Golden Chain 5816

MATTHEW 28,16-20

5816 (Mt 28,16-20)

Bede, Beda in Hom., non occ.: When Saint Matthew has vindicated the Lord's Resurrection as declared by the Angel, he relates the vision of the Lord which the disciples had, "Then the eleven disciples went into Galilee into a mountain where Jesus had (p. 986) appointed them."
For when coming to His Passion the Lord had said to His disciples, "After I am risen I will go before you into Galilee;" (Mt 26,32) and the Angel said the same to the women. Therefore the disciples obey the command of their Master. Eleven only go, for one had already perished.
Jerome: After His Resurrection, Jesus is seen and worshipped in the mountain in Galilee; though some doubt, their doubting confirms our faith.
Remig.: This is more fully told by Luke; how when the Lord after the Resurrection appeared to the disciples, in their terror they thought they saw a spirit.
Bede, Hom. Aest. in Fer., vi., Pasch. (ed note: This Homily of Bede (tom. vii, p. 12) is word for word, the same with the Commentary of Rabanus on this part of S. Matthew.): The Lord appeared to them in the mountain to signify, that His Body which at His Birth He had taken of the common dust of the human race, He had by His Resurrection exalted above all earthly things; and to teach the faithful that if they desire there to see the height of His Resurrection, they must endeavour here to pass from low pleasures to high desires.
And He goes before His disciples into Galilee, because "Christ is risen from the dead, the first fruits of them that slept." (1Co 15,20) And they that are Christ's follow Him, and pass in their order from death to life, contemplating Him as He appears with His proper Divinity. And it agrees with this that Galilee is interpreted 'revelation.'
Aug., de Cons. Ev., iii, 25: But it is to be considered, how the Lord could be seen bodily in Galilee. For that it was not the day of the Resurrection is manifest; for He was seen that day in Jerusalem in the beginning of the night, as Luke and John evidently agree. Nor was it in the eight following days, after which John says that the Lord appeared to His disciples, and when Thomas first saw Him, who had not seen Him on the day of the Resurrection.
For if within these eight days the eleven had seen Him on a mountain in Galilee, Thomas, who was one of the eleven, could not have seen Him first after the eight days. Unless it be said, that the eleven there spoken of were eleven out of the general body of the disciples, and not the eleven Apostles.
But there is another difficulty. John having related that the Lord was seen not in the mountain, but at the sea of Tiberias, by seven who were fishing, adds, "This is now the third time that Jesus shewed himself to his disciples after he was risen from the (p. 987) dead. (Jn 21,14)
So that if we understand the Lord to have been seen within those eight days by eleven of the disciples, this manifestation at the sea of Tiberias will be the fourth, and not the third, appearance. Indeed, to understand John's account at all it must be observed, that he computes not each appearance, but each day on which Jesus appeared, though He may have appeared more than once on the same day; as He did three times on the day of His Resurrection. We are then obliged to understand that this appearance to the eleven disciples on the mountain in Galilee took place last of all.
In the four Evangelists we find in all ten distinct appearances of Our Lord after His Resurrection. 1. At the sepulchre to the women. 2. To the same women on their way back from the sepulchre. 3. To Peter. 4. To two disciples as they went into the country. 5. To many together in Jerusalem; 6. when Thomas was not with them. 7. At the sea of Tiberias. 8. At the mountain in Galilee, according to Matthew. 9. To the eleven as they sat at meat, because they should not again eat with Him upon earth, related by Mark. (Mc 16,14) 10. On the day of His Ascension, no longer on the earth, but raised aloft in a cloud, as related by both Mark and Luke.
But all is not written, as John confesses, for He had much conversation with them during forty days before His ascension, "being seen of them, and speaking unto them of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God." (Ac 1,3)
Remig.: The disciples then, when they saw Him, knew the Lord; and worshipped Him, bowing their faces to the ground. And He their affectionate and merciful Master, that He might take away all doubtfulness from their hearts, coming to them, strengthened them in their belief; as it follows, "And Jesus came and spake to them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth."
Jerome: Power is given to Him, Who but a little before was crucified, Who was buried, but Who afterwards rose again.
Bede: This He speaks not from the Deity coeternal with the Father, but from the Humanity which He took upon Him, according to which "He was made a little lower than the Angels." (He 2,9)
Chrysol., Serm. 80: The Son of God conveyed to the Son of the Virgin, the God to the Man, the Deity to the Flesh, that which He had ever together with the Father.
Jerome: Power is given (p. 988) in heaven and in earth, that He who before reigned in heaven, should now reign on earth by the faith of the believers.
Remig.: What the Psalmist says of the Lord at His rising again, "Thou madest him to have dominion over the works of thy hands," (Ps 8,6) this the Lord now says of Himself, "All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth."
And here it is to be noted, that even before His resurrection the Angels knew that they were subjected to the man Christ. Christ then desiring that it should be also known to men that all power was committed to Him in heaven and in earth, sent preachers to make known the word of life to all nations; whence it follows, "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations."
Bede, Beda in Hom. non occ.: He who before His Passion had said, "Go not into the way of the Gentiles," (Mt 10,5) now, when rising from the dead, says, "Go and teach, all nations."
Hereby let the Jews be put to silence, who say that Christ's coming is to be for their salvation only. Let the Donatists also blush, who, desiring to confine Christ to one place, have said that He is in Africa only, and not in other countries.
Jerome: They first then teach all nations, and when taught dip them in water. For it may not be that the body receive the sacrament of Baptism, unless the soul first receive the truth of the Faith. "In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost," that they whose Godhead is one should be conferred at once, to name this Trinity, being to name One God.
Chrysol, Serm. 80: Thus all nations are created a second time to salvation by that one and the same Power, which created them to being.
Jerome, Didymi Lib. ii, de Spir. Sanct.: And though some one there may be of so averse a spirit as to undertake to baptize in such sort as to omit one of these names, therein contradicting Christ Who ordained this for a law, his baptism will effect nothing; those who are baptized by him will not be at all delivered from their sins. From these words we gather how undivided is the substance of the Trinity, that the Father is verily the Father of the Son, and the Son verily the Son of the Father, and the Holy Spirit the Spirit of both the Father and the Son, and also the Spirit of wisdom and of truth, that is, of the Son of God. This then is the salvation of them that believe, and in this Trinity is wrought the perfect communication of ecclesiastical discipline.
Hilary, de Trin. ii, 1 &c: For what part of the salvation of men is there that is not [p. 989] contained in this Sacrament? All things are full and perfect, as proceeding from Him who is full and perfect. The nature of His relation is expressed in the title Father; but He is nothing but Father; for not after the manner of men does He derive from somewhat else that He is Father, being Himself Unbegotten, Eternal, and having the source of His being in Himself, known to none, save the Son.
The Son is the Offspring of the Unbegotten, One of the One, True of the True, Living of the Living, Perfect of the Perfect, Strength of Strength, Wisdom of Wisdom, Glory of Glory; the Image of the Unseen God, the Form of the Unbegotten Father.
Neither can the Holy Spirit be separated from the confession of the Father and the Son. And this consolation of our longing desires is absent from no place. He is the pledge of our hope in the effects of His gifts, He is the light of our minds, He shines in our souls.
These things as the heretics cannot change, they introduce into them their human explanations. As Sabellius who identifies the Father with the Son, thinking the distinction to be made rather in name than in person, and setting forth one and the same Person as both Father and Son. As Ebion, who deriving the beginning of His existence from Mary, makes Him not Man of God, but God of man. As the Arians, who derive the form, the power, and the wisdom of God out of nothing, and in time. What wonder then that men should have diverse opinions about the Holy Spirit, who thus rashly after their own pleasure create and change the Son, by whom that Spirit is bestowed?
Jerome: Observe the order of these injunctions. He bids the Apostles first to teach all nations, then to wash them with the sacrament of faith, and after faith and baptism then to teach them what things they ought to observe; "Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you."
Raban.: "For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also." (Jc 2,26)
Chrys.: And because what He had laid upon them was great, therefore to exalt their spirits He adds, "And, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world." As much as to say, Tell Me not of the difficulty of these things, seeing I am with you, Who can make all things easy. A like promise He often made to the Prophets in the Old Testament, to Jeremiah who pleaded his (p. 990) youth, to Moses, and to Ezekiel, when they would have shunned the office imposed upon them. And not with them only does He say that He will be, but with all who shall believe after them. For the Apostles were not to continue till the end of the world, but He says this to the faithful as to one body.
Raban.: Hence we understand that to the end of the world shall not be wanting those who shall be worthy of the Divine indwelling.
Chrys.: He brings before them the end of the world, that He may the more draw them on, and that they may not look merely to present inconveniences, but to the infinite goods to come. As much as to say, The grievous things which you shall undergo, terminate with this present life, seeing that even this world shall come to an end, but the good things which ye shall enjoy endure for ever.
Bede, Beda in Hom., non occ.: It is made a question how He says here, "I am with you," when we read elsewhere that He said, "I go unto him that sent me." (Jn 16,5)
What is said of His human nature is distinct from what is said of His divine nature. He is going to His Father in His human nature, He abides With His disciples in that form in which He is equal with the Father. When He says, "to the end of the world," He expresses the infinite by the finite; for He who remains in this present world with His elect, protecting them, the same will continue with them after the end, rewarding them.
Jerome: He then who promises that He will be with His disciples to the end of the world, shews both that they shall live for ever, and that He will never depart from those that believe.
Leo, Serm., 72, 3: For by ascending into heaven He does not desert His adopted; but from above strengthens to endurance, those whom He invites upwards to glory.
Of which glory may Christ make us partakers, Who is the King of glory, "God blessed for ever,"



St. Thomas Aquinas, Catena Aurea (Golden Chain)

(John Henry Parker, v. II, J.G.F. and J. Rivington:London, 1842)


The Remarks prefixed to the first volume of this Translation of the Aurea Catena, apply in their substance to the following portion of it, which contains the Commentary on S. Mark. Wherever the variations from the original writers were such as to destroy the sense of the passage, the true reading has been followed, and has been placed in the margin. In other cases the text has been translated, as it is found in S. Thomas.

Many of the passages ascribed to S. Chrysostom are not found in the works of that Father. Most of these occur also in a Greek Catena on S. Mark, published by Possinus, from a MS. in the Library of the Archbishop of Tolouse, and still more of them in the Edition which has been recently printed by the Oxford University Press, from a MS. in the Bodleian. A Latin Version of this Catena or Commentary had previously been published by Peltanus, and is found in the Bibliotheca Patrum; and contains far the greater number of the same passages marked as S. Chrysostom's in the Catena Aurea. It is commonly ascribed to Victor of Antioch; though by some, with probability, to S. Cyril of Alexandria. A Commentary on a portion of S. Mark published by Wastel, who gives the authorship of it and of the Opus Imperfectum in Matthaeum to John of Jerusalem, also contains a number of the same passages which S. Thomas ascribes to S. Chrysostom. Some of the extracts marked " Cyril" are found in a Commentary of S. Cyril of Alexandria on S. Luke, lately published . by Mai.

The passages ascribed to S. Jerome, are taken from a Commentary found among his works, but universally pronounced to be spurious. It has been ascribed to Pelagius, but with more probability to Philippus Presbyter, a friend and disciple of S. Jerome. It is entirely mystical, and is in many places hopelessly obscure.

For the translation of the Volume now presented to the reader, the Editors have to make their acknowledgments to JOHN DOBBEE DALGAIRNS, M. A. of Exeter College.


P. 184. note 1. for A.D. 1417. read Paris 1517.








To the Reverend Father, Lord Hannibald, Venerable Cardinal Priest of the Basilica of the Twelve Apostles, I, Brother Thomas of Aquino of the Order of Friars Preachers, [place] myself totally [at your disposition].

God, the maker of everything, by a simple glance of his goodness, brought everything into being, and endowed all creatures with a natural love of goodness. Thus, as each thing naturally loves and desires the good that befits it, it displays a wonderful turn about and pursuit of its author.

But in this rational creatures excell, because through wisdom they can discern the very universal source of goodness, and through love which is charity they can taste its sweetness. Therefore, the gift of wisdom, by with we have access to the very fount of goodness, is, in the judgment of right reason, the highest of all human goods. Wisdom never grows stale. He who eats it, hungers for more. He who drinks it, never loses his thirst. Wisdom diametrically opposes sin; so those who act with it do not sin. It gives its workers never-ending fruit. Thus those who elucidate it possess eternal life. And it is sweeter than any pleasure, more secure than any office or rule, and more useful than all riches.

It has been my pleasure to take on the task of commenting on the wisdom of the Gospel, hidden for ages but brought to light by the incarnate Wisdom of God. I did this by compiling the views of the sacred doctors. Pope Urban IV, of holy memory, first entrusted me with this task. Although that Supreme Pontif has been taken from this life, the three gospels of Mark, Luke and John remained without commentary. I did not wish negligence to leave unfinished a work that obedience began. Therefore, I worked very hard to complete the commentary on the four gospels, following the same pattern of quoting texts from the saints and indicating their names.

To make this commentary of the saints more complete and continuous, I had some Greek commentaries translated into Latin, which I included among the commentaries of the Latin doctors, indicating their names.

Because it is fitting for offerings to be made to the priests from the fruit of labor, this commentary on the Gospel, the fruit of my work, I deemed necessary to offer to an apostolic priest. May your authority accept this payment and give it a critical review, and may your long-time affection accept in the gift I offer a sign of my love.


My God has been my strength. He says: It is too little for you to be my servant, to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back the survivors of Israel; I shall make you a light to the nations, so that my salvation may reach the remotest parts of the earth. (Is 49,5-6)

Gloss: Isaiah foretold the calling of the gentiles and the cause of their salvation, saying: My God has been my strength etc.

Jerome on Isaiah: These words show that Christ is called a servant, in that he was formed from a womb. For, before these words, it is said: Thus says the Lord, forming me from the womb as his servant. It was the will of the Father that the very wicked vine dressers should receive the son who was sent. So Christ is telling his disciples about them: Do not go the way of the gentiles; go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. Because Israel was not subject to God, therefore, the Son of God speaks to the unbelieving Jews, saying that My God has been my strength, and he consoled me over my people's rejecting me. He saidj: It is not so important for you to serve me in resuscitating the tribes of Jacob who crashed by their wickedness, and to convert the remnant of Israel. In their place, I set you as a light for all nations, to enlighten the whole world, and make my salvation, which is for humanity's salvation, reach the ends of the earth.

Gloss: We can make two conclusions from the preceding words: The first is that the divine power, which was in Christ, was capable of enlightening the nations —where it is said: My God is my strength. For God, as the Apostle said, was in Christ reconciling the world to himself. Therefore, the Gospel, by which believers are saved, is the power of God for the salvation of every believer, as the same Apostle says. The second is the enlightenment of the nations and the salvation of the world effected, by the disposition of the Father, through Christ —where it is said: I placed you as a light for the nations. Thus after his resurrection, to fulfil the disposition of the Father, the Lord sent the disciples to preach, saying: Teach all nations. Some of them took the ministry of preaching to the Jews, others that of preaching to the gentiles. Because the Gospel had not only to be preached to those of that time, but also to be written for future generations, the same distinction is found in the writers of the Gospel. For Matthew wrote in Hebrew for the Jews, Mark was the first to write the Gospel for the gentiles.

Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History: Since the clear light of the word of God rose on the city of Rome, the story of truth and light, which was preached by Peter, instructed the minds of all by its pleasing sound. Thus every day those who heard it never heard enough. It was not enough just to hear it, but they begged the disciple Mark to put into writing what Peter preached orally, to have a perpetual record of it, which they could always meditate both at home and outside. They did not give up pressing him, until they got what they asked for. This was what led to the writing of the Gospel according to Mark. Peter, who by the Holy Spirit found himself subjected to a religious theft, was delighted, considering their faith and devotion. So he ratified what was done, and bequeathed this to the churches as Scripture to be read forever.

Jerome on Mark: The Gospel begins from the preaching of Christ as an adult. It does not concern itself with the birth of the little chile, since it speaks of the perfection of the Son of God.

Chrysostom: His narration is a short summary, wherein he imitates his master, Peter, who always tried to be brief.

Augustine, Consistency of the Gospels: Matthew, who described the royal person of Christ, had Mark as an associate and summarizer. In this respect he followed his example, for kings are never without assistants who wait on them. But since a priest enters the Holy of Holies alone, Luke, who was concerned with the priesthood of Christ, did not have an assistant to summarize his narration.

Bede: Note that the Holy Evangelists had different beginnings of their story, and different endings. Matthew started from the birth of the Lord and continued until the resurrection. Mark started with the beginning of the evangelical preaching and reached the ascension of the Lord and the preaching of the disciples to all nations of the world. Luke began from the birth of the Precursor, and ended with the Lord's ascension. John began with the eternity of the Word of God, and continued his preaching up to the time of the Lord's resurrection.

Ambrose, on Luke: Because Mark began with the manifestation of divine power, he is rightly depicted as a lion.

Remigius, on Mark: The lion designates Mark, because, as the lion lets out a terrible cry in the desert, so Mark began with a voice in the desert, saying: The voice of one crying in the desert.

Augustine, on the Consistency of the Gospels: Yet another explanation is possible. For Mark, unlike Matthew who gave a royal genealogy, is depicted as a lion. Nor did he describe his priesthood, as Luke did, who is depicted as a bull. Nor did he narrate his relatives or consecration, but was concerned with what Christ did as a man; therefore he seems to deserve the figure of a man, among those four animals.

Theophylactus, on Mark: Or the eagle fits the Gospel according to Mark , because it begins with the prophecy of John. But prophecy sees sharply what is far away, like an eagle.

MARK 1,1: The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

6101 (Mc 1,1)

Jerome, in Prolog: Mark the Evangelist, who served the priesthood in Israel, according to the flesh a Levite, having been converted to the Lord, wrote his Gospel in Italy, shewing in it how even his family benefited Christ. For commencing his Gospel with the voice of the prophetic cry, he shews the order of the election of Levi, declaring that John the son of Zachariah was sent forth by the voice of an angel, and saying, "The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God."
Pseudo-Jerome: The Greek word 'Evangelium' means good tidings, in Latin it is explained, 'bona annunciatio,' or, the good news; these terms properly belong to the kingdom of God and to the remission of sins; for the Gospel is that by which comes the redemption of the faithful and the beatitude of the saints.
But the four Gospels are one, and one Gospel in four. In Hebrew, His name is Jesus, in Greek, Soter, in Latin, Salvator; but men say Christus in Greek, Messias in Hebrew, Unctus in Latin, that is, King and Priest.
Bede, in Marc., i, 1: The beginning of this Gospel should be compared with that of Matthew, in which it is said, "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the Son of David, the Son of Abraham." But here He is called "the Son of God."
Now from both we must understand one Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, and of man. And fitly the first Evangelist names Him "Son of man," the second, "Son of (p. 6) God," that from less things our sense may by degrees mount up to greater, and by faith and the sacraments of the human nature assumed, rise to the acknowledgment of His divine eternity.
Fitly also did He, who was about to describe His human generation, begin with a son of man, namely, David or Abraham. Fitly again, he who was beginning his book with the first preaching of the Gospel, chose rather to call Jesus Christ, "the Son of God;" for it belonged to the human nature to take upon Him the reality of our flesh, of the race of the patriarchs, and it was the work of Divine power to preach the Gospel to the world.
Hilary, de Trin., iii, 11: He has testified, that Christ was the Son of God, not in name only, but by His own proper nature. We are the sons of God, but He is not a son as we are; for He is the very and proper Son, by origin, not by adoption; in truth, not in name; by birth, not by creation.

MARK 1,2-3

6102 Mc 1,2-3

Bede: Being about to write his Gospel, Mark rightly puts first the testimonies of the Prophets, that he might notify to all, that what he should write was to be received without scruple of doubt, in that he shewed that these things were beforehand foretold by the Prophets. At once, by one and the same beginning of his Gospel, he prepared the Jews, who had received the Law and the Prophets, for receiving the grace of the Gospel, and those sacraments, which their own prophecies had foretold; and he also calls upon the Gentiles, who came to the Lord by publishing of the Gospel, to receive and venerate the authority of the Law and the Prophets; whence he says, "As it is written in the prophet Isaiah, Behold, &c."
Jerome: Hierom. ad Pammach, Epist 57: But this is not written in Isaiah, but in Malachi, the last of the twelve prophets.
Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But it may be said that it is a mistake of the writer. Otherwise it may be said that he has compressed [p. 7] into one, two prophecies delivered in different places by two prophets; for in the prophet Isaiah it is written after the story of Hezekiah, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness (Is 40,3);" but in Malachi, "Behold, I send mine angel. (Ml 3,1)"
The Evangelist therefore, taking parts of two prophecies, has put them down as spoken by Isaiah, and refers them here to one passage, without mentioning, however, by whom it is said, "Behold, I send mine angel."
Pseudo-Aug., Quaest. nov. et vet. Test. lvii: For knowing that all things are to be referred to their author, he has brought these sayings back to Isaiah, who was the first to intimate the sense.
Lastly, after the words of Malachi, he immediately subjoins, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness," in order to connect the words of each prophet, belonging as they do to one meaning, under the person of the elder prophet.
Bede: Or otherwise, we must understand, that although these words are not found in Isaiah, still the sense of them is found in many other places, and most clearly in this which he has subjoined, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness." For that which Malachi has called, the angel to be sent before the face of the Lord, to prepare His way, is the same thing as Isaiah has said is to be heard, "the voice of one crying in the wilderness, saying, Prepare ye the way of the Lord."
But in each sentence alike, the way of the Lord to be prepared is proclaimed. It may be, too, that Isaiah occurred to the mind of Mark, in writing his Gospel, instead of Malachi, as often happens; which he would, however, without doubt correct, at least when reminded by other persons, who might read his work whilst he was yet in the flesh; unless he though that, since his memory was then ruled by the Holy Spirit, it was not without a purpose that the name of one prophet had occurred to him instead of another. For thus whatsoever things the Holy Spirit spoke by the prophets are implied each to have belonged to all, and all to each.
Jerome: By Malachi, therefore, the voice of the Holy Spirit resounds to the Father concerning the Son, who is the countenance of the Father by which He has been known.
Bede: But John is called an angel not by community of nature, according to the heresy of Origen (ed. note: Origen taught that all rational beings, angels, devils, and men, were of one nature, differing only in rank and condition, according to their deserts (in Joan, tom. ii, 17) and capable of change: that men had once been angels: that angels took human nature to serve man, and that St. John Baptist was an angel, quoting this text. (in Joan, ii, 25.) v Huet, Orig. II, qu. 5, No. 14, 24, 25), but by the dignity (p. 8) of his office; for angel in Greek is in Latin, nuntius (note: messenger), by which name that man is rightly called, who was sent by God, that he might bear witness of the light, and announce to the world the Lord, coming in the flesh; since it is evident that all who are priests may be their office of preaching the Gospel be called angels, as the prophet Malachi says, "The lips of the priest keep knowledge, and they seek the law at his mouth, because he is the Angel of the Lord of hosts." (Ml 2,7)
Theophylact: The Forerunner of Christ, therefore, is call an angel, on account of his angelic life and lofty reverence. Again, where he says, "Before thy face," it is as if he said, Thy messenger is near thee: whence is shewn the intimate connection of the Forerunner with Christ; for those walk next to kings who are their greatest friends.
There follows, "Who will prepare thy way before thee."
For by baptism he prepared the minds of the Jews to receive Christ.
Pseudo-Jerome: Or, "the way of the Lord," by which He comes into men, in penitence, by which God comes down to us, and we mount up to Him. And for this reason the beginning of John's preaching was, "Repent ye."
Bede: But as John might be called an angel, because he went before the face of the Lord by his preaching, so he might also be rightly called a voice, because, by his sound, he preceded the Word of the Lord.
Wherefore there follows, "The voice of one crying, &c."
For it is an acknowledged thing that the Only-Begotten Son is called the Word of the Father, and even we, from having uttered words ourselves, know that the voice sounds first, in order that the word may afterwards by heard.
Pseudo-Jerome: But it is called "the voice of one crying," for we are wont to use a cry to deaf persons, and to those afar off, or when we are indignant, all which things we know applied to the Jews; for "salvation is far from the wicked," and they "stopped their ears like deaf adders," and deserved to hear "indignation, and wrath, and tribulation" from Christ.
Pseudo-Chrys., Vict. Ant. e Cat. in Marc.: But the prophecy, by saying, "In the wilderness," plainly shews that the divine teaching was not in Jerusalem, but in the wilderness, which was fulfilled to (p. 9) the letter by John the Baptist in the wilderness of Jordan, preaching the healthful appearing of the Word of God.
The word of prophecy also shews, that besides the wilderness, which was pointed out by Moses, where he made paths, there was another wilderness, in which it proclaimed that the salvation of Christ was present.
Pseudo-Jerome: Or else the voice and the cry is in the desert, because they were deserted by the Spirit of God, as a house empty, and swept out; deserted also by prophet, priest, and king.
Bede: What he cried is revealed, in that which is subjoined, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight." For whosoever preaches a right faith and good works, what else does he but prepare the way for the Lord's coming to the hearts of His hearers, that the power of grace might penetrate these hearts, and the light of truth shine in them? And the paths he makes straight, when he forms pure thoughts in the soul by the word of preaching.
Pseudo-Jerome: Or else, "Prepare ye the way of the Lord," that is, act out repentance and preach it; "make his paths straight," that walking in the royal road, we may love our neighbours as ourselves, and ourselves as our neighbours. For he who loves himself, and loves not his neighbour, turns aside to the right; for many act well, and do not correct their neighbour well, as Eli.
He, on the other hand, who, hating himself, loves his neighbour, turns aside to the left; for many, for instance, rebuke well, but act not well themselves, as did the Scribes and Pharisees.
"Paths" are mentioned after the "way" because moral commands are laid open after penitence.
Theophylact: Or, the "way" is the New Testament, and the "paths" are the Old, because it is a trodden path. For it was necessary to be prepared for the way, that is, for the New Testament; but it was right that the paths of the Old Testament should be straightened.

Golden Chain 5816