Golden Chain 3923
3923 (Mt 9,23-26)
Gloss., non occ.: After the healing of the woman with the issue of blood, follows the raising of the dead; "And when Jesus was come into the ruler's house."
Chrys.: We may suppose that He proceeded slowly, and spake longer to the woman whom He had healed, that He might suffer the maid to die, and thus an evident miracle of restoring to life might be wrought. In the case of Lazarus also He waited till the third day.
"And when he saw the minstrels and the people making a noise;" this was a proof of her death.
Ambrose., Ambrosiaster, in Luc., 8, 52: For by the ancient custom minstrels were engaged to make lamentation for the dead.
Chrys.: But Christ put forth all the pipers, but took in the parents, that it might not be said that He had healed her by any other means; and before the restoring to life He excites their expectations by His words, "And he said, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth."
Bede, in Luc.: As though He had said, To you she is dead, but to God who has power to give life, she sleeps only both in soul and body.
Chrys.: By this saying, He soothes the minds of those that were present, and shews that it is easy to Him to raise the dead; the like He did in the case (p. 352) of Lazarus, "Our friend Lazarus sleepeth." (Jn 11,11) This was also a lesson to them not to be afraid of death; forasmuch as He himself also should die, He made His disciples learn in the persons of others confidence and patient endurance of death. For when He was near, death was but as sleep. When He had said this, "They mocked him." And He did not rebuke their mocking; that this mocking, and the pipes and all other things, might be a proof of her death. For ofttimes at His miracles when men would not believe, He convicted them by their own answers; as in the case of Lazarus, when He said, "Where have ye laid him?" so that they that answered, "Come and see," and, "He stinketh, for he hath now been dead four days," could no longer disbelieve that He had raised a dead man.
Jerome: They that had mocked the Reviver were not worthy to behold the mystery of the revival; and therefore it follows, "And when the multitude was put forth, he entered, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose."
Chrys.: He restored her to life not by bringing in another soul, but by recalling that which had departed, and as it were raising it from sleep, and through this sight preparing the way for belief of the resurrection. And He not only restores her to life, but commands food to be given her, as the other Evangelists relate, that which was done might be seen to be no delusion. "And the fame of him went abroad into all that country."
Gloss., non occ.: The fame, namely, of the greatness and novelty of the miracle, and its established truth; so that it could not be supposed to be a forgery.
Hilary: Mystically; The Lord enters the ruler's house, that is, the synagogue, throughout which there resounded in the songs of the Law a strain of wailing.
Jerome: To this day the damsel lays dead in the ruler's house; and they that seem to be teachers are but minstrels singing funeral dirges. The Jews also are not the crowd of believers, but of "people making a noise." But when the fulness of the Gentiles shall come in, then all Israel shall be saved.
Hilary: But that the number of the elect might be known to be but few out of the whole body of believers, the multitude is put forth; the Lord indeed would that they should be saved, but they mocked at His sayings and actions, and so were not worthy to be made partakers of His resurrection.
Jerome: He took (p. 353) her by the hand, and the maid arose; because if the hands of the Jews which are defiled with blood be not first cleansed, their synagogue which is dead shall not revive.
Hilary: "His fame went about into all that country;" that is, the salvation of the elect, the gift and works of Christ are preached.
Rabanus: Morally; The damsel dead in the house is the soul dead in thought. He says that she is asleep, because they that are now asleep in sin may yet be roused by penitence. The minstrels are flatterers who cherish the dead.
Greg., Mor., xviii, 43: The multitude are put forth that the damsel may be raised; for unless the multitude of worldly cares is first banished from the secrets of the heart, the soul which is laid dead within, cannot rise again.
Rabanus: The maiden is raised in the house with few to witness, the young man without the gate, and Lazarus in the presence of many; for a public scandal requires a public expiation; a less notorious, a lesser remedy; and secret sins may be done away by penitence.
3927 (Mt 9,27-31)
Jerome: The miracles that had gone before of the ruler's daughter, and the woman with the issue of blood, are now followed by that of two blind men, that what death and disease had there witnessed, that blindness might now witness. "And as Jesus passed thence," that is, from the ruler's house, (p. 354) there followed him two blind men, crying, and saying, Have mercy on us, thou Son of David."
Chrys., Hom., xxxii: Here is no small charge against the Jews, that these men, having lost their sight, yet believe by means of their hearing only; while they who had sight, would not believe the miracles that were done. Observe their eagerness; they do not simply come to Him, but with crying, and asking for nothing but mercy; they call Him Son of David because that seemed to be a name of honour.
Remig.: Rightly they call Him Son of David, because the Virgin Mary was of the line of David.
Jerome: Let Marcion and Manichaeaus, and the other heretics who mangle the Old Testament, hear this, and learn that the Saviour is called the Son of David; for if He was not born in the flesh, how is He the Son of David?
Chrys.: Observe that the Lord oftentimes desired to be asked to heal, that none should think that He was eager to seize an occasion of display.
Jerome: Yet were they not healed by the way-side and in passing as they had thought to be; but when He was entered into the house, they come unto Him; and first their faith is made proof of, that so they may receive the light of the true faith. "And when he was come into the house, the blind men came unto him; and Jesus said unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this?"
Chrys.: Here again He teaches us to exclude the desire of fame; because there was a house hard by, He takes them there to heal them apart.
Remig.: He who was able to give sight to the blind, was not ignorant whether they believed; but He asked them, in order that the faith which they bare in their hearts, being confessed by their mouth might be made deserving of a higher reward, according to that of the Apostle, "By the mouth of confession is made unto salvation." (Rm 10,10)
Chrys.: And not for this reason only, but that He might make manifest that they were worthy of healing, and that none might object, that if mercy alone saved, then ought all to be saved. Therefore also He requires faith of them, that He may thereby raise their thoughts higher; they had called Him the Son of David, therefore He instructs them that they should think higher things of Him. Thus He does not say to them, Believe ye that I can ask the Father? But, "Believe ye that I am able to do this? They say unto (p. 355) him, Yea. Lord." They call Him no more Son of David, but exalt Him higher, and confess His dominion. Then He lays His hand upon them; as it follows, "Then he touched their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you." This He says confirming their faith, and testifying that what they had said were not words of flattery.
Then follows the cure, "And their eyes were opened." And after this, He injunction that they should tell it to no man; and this not a simple command, but with much earnestness, "And Jesus straitly charged them, saying, See that no man know it; but they went forth, and spread abroad the fame of him through the whole country."
Jerome: The Lord from humility shunning the fame of His glorious works, gave them this charge, and they from gratitude cannot be silent respecting so great benefit.
Chrys.: That He said to another man, "Go, and proclaim the glory of God, (Lc 8,39) is not contrary to this; for what He would teach is, that we should hinder those that would commend us for ourselves. But when it is the Lord's glory that is to be praised, we ought not to forbid, but to promote it ourselves.
Hilary: Or He enjoins silence on the blind men, because to preach was the Apostles' office.
Greg., Mor., xix, 23: We must enquire how this is that the Almighty, whose will and power are coextensive, should have here willed that His excellent works should be hid in silence, and is yet preached against His will, as it were, by these men who have received their sight. It is only that He herein has left an example to His servants who follow Him, that they should desire their own good deeds to be hid, and that notwithstanding they should be made known against their will, that others may profit by their example. They should then be hid by design, and published of compulsion; their concealment is by our own watchfulness, their betrayal is for others' profit.
Remig.: Allegorically; By these two blind men are denoted the two nations of Jews and Gentiles, or the two nations of the Jewish race; for in the time of Rohoam his kingdom was split into two parts. Out of both nations such as believed on Him Christ gave sight to in the house, by which is understood the Church; for without the unity of the Church no man can be saved. And they of the Jews who had (p. 356) believed the Lord's coming spread the knowledge thereof throughout the whole earth.
Rabanus: The house of the ruler is the Synagogue which was ruled by Moses; the house of Jesus is the heavenly Jerusalem. As the Lord passed through this world and was returning to His own house, two blind men followed Him; that is, when the Gospel was preached by the Apostles, many of the Jews and Gentiles began to follow Him. But when He ascended into Heaven, then He entered His house, that is, into the confession of one faith which is in the Catholic Church, and in that they were enlightened.
3933 (Mt 9,33-35)
Remig.: Observe the beautiful order of His miracles; how after He had given sight to the blind, He restored speech to the dumb, and healed the possessed of the daemon; by which He shews Himself the Lord of power, and the author of the heavenly medicine. For it was said by Isaiah, "Then shall the eyes of the blind be opened, the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped, and the tongue of the dumb loosed." (Is 35,6)
Whence it is said, "When they were gone forth, they brought unto him a man dumb, and possessed with a daemon."
Jerome: The Greek word here is more frequent in common speech in the sense of, 'deaf,' but it is the manner of Scripture to use it indifferently as either.
Chrys.: This was not a mere natural defect; but was from the malignity of the daemon; and therefore he needed to be brought of others, (p. 357) for he could not ask any thing of others as living without voice, and the daemon chaining his spirit together with his tongue. Therefore Christ does not require faith of him, but immediately healed his disorder; as it follows, "And when the daemon was cast out, the dumb spake."
Hilary: The natural order of things is here preserved; the daemon is first cast out, and there the functions of the members proceed.
"And the multitude marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel."
Chrys: They set Him thus above others, because He not only healed, but with such ease, and quickness; and cured diseases both infinite in number, and in quality incurable. This most grieved the Pharisees, that they set Him before all others, not only those that then lived, but all who had lived before, on which account it follows, "But the Pharisees said, He casteth out daemons through the Prince of daemons."
Remig.: Thus the Scribes and Pharisees denied such of the Lord's miracles as they could deny; and such as they could not they explained by an evil interpretation, according to that, "In the multitude of they excellency thy enemies shall lie unto thee." (Ps 66,3)
Chrys.: What can be more foolish than this speech of theirs? For it cannot be pretended that one daemon would cast out another; for they are wont to consent to one another's deeds, and not to be at variance among themselves. But Christ not only cast out daemons, but healed the lepers, raised the dead, forgave sins, preached the kingdom of God, and brought men to the Father, which a daemon neither could nor would do.
Rabanus: Figuratively; As is the two blind men were denoted both nations, Jews and Gentiles, so in the man dumb and afflicted with the daemon is denoted the whole human race.
Hilary: Or; By the dumb and deaf, and daemoniac, is signified the Gentile world, needing health in every part; for sunk in evil of every kind, they are afflicted with disease of every part of the body.
Remig.: For the Gentiles were dumb; not being able to open their mouth in the confession of the true faith, and the praises of the Creator, or because in paying worship to dumb idols they were made like unto them. They were afflicted with a daemon, because by dying in unbelief they were made subject to the power of the Devil.
Hilary: But by the knowledge of God the (p. 358) frenzy of superstition being chased away, the sight, the hearing, and the word of salvation is brought in to them.
Jerome: As the blind receive light, so the tongue of the dumb is loosed, that he may confess Him whom before he denied. The wonder of the multitude is the confession of the nations. The scoff of the Pharisees is the unbelief of the Jews, which is to this day.
Hilary: The wonder of the multitude is followed up by the confession, "It was never so seen in Israel;" because he, for whom there was no help under the Law, is saved by the power of the Word.
Remig.: They who brought the dumb to be healed by the Lord, signify the Apostles and preachers, who brought the Gentile people to be saved before the face of divine mercy.
Aug., De Cons. Evan. ii, 29: This account of the two blind men and the dumb daemon is read in Matthew only. The two blind men of whom the others speak are not the same as these, though something similar was done with them. So that even if Matthew had not also recorded their cure, we might have seen that this present narrative was of a different transaction. And this we ought diligently to remember, that many actions of our Lord are very much like one another, but are proved not to be the same action, by being both related at different times by the same Evangelist. So that when we find cases in which one is recorded by one Evangelist, and another by another, and some difference which we cannot reconcile between their accounts, we should suppose that they are like, but not the same, events.
3935 (Mt 9,35-38)
Chrys.: The Lord would refute by actions the charge of the Pharisees, who said, "He casteth out daemons by the (p. 359) "Prince of the daemons;" for a daemon having suffered rebuke, does not return good but evil to those who have not shewn him honour. But the Lord on the other hand, when He had suffered blasphemy and contumely, not only does not punish, but does not utter a hard speech, yea He shews kindness to them that did it, as it here follows, "And Jesus went about all their towns and villages."
Herein He teaches us not to return accusations to them that accuse us, but kindness. For he that ceases to do good because of accusation, shews that his good has been done because of men. But if for God's sake you do good to your fellow-servants, you will not cease from doing good whatever they do, that your reward may be greater.
Jerome: Observe how equally in villages, cities, and towns, that is to great as well as small, He preaches the Gospel, not respecting the might of the noble, but the salvation of those that believe. It follows, "Teaching in their synagogues;" this was His meat, going about to do the will of His Father, and saving by His teaching such as yet believed not.
Gloss., non occ.: He taught in their synagogues the Gospel of the Kingdom, as it follows, "Preaching the Gospel of the Kingdom."
Remig.: Understand, 'of God;' for though temporal blessings are also proclaimed, yet they are not called The Gospel. Hence the Law was not called a Gospel, because to such as kept it, it held out not heavenly, but earthly, goods.
Jerome: He first preached and taught, and then proceeded to heal sicknesses, that the works might convince those who would not believe the words. Hence it follows, "Healing every sickness and every disease," for to Him alone nothing is impossible.
Gloss., ap. Anselm: By "disease" we may understand complaints of long standing, by "sickness" any lesser infirmity.
Remig.: It should be known that those whom He healed outwardly in their bodies, He also healed inwardly in their souls. Others cannot do this of their own power, but can by God's grace.
Chrys.: Nor does Christ's goodness rest here, but He manifests His care for them, opening the bowels of His mercy towards them; whence it follows, "And seeing the multitudes, he had compassion upon them."
Remig.: Herein Christ shews in Himself the disposition of the good shepherd and not that of the hireling. Why He pitied them is added, "because there were troubled, (p. 360) and sick as sheep that have no shepherd -- troubled either by daemons, or by divers sicknesses and infirmities.
Gloss., ap. Anselm: Or, "troubled," by daemons, and "sick," that is, benumbed and unable to rise; as though they had shepherds, yet they were as though they had them not.
Chrys.: This is an accusation against the rulers of the Jews, that being shepherds they appeared like wolves; not only not improving the multitude, but hindering their progress. For when the multitude marvelled and said, "It was never so seen in Israel," these opposed themselves, saying, "He casteth out daemons by the prince of daemons."
Remig.: But when the Son of God looked down from heaven upon the earth, to hear the groans of the captives (Ps 102,19), straight a great harvest began to ripen; for the multitude of the human race would never have come near to the faith, had not the Author of human salvation looked down from heaven.
And it follows, "Then said he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few."
Gloss., ap. Anselm: The harvest are those men who can be reaped by the preachers, and separated from the number of the damned, as grain is beaten out from the chaff that it may be laid up in granaries.
Jerome: The great harvest denotes the multitude of the people; the few labourers, the want of instructors.
Remig.: For the number of the Apostles was small in comparison of so great crops to be reaped. The Lord exhorts His preachers, that is, the Apostles and their followers, that they should daily desire an increase of their number; "Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into his harvest."
Chrys.: He privately insinuates Himself to be the Lord; for it is He Himself who is Lord of the harvest. For if He sent the Apostles to reap what they had not sown, it is manifest that He sent them not to reap the things of others, but what He had sown by the Prophets. But since the twelve Apostles are the labourers, He said, "Pray ye the Lord of the harvest, that he would send labourers into his harvest;" and notwithstanding He added none to their number, but rather He multiplied those twelve many times, not by increasing their numbers, but by giving them more abundant grace.
Remig.: Or, He then increased their number when He chose the seventy and two, and then when many preachers were made (p. 361) what time the Holy Spirit descended upon the believers.
Chrys.: He shews us that it is a great gift that one should have the power of rightly preaching, in that He tells them that they ought to pray for it. Also we are here reminded of the words of John concerning the threshing-floor, and the fan, the chaff, and the wheat.
Hilary: Figuratively; When salvation was given to the Gentiles, then all cities and towns were enlightened by the power and entrance of Christ, and escaped every former sickness and infirmity. The Lord pities the people troubled with the violence of the unclean Spirit, and sick under the burden of the Law, and having no shepherd at hand to bestow on them the guardianship of the Holy Spirit. But of that gift there was a most abundant fruit, whose plenty far exceeded the multitude of those that drank thereof; how many soever take of it, yet an inexhaustible supply remains; and because it is profitable that there should be many to minister it, He bids us ask the Lord of the harvest, that God would provide a supply of reapers for the ministration of that gift of the Holy Spirit which was made ready; for by prayer this gift is poured out upon us from God.
4001 (Mt 10,1-4)
(p. 362) Gloss. ord.: From the healing of Peter's wife's mother to this place there has been a continued succession of miracles; and they were done before the Sermon upon the Mount, as we know for certain from Matthew's call, which is placed among them; for he was one of the twelve chosen to the Apostleship upon the mount. He here returns to the order of events, taking it up again at the healing of the centurion's servant; saying, "And calling to him his twelve disciples."
Remig.: The Evangelist had related above that the Lord exhorted His disciples to pray the Lord of the harvest to send labourers into His vineyard; and He now seems to be fulfilling what He had exhorted them to. For the number twelve is a perfect number, being made up of the number six, which has perfection because it is formed of its own parts, one, two, three, multiplied into one another; and the (p. 363) number six when doubled amounts to twelve.
Gloss., see Greg. Hom. in Ev., xvii, 1: And this doubling seems to have some reference to the two precepts of charity, or to the two Testaments.
Bede: For the number twelve, which is made up of three into four, denotes that through the four quarters of the world they were to preach the faith of the holy Trinity.
Rabanus, and cf. Tertullian, cont. Marc. iv, 13: This number is typified by many things in the Old Testament; by the twelve sons of Jacob, by the twelve princes of the children of Israel, by the twelve running springs in Helim, by the twelve stones in Aaron's breastplate, by the twelve loaves of the shew-bread, by the twelve spies sent by Moses, by the twelve stones of which the altar was made, by the twelve stones taken out of Jordan, by the twelve oxen which bare the brazen sea. Also in the New Testament, by the twelve stars in the bride's crown, by the twelve foundations of Jerusalem which John saw, and her twelve gates.
Chrys.: He makes them confident not only by calling their ministry a sending forth to the harvest, but by giving them strength for the ministry; whence it follows, "He gave them power over all unclean spirits to cast them out, and to heal every sickness and every disease."
Remig.: Wherein is openly shewed that the multitude were troubled not with one single kind of affliction, but with many, and this was His pity for the multitude, to give His disciples power to heal and cleanse them.
Jerome: A kind and merciful Lord and Master does not envy His servants and disciples a share in His powers. As Himself had cured every sickness and disease, He imparted the same power to His Apostles. But there is a wide difference between having and imparting, between giving and receiving. Whatever He does He does with the power of a master, whatever they do it is with confession of their own weakness, as they speak, "In the name of Jesus rise and walk." (Ac 3,6)
A catalogue of the names of the Apostles is given, that all false Apostles might be excluded. "The names of the twelve Apostles are these; First, Simon who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother." To arrange them in order according to their merit is His alone who searches the secrets of all hearts. But Simon is placed first, having the surname of Peter given to distinguish him from the other Simon surnamed Chananaeus, (p. 364) from the village of Chana in Galilee where the Lord turned the water into wine.
Rabanus, e Beda: The Greek or Latin 'Petrus' is the same as the Syriac Cephas, in both tongues the word is derived from a rock; undoubtedly that of which Paul speaks, "And that rock was Christ." (1Co 10,4)
Remig., ap. Rabanus: There have been some who in this name Peter, which is Greek and Latin, have sought a Hebrew interpretation, and would have it to signify, 'Taking off the shoe,', 'or unloosing,' or 'acknowledging.' But those that say this are contradicted by the facts. First, that the Hebrew has no letter P, but uses PH instead. Thus Pilate they call, Philate. Secondly, that one of the Evangelists has used the word as an interpretation of Cephas; The Lord said, "Thou shalt be called Cephas," (Jn 1,42) on which the Evangelist adds, "which being interpreted is Petrus."
Simon in interpreted 'obedient,' for he obeyed the words of Andrew, and with him came to Christ, or because he obeyed the divine commands, and at one word of bidding followed the Lord. Or as some will have it, it is to be interpreted, 'Laying aside grief,' and, 'hearing painful things;' for that on the Lord's resurrection he laid aside the grief he had for His death; and he heard sorrowful things when the Lord said to him, "Another shall gird thee, and shall carry thee whither thou wouldest not." (Jn 21,18)
"And Andrew his brother."
Chrys.: This is no small honour (done to Peter), He places Peter from his merit, Andrew from the nobility he had in being the brother of Peter. Mark names Andrew next after the two heads, namely, Peter and John; but this one not so; for Mark has arranged them in order of dignity.
Remig.: Andrew is interpreted 'manly;' for as in Latin 'virilis' is derived from, 'vir,' so in Greek, Andrew is derived from . Rightly is he called manly, who left all and followed Christ, and manfully persevered in His commands.
Jerome: The Evangelist couples the names throughout in pairs. So he puts together Peter and Andrew, brothers not so much according to the flesh as in spirit; James and John who left their father after the flesh to follow their true Father; "James the son of Zebedee and John his brother." He calls him the son of Zebedee, to distinguish him from the other James the son of Alphaeus.
Chrys.: Observe that he does not place (p. 365) them according to their dignity; for to me John would seem to be greater not than others only, but even than his brother.
Remig.: James is interpreted 'The supplanter,' or 'that supplanteth;' for he not only supplanted the vices of the flesh, but even contemned the same flesh when Herod put him to death. John in interpreted 'The grace of God,' because he deserved before all to be loved by the Lord; whence also in the favour of His especial love, he leaned at supper in the Lord's bosom.
"Philip and Bartholomew." Philip is interpreted, 'The mouth of a lamp,' or 'of lamps,' because when he had been enlightened by the Lord, he straightway sought to communicate that light to his brother by the means of his mouth. Bartholomew is a Syriac, not a Hebrew, name, and is interpreted 'The son of him that raiseth water,' (ed. note: or some say, the son of Tolmai, or Ptolemy) that is, of Christ, who raises the hearts of His preachers from earthly to heavenly things, and hangs them there, that the more they penetrate heavenly things, the more they should steep and inebriate the hearts of their hearers with the drops of holy preaching.
"Thomas, and Matthew the Publican."
Jerome: The other Evangelists in this pair of names put Matthew before Thomas; and do not add, "the Publican," that they should not seem to throw scorn upon the Evangelist by bringing to mind his former life. But writing of himself he both puts Thomas first in the pair, and styles himself "the Publican;" because, "where sin hath abounded, there grace shall much more abound." (Rm 5,20)
Remig.: Thomas is interpreted 'an abyss,' or 'a twin,' which in Greek is Didymus. Rightly is Didymus interpreted an abyss, for the longer he doubted the more deeply did he believe the effect of the Lord's passion, and the mystery of His Divinity, which forced him to cry, "My Lord and my God." (Jn 20,28) Matthew is interpreted, 'given,' because by the Lord's bounty he was made an Evangelist of a Publican.
"James the son of Alphaeaus, and Thaddaeus."
Rabanus, e Beda: This James is he who in the Gospels, and also in the Epistle to the Galatians, is called the Lord's brother. For Mary the wife of Alphaeus was the sister of Mary the mother of the (p. 366) Lord; John the Evangelist calls her "Mary the wife of Cleophas," probably because Cleophas and Alphaeus were the same person. Or Mary herself on the death of Alphaeus after the birth of James married Cleophas.
Remig.: It is well said, "the son of Alphaeus," that is, 'of the just,' or 'the learned;' for he not only overthrew the vices of the flesh, but also despised all care of the same. And of what he was worthy the Apostles are witness, who ordained him Bishop of the Church of Jerusalem. (ed. note: Where St. James the son of Alphaeus is the same as the Bishop of Jerusalem is doubtful. Eusebius is cited on both sides the question; S. Epiphanius, S. Gregory Nyssen, Theodoret, and the Author of the Constitutions take the negative; so does S. Chrysostom, but qualifies his evidence elsewhere; S. Jerome varies. Other Fathers are in favour of their identity.) (margin note: Hegesippos. ap. Euseb. ii. 23)
And ecclesiastical history among other things tells of him, that he never ate flesh, drunk neither wine nor strong drink, abstained from the bath and linen garments, and night and day prayed on his bended knees. And so great was his merit, that he was called by all men, 'The just.'
Thaddaeus is the same whom Luke calls Jude of James, (that is, the brother of James,) whose Epistle is read in the Church, in which he calls himself the brother of James.
Aug., De Cons. Evan., ii, 30: Some copies have Lebbaeus; but whoever prevented the same man from having two, or even three different names?
Remig.: Jude is interpreted 'having confessed,' because he confessed the Son of God.
Rabanus: Thaddeus or Lebbaeus is interpreted 'a little heart,' that is, a heart-worshipper.
"Simon Chananaeus, and Judas Scarioth, who also betrayed him."
Jerome: Simon Chananaeus is the same who in the other Evangelist is called Zelotes. Chana signifies 'Zeal.' Judas is named Scarioth, either from the town in which he was born, or from the tribe of Issachar, a prophetic omen of his sin; for Issachar means 'a booty,' thus signifying the reward of the betrayer.
Remig.: Scarioth is interpreted 'The memory of the Lord,' because he followed the Lord; or 'The memorial of death,' because he plotted in his heart how he might betray the Lord to death; or 'strangling,' because he went and hanged himself. It should be known that there are two disciples of this name, who are types of all Christians; Jude the brother of James, of such as persevere (p. 367) in the confession of the faith; Jude Scarioth of such as leave the faith; and turn back again.
Gloss., non occ.: They are named two and two to express their union as yoke-fellows.
Aug., City of God, book xviii, ch. 49: These therefore He chose for His disciples, whom also He named Apostles, humbly born without honour, without learning, that whatever they should do that was great, it was He that should be in them and should do it. He had among them one that was evil, whom He should use in the accomplishment of His Passion, and who should be an example to His Church of suffering evil men.
Ambrose, Ambrosiaster, in Luc. 6: He was not chosen among the Apostles unwittingly; for that truth is great, which cannot be harmed even by having an adversary in one of its own ministers.
Rabanus: Also He willed to be betrayed by a disciple, that you when betrayed by your intimate might bear patiently that your judgment has erred, that your favours have been thrown away.
Golden Chain 3923