Or, Ochozias, Joash, and Amasias, were excluded from the number, because their wickedness was continuous and without interval. For Solomon was suffered to hold the kingdom for his father's deserts, Roboam for his son's.
But these three doing evil successively were excluded. This then is an example how a race is cut off when wickedness is shewn therein in perpetual succession.
"And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias."
Gloss: This Ezekias was he to whom, when he had no children, it was said, "Set thy house in order, for thou shalt die." (Is 38,1) He wept, not from desire of longer life, for he knew that Solomon had thereby pleased God, that he had not (p. 27) asked length of days; but he wept, for he feared that God's promise should not be fulfilled, when himself, being in the line of David of whom Christ should come, was without children.
"And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias."
Pseudo-Chrys.: But the order in the Book of Kings is different (2 Ki 23), thus namely; Josias begot Eliakim, afterwards called Joakim; Joakim begot Jechonias. But Joakim is not reckoned among the Kings in the genealogy, because God's people had not set him on the throne, but Pharoah by his might. For if it were just that only for their intermixture with the race of Ahab, three kings should be shut out of the number in the genealogy, was it not just that Joakim should be likewise shut out, whom Pharaoh had set up as king by hostile force? And thus Jechonias, who is the son of Joakim, and the grandson of Josiah, is reckoned among the kings as the son of Josiah, in place of his father who is omitted.
Jerome: Otherwise, we may consider the first Jeconias to be the same as Joakim, and the second to be the son not the father, the one being spelt with k and m, the second by ch and n. This distinction has been confounded both by Greeks and Latins, by the fault of writers and the lapse of time.
Ambrose, in Luc., cap. 2: That there were two kings of the name of Joakim, is clear from the Book of Kings. "And Joakim slept with his fathers, and Joachim his son reigned in his stead." (2 Ki 24:6) This son is the same whom Jeremiah calls Jeconias. And rightly did St. Matthew purpose to differ from the Prophet, because he sought to shew therein the great abundance of the Lord's mercies. For the Lord did not seek among men nobility of race, but suitably chose to be born of captives and of sinners, as He came to preach remission of sin to the captives. The Evangelist therefore did not conceal either of these; but rather shewed them both, inasmuch as both were called Jeconias.
Remig.: But it may be asked, why the Evangelist says they were born in the carrying away, when they were born before the carrying away. He says this because they were born for this purpose, that they should be led captive, from the dominion of the whole nation, for their own and others' sins. And because God foreknew that they were (p. 28) to be carried away captive, therefore he says, they were born in the carrying away to Babylon.
But of those whom the holy Evangelist places together in the Lord's genealogy, it should be known, that they were alike in good or ill fame. Judas and his brethren were notable for good, in like manner Phares and Zara, Jechonias and his brethren, were notable for evil.
Gloss: Mystically, David is Christ, who overcame Golias, that is, the Devil. Urias, i.e. God is my light, is the Devil who says, "I will be like the Highest." (Is 14,14) To Him the Church was married, when Christ on the Throne of the majesty of His Father loved her, and having made her beautiful, united her to Himself in wedlock.
Or Urias is the Jewish nation who through the Law boasted of their light. From them Christ took away the Law, having taught it to speak of Himself.
Bersabee is 'the well of satiety,' that is, the abundance of spiritual grace.
Remig.: Bersabee is interpreted, 'the seventh well,' or, 'the well of the oath' (ed. note, c: the well of the oath, the origin of the name is given, Gn 21,28-31 as if from ), by which is signified the grant of baptism, in which is given the gift of the sevenfold Spirit, and the oath against the Devil is made.
Christ is also Solomon, i.e. the peaceful, according to that of the Apostle, "He is our peace." (Ep 2,14)
Roboam (ed. note, d: So Jerome, from ; or the foolishness of the people, Ecclus. 47. 23) is, 'the breadth of the people,' according to that, "Many shall come from the East and from the West."
Raban.: Or; 'the might of the people,' because he quickly converts the people to the faith.
Remig.: He is also Abias, that is, 'the Lord Father,' according to that, "One is your Father who is in heaven." (Mt 23,9) And again, "Ye call me Master and Lord." (Jn 13,13)
He is also Asa (ed. note, e: So Jerome; as if from ; but means a physician), that is, 'lifting up,' according to that, "Who taketh away the sins of the world." (Jn 1,29)
He is also Josaphat, that is, 'judging,' for, "The Father hath committed all judgment unto the Son." (Jn 5,22)
He is also Joram, that is, 'lofty,' according to that, "No man hath ascended up to heaven, but He that came down from heaven." (Jn 3,13)
He is also Ozias, that is, 'the Lord's strength,' for "The Lord is my strength and my praise." (Ps 118,14)
He is also Jotham (ed. note, f: And so Jerome, from ), that is, 'completed,' or 'perfected,' for "Christ is the end of (p. 29) the Law." (Rm 10,4)
He is also Ahaz (ed. note, g: to seize or hold, and so Jerome.), that is, 'turning,' according to that, "Be ye turned to Me." (Za 1,3)
Raban.: Or, 'embracing,' because, "None knoweth the Father but the Son." (Mt 11,27)
Remig.: His is also Ezekias, that is, 'the strong Lord,' or, 'the Lord shall comfort;' according to that, "Be of good cheer, I have overcome the world." (Jn 16,33)
He is also Manasses, that is, 'forgetful,' or, 'forgotten,' according to that, "I will not remember your sins any more." (Ezek 28)
He is also Aaron (ed note, h: A strong mountain; Jerome. It has no Hebrew root.), that is, 'faithful,' according to that, "The Lord is faithful in all His words." (Ps 145,17)
He is also Josias, that is, 'the incense of the Lord,' (ed. note, i: A sacrifice to the Lord, - Jerome; from fire in the ritual service, or incense, Lv 24,7), as, "And being in an agony, He prayed more earnestly." (Lc 22,44)
Raban.: And that incense signifies prayer, the Psalmist witnesses, saying, "Let my prayer come up as incense before Thee." (Ps 141,2) Or, 'The salvation of the Lord,' according to that, "My salvation is for ever." (Is 55)
Remig.: He is Jechonias (ed. note, k: "the Lord establisheth," also "prepareth."), that is, 'preparing,' or 'the Lord's preparation,' according to that, "If I shall depart, I will also prepare a place for you." (Jn 14,3)
Gloss: Morally; After David follows Solomon, which is interpreted, 'peaceful.' For one then becomes peaceful, when unlawful motions being composed, and being as it were already set in the everlasting rest, he serves God, and turns others to Him.
Then follows Roboam, that is, 'the breadth of the people.' For when there is no longer any thing to overcome within himself, it behoves a man to look abroad to others, and to draw with him the people of God to heavenly things.
Next is Abias, that is, 'the Lord Father,' for these things premised, He may proclaim Himself the Son of God, and then He will be Asa, that is, 'raising up,' and will ascend to His Father from virtue to virtue: and He will become Josaphat, that is, 'judging,' for He will judge others, and will be judged of none.
Thus he becomes Joram, that is, 'lofty,' as it were dwelling on high; and is made Oziah, that is, 'the strong One of the Lord,' as attributing all his strength to God, and persevering in his path.
Then follows Jotham, that is, 'perfect,' for he groweth daily for greater perfection. And thus he becomes Ahaz, that is, 'embracing,' for by obedience knowledge is increased according (p. 30) to that, "They have proclaimed the worship of the Lord, and have understood His doings."
Then follows Ezekias, that is, 'the Lord is strong,' because he understands that God is strong, and so turning to His love, he becomes Manassas, 'forgetful,' because he gives up as forgotten all worldly things; and is made thereby Amon, that is, 'faithful,' for whoso despises all temporal things, defrauds no man of his goods. Thus he is made Josias, that is, 'in certain hope of the Lord's salvation;' for Josias in intepreted 'the salvation of the Lord.'
3112 (Mt 1,12-15)
Pseudo-Chrys.: After the carrying away, he sets Jeconiah again, as now become a private person.
Ambrose: Of whom Jeremiah speaks. "Write this man dethroned; for there shall not spring of his seed one sitting on the throne of David." (Jr 22,30)
How is this said of the Prophet, that none of the seed of Jeconias should reign? For if Christ reigned, and Christ was of the seed of Jeconiah, then has the Prophet spoken falsely. But it is not there declared that there shall be none of the seed of Jeconiah, and so Christ is of his seed; and that Christ did reign, is not in contradiction to the prophecy; for He did not reign with worldly honours, as He said, "My kingdom is not of this world." (Jn 18,36)
Pseudo-Chrys.: Concerning Salathiel (ed. note, l: This Gloss. from Pseudo-Chrys. is not found in Nicolai's edition.), we have read nothing either good or bad, but we suppose him to have been a holy man, and in the captivity to have constantly besought God in behalf of afflicted Israel, and that hence he was named, Salathiel, 'the petition of God.' (ed. note, m: "I have asked of God.")
"Salathiel begot Zorobabel," which is interpreted, 'flowing postponed,' or, 'of the confusion,' or here, 'the doctor of Babylon.' (ed. note, n (p.31): The teacher of Babylon; Jerome; perhaps from "crown;" Ch. flowed, poured away," Syr. "contracted, bound;" hence another of the meanings in the text.)
I have read, but know not (p. 31) whether it be true, that both the priestly line and the royal line were united in Zorobabel; and that it was through him that the children of Israel returned into their own country. For that in a disputation held between three, of whom Zorobabel was one, each defending his own opinion, Zorobabel's sentence, that Truth was the strongest thing, prevailed; and that for this Darius granted him that the children of Israel should return to their country; and therefore after this providence of God, he was rightly called Zorobabel, 'the doctor of Babylon.' For what doctrine greater than to shew that Truth is the mistress of all things?
Gloss: But this seems to contradict the genealogy which is read in Chronicles. For there it is said, that Jeconias begot Salathiel and Phadaias, and Phadaias begot Zorobabel, and Zorobabel Mosollah, Ananias, and Solomith their sister. (1 Chron 3:17) But we know that many parts of the Chronicles have been corrupted by time, and error of transcribers. Hence come many and controverted questions of genealogies which the Apostle bids us avoid. (1Tm 1,4)
Or it may be said, that Salathiel and Phadaias are the same man under two different names. Or that Salathiel and Phadaias were brothers, and both had sons of the same name, and that the writer of the history followed the genealogy of Zorobabel, the son of Salathiel. From Abiud down to Joseph, no history is found in the Chronicles; but we read that the Hebrews had many other annals, which were called the Words of the Days, of which much was burned by Herod, who was a foreigner, in order to confound the descent of the royal line.
And perhaps Joseph had read in them the names of his ancestors, or knew them from some other source. And thus the Evangelist could learn the succession of this genealogy. It should be noted, that the first Jeconiah is called the resurrection of the Lord, the second, the preparation of the Lord. Both are very applicable to the Lord Christ, who declares, "I am the resurrection, and the life;" (Jn 11,25) and, "I go to prepare a place for you." (Jn 14,2)
Salathiel, i.e. 'the Lord is my petition,' is suitable to Him who said, "Holy Father, keep them whom Thou hast given Me." (Jn 17,11)
Remig.: He is also Zorobabel, (p. 32) that is, 'the master of confusion,' according to that, "Your Master eateth with publicans and sinners." (Mt 9,11)
He is Abiud, that is, 'He is my Father,' according to that, "I and the Father are One." (Jn 10,30)
He is also Eliacim (ed. note: So Jerome, "God will raise up"), that is, 'God the Reviver,' according to that, "I will revive him again in the last day." (Jn 6,54)
He is also Azor, that is, 'aided,' according of that, "He who sent Me is with Me." (Jn 8,29)
He is also Sadoch, that is, 'the just,', or, 'the justified,' according to that, "He was delivered, the just for the unjust." (1P 3,18)
He is also Achim, that is, 'my brother is He,' according to that, "Whoso doeth the will of My Father, he is My brother." (Mt 12,50)
He is also Eliud, that is, 'He is my God,' according to that, "My Lord, and my God." (Jn 20,28)
Gloss: He is also Eleazar, i.e. 'God is my helper,' as in the seventeenth Psalm, "My God, my helper."
He is also Mathan, that is, 'giving,' or, 'given,' for, "He gave gifts for men;" (Ep 4,8) and, "God so loved the world, that He gave His only-begotten Son." (Jn 3,16)
Remig.: He is also Jacob, 'that supplanteth,' for not only hath He supplanted the Devil, but hath given His power to His faithful people; as, "Behold I have given you power to tread upon serpents." (Lc 10,19)
He is also Joseph, that is, 'adding,' according to that, "I came that they might have life, and that they might have it abundantly."
Raban.: But let us see what moral signification these names contain. After Jeconias, which means 'the preparation of the Lord,' follows Salathiel, i.e. 'God is my petition,' for he who is rightly prepared, prays not but of God.
Again, he becomes Zorobabel, 'the master of Babylon,' that is, of the men of the earth, whom he makes to know concerning God, that He is their Father, which is signified in Abiud.
Then that people rise again from their vices, whence follows Eliacim, 'the resurrection;' and thence rise to good works, which is Azor, and becomes Sadoch, i.e. 'righteous;' and then they are taught the love of their neighbour. He is my brother, which is signified in Achim; and through love to God he says of Him, 'My God,' which Eliud signifies.
Then follows Eleazar, i.e. 'God is my helper;' he recognizes God as his helper. But whereto he tends is shewn in Matthan, which is interpreted 'gift,' or 'giving;' for he looks to God as his benefactor; and as he wrestled with and overcame his vices (p. 33) in the beginning, so he does in the end of life, which belongs to Jacob, and thus he reaches Joseph, that is, 'The increase of virtues.'
Golden Chain MT-MK 3102