Chrysostom: Homilies 35001
1). I Was anxious to-day to pay the debt which I promised you when I was lately here. But what am I to do? In the meanwhile, the blessed Babylas has appeared, and has called me to himself, uttering no voice, but attracting our attention by the brightness of his countenance. Be ye not, therefore, displeased at the delay in my payment; at all events, the longer the time is, the more the interest will increase. For we will deposit this money with interest.1 Since thus did the master command who entrusted it to us. Being confident, therefore, about what is lent, that both the principal and the profit await you, let us not pass by the gain which falls in our way to-day, but revel in the noble actions of the blessed Babylas.
How, indeed, he presided over the Church which is among us, and saved that sacred ship, in storm, and in wave, and billow; and what a bold front he showed to the emperor, and how he lay down his life for the sheep and underwent that blessed slaughter; these things and such as these, we will leave to the elder among our teachers, and to our common father, to speak of. For the more remote matters, the aged can relate to you but as many things as happened lately, and within our lifetime, these, I a young man will relate to you, I mean those after death, those after the burial of the martyr, those which happened while he remained in the suburbs of the city. And I know indeed that the Greeks will laugh at my promise, if I promise to speak of the noble deeds after death and burial of one who was buried, and had crumbled to dust. We shall not assuredly on this account keep silence, but on this very account shall especially speak, in order that by showing this marvel truly, we may turn their laughter upon their own head. For of an ordinary man there would be no noble deeds after death. But of a martyr, many and great deeds, not in order that he might become more illustrious (for he has no need of glory from the multitude), but that thou, the unbeliever mayest learn that the death of the martyrs is not death, but the beginning of a better life, and the prelude of a more spiritual conversation, and a change from the worse to the better. Do not then look at the fact, that the mere body of the martyr lies destitute of energy of soul; but observe this, that a greater power takes its place by the side of it, different from the soul itself—I mean the grace of the Holy Spirit, which pleads to all on behalf of the resurrection, by means of the wonders which it works. For if God has granted greater power to bodies dead and crumbled to dust, than to all living, much more will he grant to them a better life than the former, and a longer, at the time of the bestowal of his crowns; what then are this saint’s noble deeds? But be not disturbed, if we take our discourse a little further back. For they who wish to display their portraits to advantage, do not uncover them until they have placed the spectators a little way off from the picture, making the view clearer by the distance. Do you then also have patience with me while I direct my discourse into the past.
For when Julian who surpassed all in impiety, ascended the imperial throne, and grasped the despotic sceptre, straightway he lifted up his hands against the God who created him, and ignored his benefactor, and looking from the earth beneath to the heavens, howled after the manner of mad dogs, who alike bay at those who do not feed them and those who do feed them. But he rather was mad with a more savage madness than theirs. For they indeed turn from, and hate their friends and strangers alike. But this man used to fawn upon demons, strangers to his salvation, and used to worship them with every mode of worship. But his benefactor, and Saviour, and him who spared not the only Begotten, for his sake, he turned from and used to hate, and made havoc of the cross, the very thing which uplifted the whole world when it was lying prostrate, and drave away the darkness on all sides, and brought in light more brilliant than the sunbeams; nor yet even then did he desist from his frenzy, but promised that he would tear the nation of the Galilaeans, out of the midst of the world; for thus he was wont to call us; and yet if he thought the names of the Christians an abomination, and Christianity itself to be full of much shame, for what reason did he not desire to put us to shame by that means, but with a strange name? Yea because he knew clearly, that to be called by what belongs to Christ, is a great ornament not only to men, but to angels, and to the powers above. On this account he set everything in motion, so as to strip us of this ornament, and put a stop to the preaching of it. But this was impossible, O wretched and miserable man! as it was impossible to destroy the heaven and to quench the sun, and to shake and cast down the foundations of the earth, and those things Christ foretold, thus saying: “Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.”2
Well, thou dost not submit to Christ’s words; accept therefore the utterance which thus his deeds give. For I indeed having been privileged to know what the declaration of God is, how strong, how invincible a thing, have believed that is more trustworthy than the order of nature, and than experience in all matters. But do thou still creeping on the ground, and agitated with the investigations of human reasoning, receive the witness of the deeds. I gainsay nothing. I strive not.
1 Lc 19,23
2 Mt 24,35
2. What then do the deeds say? Christ said that it was easier for heaven and earth to be destroyed, than for any of his words to fail.3 The emperor contradicted these words, and threatened to destroy his decrees. Where then is the emperor who threatened these things? He is perished and is corrupted, and is now in Hades, awaiting the inevitable punishment. But where is Christ who uttered these decrees? In Heaven, on the right hand of the Father, occupying the highest throne of glory; where are the blasphemous words of the Emperor, and his unchastened tongue? They are become ashes, and dust and the food of worms. Where is the sentence of Christ? It shines forth by the very truth of the deed, receiving its lustre from the issue of the events, as from a golden column. And yet the emperor left nothing undone, when about to raise war against us, but used to call prophets together, and summon sorcerers, and everything was full of demons and evil spirits.
What then was the return for this worship? The overturning of cities, the bitterest famine of all famines. For ye know doubtless, and remember, how empty indeed the market place was of wares, and the workshops full of confusion, when everyone strove to snatch up what came first and to depart. And why do I speak of famine, when the very fountains of waters were failing, fountains which by the abundance of their stream, used to eclipse the rivers. But since I have mentioned the fountains, come, forthwith, let us go up to Daphne, and conduct our discourse to the noble deeds of the martyr. Although you desire me still to parade the indecencies of the Greeks, although I too desire this, let us abstain; for wherever the commemoration of a martyr is, there certainly also is the shame of the Greeks. This emperor then, going up to Daphne used to weary Apollo, praying, supplicating, entreating, so that the events of the future might be foretold to him. What then did the prophet, the great God of the Greeks? “The dead prevent me from uttering,” saith he, “but break open the graves, dig up the bones, move the dead.” What could be more impious than these commands? The Demon of grave-robbing, introduces strange laws and devises new methods of expelling strangers. Who ever heard of the dead being driven forth? who ever saw lifeless bodies ordered to be moved as he commanded, overturning from their foundations the common laws of nature. For the laws of nature are common to all men, that he who departs this life should be hidden in the earth, and delivered over for burial, and be covered up in the bosom of the earth the mother of all; and these laws, neither Greek, barbarian, Scythian, nor if there be any more savage than they, ever changed, but all reverence them, and keep them, and thus they are sacred and venerated by all. But the Demon raises his mask, and with bare head, resists the common laws of nature. For the dead, he says, are a pollution. The dead are not a pollution, a most wicked demon, but a wicked intention is an abomination. But if one must say something startling, the bodies of the living full of evil, are more polluting than those of the dead. For the one minister to the behests of the mind, but the other lie unmoved. Now that which is unmoved, and destitute of all perception would be free from all accusation. Not that I even would say that the bodies of the living are by nature polluting; but that everywhere a wicked and perverted intention is open to accusations from all.
The dead body then is not a pollution O Apollo, but to persecute a maiden who wishes to be modest, and to outrage the dignity of a virgin, and to lament at the failure of the shameless deed, this is worthy of accusation, and punishment. There were at all events, many wonderful and great prophets among ourselves, who spake also many things concerning the future, and they in no case used to bid those who asked them to dig up the bones of the departed. Yea Ezekiel standing near the bones themselves was not only not hindered by them, but added flesh, and nerves and skin to them, and brought them back to life again.4 But the great Moses did not stand near the bones of the dead, but bearing off the whole dead body of Joseph, thus foretold things to come.5 And very reasonably, for their words were the grace of the Holy Spirit. But the words of these, a deceit, and a lie which is no wise able to be concealed. For that these things were an excuse, and pretence and that he feared the blessed Babylas, is manifest from what the emperor did. For leaving all the other dead, he only moved that martyr. And yet if he did these things, in disgust at him, and not in fear, it were necessary that he should order the coffin to be broken, thrown into the sea, carried to the desert, be made to disappear by some other method of destruction; for this is the part of one who is disgusted. Thus God did when he spake to the Hebrews about the abominations of the Gentiles. He bade their statues to be broken, not to bring their abominations from the suburbs to the city.
3 Lc 16,17
4 Ez 37.
5 Ex 13,19
3. The martyr then was moved, but the demon not even then enjoyed freedom from fear, but straightway learned that it is possible to move the bones of a martyr, but not to escape his hands. For as soon as the coffin was drawn into the city, a thunderbolt came from above upon the head of his image, and burnt it all up. And yet, if not before, then at least there was likelihood that the impious emperor would be angry, and that he would send forth his anger against the testimony of the martyr. But not even then did he dare, so great fear possessed him. But although he saw that the burning was intolerable, and knew the cause accurately; he kept quiet. And this is not only wonderful that he did not destroy the testimony, but that he not even dared to put the roof on to the temple again. For he knew, he knew, that the stroke was divinely sent, and he feared lest by forming any further plan, he should call down that fire upon his own head. On this account he endured to see the shrine of Apollo brought to so great desolation; For there was no other cause, on account of which he did not rectify that which had happened, but fear alone. For which reason he unwillingly kept quiet, and knowing this left as much reproach to the demon, as distinction to the martyr. For the walls are now standing, instead of trophies, uttering a voice clearer than a trumpet. To those in Daphne, to those in the city, to those who arrive from far off, to those who are with us, to those men which shall be hereafter, they declare everything by their appearance, the wrestling, the struggle, the victory of the martyr. For it is likely that he who dwells far off from the suburb, when he sees the chapel of the saint deprived of a shrine, and the temple of Apollo deprived of its roof would ask the reason of each of these things; and then after learning the whole history would depart hence. Such are the noble deeds of the martyr after death, wherefore I count your city blessed, that ye have shown much zeal about this holy man. For then, when he returned from Daphne, all our city poured forth into the road, and the market places were empty of men, and the houses were empty of women, and the bedchambers were destitute of maidens. Thus also every age and each sex passed forth from the city, as if to receive a father long absent who was returning from sojourn far away. And you indeed gave him back to the band of fellow enthusiasts. But the grace of God did not suffer him to remain there for good, but again removed him beyond the river,6 so that many parts of the country were filled with the sweet savor of the martyr. Neither even when he came hither was he destined to be alone, but he quickly received, a neighbor, and a fellow-lodger, and one of similar life.7 For he shared with him the same dignity, and for the sake of religion shewed forth equal boldness. Wherefore he obtained the same abode as he, this wonderful man being no vain imitator, as it seems, of the martyr. For for so long a time he laboured there, sending letters continually to the emperor, wearying the authorities, and bringing he ministry of the body to bear upon the martyr. For ye know, doubtless, and remember that when the midday summer sun possessed the heaven, he together with his acquaintances, used to walk thither everyday, not as spectator only, but also, as intending to be a sharer in what was going on. For he often handled stone, and dragged a rope, and listened, in advance of the workmen themselves, to one who wanted to erect any building, For he knew, he knew what rewards lie in store for him for these things. And on this account he continued doing service to the martyrs, not only by splendid buildings nor even by continual feasts, but by a better method than these. And what is this? He imitates their life, emulates their courage, throughout according to his ability he keeps the image of the martyrs alive, in himself. For see, they gave their bodies to the slaughter, he has mortified the members of his flesh which are upon the earth. They stopped the flame of fire, he quenched the flame of lust. They fought against the teeth of beasts, but this man bore off the most dangerous of our passions, anger. For all these things let us give thanks to God, because he hath thus granted us noble martyrs, and pastors worthy of martyrs, for the perfecting of the saints, for the edifying of the body of Christ8 with whom be glory, honor, and might to the Father, with the Holy and lifegiving Spirit, now and always, for ever and ever. Amen).
6 Viz. to the church built on the other side of the Orontes where the reliques of the saint finally remained).
7 Meletius, Bishop of Antioch, a man of very saintly life who died in 379 and was buried by the side of St. Babylas in the church which he had been active in erecting, mentioned in the preceding note).
8 Ep 4,12
59000 Ph 1,18), and about humbleness of mind.
There is an allusion at the beginning of this Homily to some remarks recently made on the parable of the Pharisee and the Publican. These occur in Chrysostom’s fifth Homily against the Anomoeans, one of a set of Homilies which, from internal evidence, may be assigned to the close of the year 386, or beginning of 387. The following homily therefore was delivered at Antioch, probably just before Christmas 386. There were some persons who explained the words of St. Paul cited in the title as signifying that provided Christ was preached it mattered not whether the actual doctrines taught were true or heretical. The main object of the homily is to vindicate the language of the Apostle from this erroneous and mischievous interpretation.
1. When lately we made mention of the Pharisee and the publican, and hypothetically yoked two chariots out of virtue and vice;1 we pointed out each truth, how great is the gain of humbleness of mind, and how great the damage of pride. For this, even when conjoined with righteousness and fastings and tithes, fell behind; while that, even when yoked with sin, out-stripped the Pharisee’s pair, even although the charioteer it had was a poor one. For what was worse than the publican? But all the same since he made his soul contrite, and called himself a sinner; which indeed he was; he surpassed the Pharisee, who had both fastings to tell of and tithes; and was removed from any vice. On account of what, and through what? Because even if he was removed from greed of gain and robbery, he had rooted over his soul2 the mother of all evils—vain-glory and pride. On this account Paul also exhorts and says “Let each one prove his own work; and then he will have his ground of boasting for himself, and not for the other.” Whereas he publicly came forward3 as an accuser of the whole world;4 and said that he himself was better than all living men. And yet even if he had set himself before ten only, or if five, or if two, or if one, not even was this endurable; but as it was, he not only set himself before the whole world, but also accused all men. On this account he fell behind in the running. And just as a ship, after having run through innumerable surges, and having escaped many storms, then in the very mouth of the harbour having been dashed against some rock, loses the whole treasure which is stowed away in her—so truly did this Pharisee, after having undergone the labours of the fasting, and of all the rest of his virtue, since he did not master his tongue, in the very harbour underwent shipwreck of his cargo.5 For the going home from prayer, whence he ought to have derived gain, having rather been so greatly damaged, is nothing else than undergoing shipwreck in harbour.
1 Chrysostom is referring to his Homily “on the incomprehensible: against the Anom’ans,” 5,6, 7). Armata duvo movinson tw| logw, k.t.l., the Pharisee’s pair of horses being Righteousness and Pride; the publican’s, Sin and Humility).
2 Epi; th`" yuch`". The fibres spreading and entwining over it).
3 Parh`lqen. The word used at Athens of Orators rising to speak). <i>Parelqwvn dev e[lexe doiavde.</i> Thucyd. 2,59.
4 Fox said in parliament, “I cannot draw an indictment against humanity.”
5 This must be the sense ; though there is some little difficulty in the original).
2. Knowing therefore these things, beloved even if we should have mounted to the very pinnacle of virtue, let us consider ourselves last of all; having learned that pride is able to cast down even from the heavens themselves him who takes not heed, and humbleness of mind to bear up on high from, the very abyss of sins him who knows how to be sober. For this it was that placed the publican before the Pharisee; whereas that, pride I mean and an overweening spirit, surpassed even an incorporeal power, that of the devil; while humbleness of mind and the acknowledgment of his own sins committed brought the robber into Paradise before the Apostles. Now if the confidence which they who confess their own sins effect for themselves is so great, they who are conscious to themselves of many good qualities, yet humble their own souls, how great crowns will they not win.6 For when sinfulness be put together with humbleness of mind it runs with such ease as to pass and out-strip righteousness combined with pride. If therefore thou have put it to with righteousness, whither will it not reach? through how many heavens will it not pass? By the throne of God itself surely it will stay its course;7 in the midst of the angels, with much confidence. On the other hand if pride, having been yoked with righteousness, by the excess and weight of its own wickedness had strength enough to drag down its confidence; if it be put together with sinfulness, into how deep a hell will it not be able to precipitate him who has it? These things I say, not in order that we should be careless of righteousness, but that we should avoid pride; not that we should sin, but that we should be sober-minded. For humbleness of mind is the foundation of the love of wisdom which pertains to us. Even if thou shouldest have built a superstructure of things innumerable; even if almsgiving, even if prayers, even if fastings, even if all virtue; unless this have first been laid as a foundation, all will be built upon it8 to no purpose and in vain; and it will fall down easily, like that building which had been placed on the sand.9 For there is no one, no one of our good deeds, which does not need this; there is no one which separate from this will be able to stand. But even if thou shouldest mention temperance, even if virginity, even if despising of money, even if anything whatever, all are unclean and accursed and loathsome, humbleness of mind being absent. Everywhere therefore let us take her with us,10 in words, in deeds, in thoughts, and with this let us build these (graces).
6 <i>ejpiteuvxontai</i>, Lit. light upon : as on the treasure of the parable, “hid in a field.”
7 Its race being ended ; the goal won).
8 That is on whatever foundation, other than that which may have been laid).
9 Oijkodomh;n teqei`san). <dqŸOi; peri Dwdwvhn duscevimeron: oijkij e[qento</dqŸ). Iliad.B. 750).
10 <i> Paralanbanwmen</i>. Take her to dwell with us. Comp. Chrysostom’s expression, suzh`n ajreth| ).
3. But the things belonging to humbleness of mind have been sufficiently spoken of; not for the value of the virtue;11 for no one will be able to celebrate it in accordance with its value; but for the intelligence of your love. For well do I know that even from the few things that have been said you will embrace it with much zeal. But since it is also necessary to make clear and manifest the apostolic saying which has been to-day read; seeming as it does to many to afford a pretext for indolence; so that some may not, providing for themselves hence a certain frigid defence, neglect their own salvation—to this let us direct our discourse. What then is this saying? “Whether in pretence,” it says, “or in sincerity,12 Christ is preached.”13 This many wrest absolutely14 and just as happens, without reading what precedes and what comes after it; but having cut it off from the sequence of the remaining members, to the destruction of their own soul they put it forward to the more indolent. For attempting to seduce them from the sound faith; then seeing them afraid and trembling; on the ground of its not being without danger to do this,15 and desiring to relieve their fears, they bring forward this apostolic declaration, saying, Paul conceded this, by saying, “Whether in pretence or in sincerity, let Christ be proclaimed.” But these things are not (true), they are not. For in the first place he did not say “let him be proclaimed,” but “he is proclaimed,” and the difference between this and that is wide. For the saying “let him be proclaimed” belongs to a lawgiver; but the saying “he is proclaimed” to one announcing the event. For that Paul does not ordain a law that there should be heresies, but draws away all who attended to him, hear what he says, “If any one preaches to you a gospel besides what ye have received, let him be anathema, were it even I, were it even an angel from the heavens.”16 Now he would not have anamethized both himself and an angel, if he had known the act to be without danger. And again— “I am jealous of you with a jealousy of God,” he says; “for I have betrothed you to one husband a chaste virgin: and fear lest at some time, as the serpent beguiled Eve by his wiliness, so your thoughts should be corrupted from the singleness that is towards Christ.”17 See, he both set down singleness, and granted no allowance. For if there were allowance, there was no danger: and if there was no danger Paul would not have feared: and Christ would not also have commanded that the tares should be burned up, if it were a thing indifferent to attend to this one or that or another: or to all indiscriminately18
11 <i> Katovrqwma</i>. The highest form of duty; Perfectum officium quod Graeci, katavorqwma). Cic. De Off. 1,3).
12 alhvqeia here in that of Aristotle’s Ethics: sincerity).
13 Ph 1,18
14 <i>Aplw`"</i>. without reference to circumstances).
15 to`uto poei`n, 1,e., to be in that state). <i>Poiei`n</i> is not seldom used where <i>Paqei`n</i> might be expected).
16 Ga 1,8-9
17 2Co 11,2-3. <i>Apo; th`" aJplovthto" th`" cristovn</i>. That is, from the singleness of affection and fidelity which must be maintained towards Him in that relation. .
18 <i>Aplw`"</i>. Without reference to the truth of their doctrine).
4. What ever then is what is meant? I wish to narrate to you the whole history from a point a little earlier;19 for it is needful to know in what circumstances Paul was when he was writing these things by letter. In what circumstances therefore was he? In prison and chains and intolerable perils. Whence is this manifest? From the epistle itself. For earlier than this he says, “Now I wish you to know, brethren, that the circumstances in which I am have come rather to the furtherance20 of the Gospel; so that my bonds have become manifest in Christ in the whole Court, and to all the others; and a good many21 of the brethren, trusting to my bonds, the more exceedingly dare fearlessly to speak the word.”22 Now Nero had then cast him into prison. For just as some robber having set foot in the house, while all are sleeping, when stealing everything,23 if he see any one having lit a lamp, both extinguishes the light and slays him who holds the lamp, in order that he may be allowed in security to steal and rob the property of others; so truly also the Caesar Nero then, just as any robber and burglar while all were sleeping a deep and unconscious slumber; robbing the property of all, breaking into marriage chambers,24 subverting houses, displaying every form of wickedness; when he saw Paul having lighted a lamp throughout the world; (the word of his teaching;) and reproving his wickedness, exerted himself both to extinguish what was preached, and to put the teachers out of the way; in order that he might be allowed with authority to do anything he pleased; and after binding that holy man, cast him into prison. It was at that time then that the blessed Paul wrote these things. Who would not have been astounded? who would not have marvelled? or rather who could adequately have been astounded at and admired that noble and heaven-reaching soul; in that, while bound in Rome and imprisoned, at so great a distance as that, he wrote a letter to the Philippians? For you know how great is the distance between Macedonia and Rome. But neither did the length of the way, nor the amount of time (required), nor the press of business, nor the peril and the dangers coming one upon another, nor anything else, drive out his love for and remembrance of the disciples; but he retained them all in his mind; and not so strongly were his hands bound with the chains as his soul was bound together and rivetted by his longing for the disciples:25 which very thing itself indeed also declaring, in the preface of the Epistle he said, “On account of my having you in my heart, both in my bonds, and in the defence and confirmation of the Gospel.”26 And just as a King, having ascended epon his throne at morning-tide and taken his seat in the royal courts, immediately receives from all quarters innumerable letters; so truly he also, just as inh royal courts, seated in the dungeon, both received and sent his letters in far greater number; the nations from all quarters referring to his wisdom everything about27 what had taken place among themselves; and he administered more business than the reigning monarch in proportion to his having had a larger dominion entrusted to him. For in truth God had brought and put into his hands not those who inhabited the country of the Romans only, but also all the barbarians, both land and sea. And by way of showing this he said to the Romans, “Now I would not that ye should be ignorant, brethren, that ofttimes I have purposed to come to you, and have been hindered until the present; in order that I might have some fruit also among you, as among the rest of the Gentiles too. Both to Greeks and barbarians, both to wise and those without understanding I am a debtor.”28 Every day therefore he was in anxious thought at one moment for Corinthians, at another for Macedonians; how Philippians, how Cappadocians, how Galatians, how Athenians, how they who inhabited Pontus how all together were. But all the same, having had the whole world put into his hands, he continually cared not for entire nations only, but also for each single man; and now indeed he despatched a letter on behalf of Onesimus, and now on behalf of him who among the Corinthians had committed fornication. For neither used he to regard this— that it was the individual who had sinned and needed advocacy; but that it was a human being; a human being, the living thing most precious to God; and for whose sake the Father had not spared even the Only-begotten.
19 As from a fountain, lying higher, a[nwqen; ab origine).
20 Porokophvn, removal, clearing away, of obstacles to its advance).
21 Tou;" pleivona". In the Greek of that day =<i>pleviona"</i>: like Lat., plures, modified and weakened comparative).
23 JYqairov;;umeno", lit. secretly taking for himself. Lat). surripio, So. steal, stealth).
24 Comp. Cic. in Verr. 11,1,3, non adulterum, sed expugnatorem pudiciti.
25 <i>PovqwJ</i>, desiderio: absence being a test of love).
26 Ph 1,7
27 <i>Ypevp</i>. As Lat. super). Multa super Priamo ragitans, super Hectore multa. Virg). Aen i. 750).
28 Rm 1,13-14
5. For do not tell me that this or that man is a runaway slave, or a robber or thief, or laden with countless faults, or that he is a mendicant and abject, or of low value and worthy of no account; but consider that for his sake the Christ died; and this sufficeth thee for a ground for all solicitude. Consider what sort of person he must be, whom Christ valued at so high a price as not to have spared even his own blood. For neither, if a king had chosen to sacrifice himself on any one’s behalf, should we have sought out another demonstration of his being some one great and of deep interest to the King—I fancy not—for his death would suffice to show the love of him who had died towards him. But as it is not man, not angel, not archangel; but the Lord of the heavens himself, the only-begotten Son of God himself having clothed himself with flesh, freely gave himself on our behalf. Shall we not do everything, and take every trouble, so that the men who have been thus valued may enjoy every solicitude at our hands? And what kind of defence shall we have? what allowance? This at least is the very thing by way of declaring which Paul also said, “Do not by thy meat destroy him for whose sake Christ died.”29 For desiring to shame, and to bring to solicitude, and to persuade to care for their neighbours, those who despise their brethren, and look down upon them as being weak, instead of all30 else he set down the Master’s death.
Sitting then in the prison he wrote the letter to the Philippians from that so great distance. For such as this is the love that is according to God:31 it is interrupted by no one of human things, since it has its roots from above in the heavens32 and its recompense. And what says he? “Now I desire that ye should know, brethren”33 Seest thou solicitude for his scholars? seest thou a teacher’s carefulness? Hear too of loving affection of scholars towards their teacher, that thou mayest know that this was what made them strong and unconquerable—the being bound together with one another. For if “Brother helped by brother is as a strong city;”34 far more so many bound together by the bonds of love would have entirely repulsed the plotting of the wicked demon. That indeed then Paul was bound up with the disciples, requires not even when in bonds he anxiously cared for them, and each day, he was also dying for them, burning with his longing.
29 Rm 14,15
30 <i>Anti;</i>. It may mean, as an equivalent, in the balance; comprehending and out-weighing all, other considerations).
31 <i> Hkata; Qeo;n agavph</i>, <i><dqŸhJ ga`r kata` Qeovn luvph metavnoian eiv" swthrivan ejgazetai.</dqŸ</i> 2Co 7,10).
32 <i> jEk tw`n ouranw`n</i>. Chrysostom seems to use <i>ejk</i> and not <i>ejn</i>, in reference to <i>a[nwqen </i> preceding. This is the Greek idiom ; <i>ajuto`u ejni; Troivh</i> Il. B. 237, but <i>a[utovqen ejx e(drh"</i>, T. 77).
33 Ph 1,12
34 Pr 18,19 Pr 18 our version it stands, “A brother offended is a strong city.” Chrysostom quotes exactly from the LXX. On the other hand, <i>Bohqevq</i>, as. governing is a dative, has no passive voice, at least in classical Greek). <i>Bohqovumeno"</i> may, as here, he used by the Alexandrians).
6. And that the disciples too were bound up with Paul with all perfectness;35 and that not men only, but women also, hear what he says about Phoebe. “Now I commend36 to you Phoebe the sister, being a deaconess of the Church which is in Cenchreae; that ye may receive her in the Lord worthily of the saints, and stand by her, in whatever matter she may require you, since37 she has proved a helper38 of many; and of me myself.”39 But in this instance he bore witness to her of her zeal so far as help went(only:)40 but Priscilla and Aquilla went as far even as death for Paul’s sake; and about them he thus writes, saying,“Aquila and Priscilla salute you, who for my life’s sake laid down their own neck;”41 for death clearly. And about another again writing to these very persons he says, “Because he went as far as death; having counselled ill for his life, in order that he might supply your deficiency in your service towards me.”42 Seest thou how they loved their teacher? how they regarded his rest43 before their own life? On this account no one surpassed them then. Now this I say, not that we may hear only, but that we may also imitate; and not to the ruled only, but also to those who rule is what we say addressed; in order that both scholars may display much solicitude about their teachers, and the teachers may have the same loving affection as Paul about those placed under them; not those present only, but also those who are far off. For also Paul, dwelling in the whole world just as in one house, thus continually took thought for the salvation of all; and having dismissed every thing of his own; bonds and troubles and stripes and straits, watched over and inquired into each day, in what state the affairs of the disciples were; and often for this very purpose alone sent, now Timothy, and now Tychicus; and about him he says, “That he may know your circumstances, and encourage your hearts:”44 and about Timothy; “I have sent him, being no longer able to contain myself; lest in someway the tempter have tempted you.”45 And Titus again elsewhere, and another to another place. For since he himself, by the compulsion of his bonds being often detained in one place, was unable to meet those who were his vitals, he met them through the disciples.
35 <i>Akribevia"</i>. As a chain accurately and closely linked so as not to be severed asunder).
36 <i>Sunivsthmi</i>. Lit. establish, vouch for her).
37 <i>Hti"</i>, answering to Lat). quae with subjunctive, expressing the cause).
38 <i>Prosavti"</i>, patroness : a relation well-known in Greece).
39 (Rm 16,1-2).
40 i.e., movnon ; a common ellipsis in Chrysostom).
41 Rm 16,3-4.
42 Ph 2,30
43 From trouble,<i> <dqŸa[nesin.</dqŸ Comp. 2Co 7,5.
44 Ep 6,22.
45 1Th 3,5
7. And then therefore being in bonds he writes to the Philippians, saying, “Now I desire that ye should know, brethren,”46 calling the disciples brethren. For such a thing as this is love; it casts out all inequality, and knows not superiority and dignity; but even if one be higher than all, he descends to the lowlier position of all; just what Paul also used to do. But let us hear what it is that he desires they should know. “That the things which happened unto me,” he says, “have fallen out rather to the furtherance of the gospel.”47 Tell me, how and in what way? Hast thou then been released from thy bonds? hast thou then put off thy chain? and dost thou with free permission preach in the city? hast thou then, having gone into an assembly, drawn out many long discourses about the faith, and departed after gaining many disciples? hast thou then raised the dead and been made an object of wonder? hast thou then cleansed lepers, and all were astounded? hast thou driven away demons, and been exalted? No one of these things, he says. How then did the furtherance of the gospel take place? tell me. “So that my bonds,” he says, “have become openly known in the whole Court, and to all the rest.”48 What sayest thou? this then, this was the furtherance, this the advance, this the increase of the proclamation—that all knew that thou wast bound. Yes, he says: Hear at least what comes next, that thou mayest learn that the bonds not only proved no hindrance, but also a ground of greater freedom of speech. “So that several49 of the brethren in the Lord, in reliance on my bonds, more abundantly dare fearlessly to speak the word.”50 What sayest thou, O Paul? have thy bonds inspired not anxiety but confidence? not fear but earnest longing? The things mentioned have no consistency.51 I too know it. For neither did these things take place according to the consistency of human affairs, he means,52 but what came about was above nature, and the successes were of divine grace. On this account what used to cause anxiety to all others, that to him afforded confidence. For also if any one having taken the leader of an army and confined him, have made this publicly known, he throws the whole camp into flight; and if any one have carried a shepherd away from the flock, the security with which he drives off the sheep is great. But not in Paul’s case was it thus, but the contrary entirely. For the leader of the army was bound, and the soldiers became more forward in the spirit; and the confidence with which they sprung upon their adversaries was greater: the shepherd was in confinement, and the sheep were not consumed, nor even scattered.
46 Ph 1,12
47 Ph 1,12
48 Ph 1,13
49 <i>Tou;" pleijona"</i> again, plures, complures, a good many).
50 Ps 50,14
52 <i>Akolouqivan</i>. Comp. Xen Exped. Cyri. 2,4,19). <i>wJsojuk ajkovlouqa e[ih</i>; the two things were incompatible).
8. Who ever saw, who ever heard of, the scholars taking greater encouragement in the dangers of their teachers? How was it that they feared not? How was it that they feared not? how was it that they were not terrified? how was it that they did not say to Paul, “Physician, heal thyself,”53 deliver thyself from thy manifold perils, and then thou will be able to procure for us those countless good things? How was it they did not say these things? How! It was because they had been schooled, from the grace of the Spirit, that these things took place not out of weakness, but out of the permission of the Christ; in order that the truth might shine abroad more largely; through bonds and imprisonments and tribulations and straits increasing and rising, to a greater volume. Thus is the power of Christ in weakness perfected.54 For indeed if his bonds had crippled Paul55 and made him cowardly; either himself or those belonging to him; one could not but feel difficulty; but if rather they prepared him into greater renown, one must be astounded and marvel, how through a thing involving dishonour glory was procured for the disciple—through a thing inspiring cowardice confidence and encouragement resulted to them all. For who was not astounded at him then, seeing him encircled with a chain? Then demons took to flight all the more, when they saw him spending his time in a prison. For not so splendid does the diadem make a royal head, as the chain his hands; not owing to their proper nature, but owing to the grace that darted brightness on them.56 On this account it was that great encouragement resulted to the disciples. For also they saw his body indeed bound, but his tongue not bound, his hands indeed tightly manacled,57 but his voice unshackled, and transversing the whole world more swiftly than the solar ray. And this became to them an encouragement; learning as they did from the facts that no one of present things is to be dreaded. For when the soul has been genuinely imbued by divine longing and love, it pays regard to no one of things present; but just as those who are mad venture themselves against fire and sword and wild beasts and sea and all else, so these too, maddened with a most noble and most spiritual frenzy, a frenzy arising from sanity,58 used to laugh at all things that are seen. On this account, seeing their teachers bound, they the more exulted, the more prided themselves; by facts giving to their adversaries a demonstration that on all sides they were impregnable and indomitable.
53 <i>Fhsivn</i>. This word, so contstantly used by Chrysostom, is sometimes almost redundant; the nominative to it, if any, being uncertain. It may be redundant here or it may be equivalent to <i>levgei</i> he means. He does not say it).
54 Lc 4,23
55 <i>Dialavuph/</i>.In Attic Greek the optative would be used to express past time. But it may be noticed that Chrysostom nearly always has the subjunctive. a usage probably of the Alexandrian period of Greek literature. 2Co 12,9).
56 <i>Upeskevlise</i>. Lit. tripped up, causing a fall).
57 <i>Apaqo`usan</i>. This properly is, dropping its flowers as a plant withering defloresco. I strongly suspect that <i>ejpanqou`san</i> should be read which not only is just what is wanted, but gives a satisfactory government to<i> ajuta`i"</i>, which now it has not).
58 <i> jEsqigmevna"</i>. Comp. the chaining of Prometheus <i><dqŸAravsse ma`llon sqivgge</dqŸ</i>. Lat). stringo, constrictus).
9. Then therefore, when matters were in this state, some of the enemies of Paul, desiring to fan up the war to greater vehemence, and to make the hatred of the tyrant, which was felt towards him greater, pretended that they themselves also preached; (and they did preach the right and sound faith,) for the sake of the doctrine advancing more rapidly: and this they did, not with the desire to disseminate the faith; but in order that Nero, having learnt that the preaching was increasing and the doctrine advancing, might the sooner have Paul led away to execution59 There were therefore two schools; that of Paul’s scholars and that of Paul’s enemies; the one preaching out of sincerity, and the others out of love of contention and the hatred they felt towards Paul. And by way of declaring this he said, “Some indeed through envy and strife are preaching Christ,” (pointing out those his enemies) “but some also through good pleasure;”60 saying this about his own scholars61 Then next about those; “Some indeed out of contentiousness,” (his enemies,) not purely, not soundly, but, “thinking that they are thereby bringing pressure upon my bonds;62 but the others out of love;” (this again about his own brethren;) “knowing that I am set63 ’for the defence of the gospel.” For what? Nevertheless, in any way; whether in pretence or in sincerity, Christ is being announced.”64 So that vainly and to no purpose is this saying taken in reference to heresies. For those who then were preaching were not preaching corrupt doctrine; but sound and right belief. For if they were preaching corrupt doctrine, and were teaching other things contrary to Paul, what they desired was certain not to succeed to them. Now what did they desire? That the faith having grown, and the disciples of Paul having become numerous, it should rouse Nero to greater hostility. And if they were preaching different doctrines, they would not have made the disciples of Paul numerous; and by not doing so,65 they would not have exasperated the tyrant. He does not therefore say this—that they were bringing in corrupt doctrines—but that the motive from which they were preaching, this was corrupt. For it is one thing to state the pretext66 of their preaching itself was not sound. For the preaching does not become sound when the doctrine is laden with deception; and the pretext does not become sound when the preaching indeed is sound, but they who preach do not preach for the sake of God, but either with a view of enmity, or with a view to the favour of others.
59 <i>Swfrosuvnh/"</i>. Not in its ethical, but in its etymological sense, <i>sw`oi th/n frevna</i>, sound in mind. The antithesis is doubtless intentional).
60 <i>Toj Bavraqron</i>. The Athenian place and mode of execution. It cannot be literally rendered. The Tarpeian rock may be meant). Dejicere a saxo cives, Hor. Serm. This sentence proves <i><dqŸajlhvqeia</dqŸ to be, not truth, but sincerity. They preached <i><dqŸojrqhvn kai; uJginh` pivstin.</dqŸ</i>
61 That is, heartily).
62 Ph 1,15
63 Ph 5,17
64 <i>Kei`mai</i>. Perhaps lit. “I am lying” ’—here in prison).
66 <i>mh; poiou`nte" de;</i>. Referring to <i>ejpoivhsan</i>, just used. But the Greeks (as Aristophanes) sometimes use <i>poiw` </i>in these cases, whatever word precedes; as in English. They generally repeat the same word, e. g., <i><dqŸmanqavnei"; Ouj manqajnw,</dqŸ</i> Aristoph. Here, then, taken in, either way, it comes to the same.<i>MhJ</i> , because hypothetical, “if they did not make.”
10. He therefore does not say this—that they were bringing in heresies; but that it was not from a right motive, nor through piety67 that they were preaching what they did preach. For it was not they might increase the gospel that they were doing this; but that they might wage war against him, and throw him into greater danger—on this account he accuses them. And see how with exactitude he laid it.68 “Thinking,” he says, “that they were putting pressure upon my bonds.”69 He did not say, putting, but “thinking they were putting upon,” that is supposing, by way of pointing out that even if they so supposed, still he himself was not in such a position; but that he even rejoiced on account of the advance of the preaching. He added therefore saying, “But in this I both rejoice and will rejoice:”70 whereas if he held their doctrines deception, and they were bringing in heresies, Paul could not possibly rejoice. But since the doctrine was sound and of genuine percentage, on this account he says,“I rejoice and will rejoice.” For what if they71 are destroying themselves by doing this out of contentiousness? Still, even unwillingly, they are strengthening my cause. Seest thou how great is Paul’s power? how he is caught by no one of the devil’s machinations? And not only is he not caught; but also by these themselves he subdues him. For great indeed is both the devil’s craftiness,72 and the wickedness of those who minister to him; for under pretence of being of the same mind, they desired to extinguish the proclamation73 But“he who seizes the cunning in their craftiness”74 did not permit that this should take place then. By way of declaring this very thing at least Paul said,“But the continuing in the flesh is the more necessary for your sake; and this I confidently know, that I shall continue and remain in company with you all.”75 For those men indeed set their mind on casting me out of the present life, and are ready to endure anything for this object: but God does not permit it on your account.
67 <i>Provfasin</i>. But it was not their pretext, but their real motive: v 17. Any one conversant with Greek authors cannot fail to notice that, with some mental process of their own, they at times use expressions naturally suggesting the very contrary to to what they must mean).
68 <i>Eujlavbeian</i>, Lit. carefulness in handling anything holy—reverence).
69 <i>Aujtoj</i>, i. e., the change <i>e[gklhma</i>, involved in <i>ejgkale`i</i>).
70 Ph 1,17
71 Ph 5,18
72 <i> jEkei`noi</i>, Lat isti, “the men”.3).
73 <i>Kakourgiva, <dqŸpara; tavuta" ga;r kakourge`i</dqŸ</i>, of the sophist Arist). Rhet. 3,2, 7.4).
74 <i>khvpugma</i>. In its proper sense. the thing preached, the Gospel. But it more commonly is =<i>khruxi"</i>, which word is scarcely used at all).
75 1Co 3,19 <i>Drassovmeno"</i>, lit. clutches. Hence <i>dracmh</i>;, a handful of copper, <i>sofouv"</i>, falsely wise. “Sofiva; ajreth; tecnh`".” Arist). Eth. Nich. 1. vi. comp. Lc 16,8, of the dishonest steward).
11. These things therefore, all of them, remember with exactness in order that you may be able with all wisdom to correct those who use the Scriptures without reference to circumstances76 and at hap-hazard, and for the destruction of their neighbours. And we shall be able both to remember what has been said, and to correct others, if we always betake ourselves to prayers as a refuge, and beseech the God who gives the word of wisdom to grant both intelligence in hearing, and a careful and unconquerable guardianship of this spiritual deposit in our hands. For things which often we have not strength to perform successfully from our own exertions, these we shall have power to accomplish easily through prayers which are persevering. For always and without intermission it is a duty to pray, both for him who is in affliction, and him who is in dangers, and him who is in prosperity—for him who is in relief and much prosperity, that these may remain unmoved and without vicissitude, and may never change; and for him who is in affliction and his many dangers, that he may see some favourable change brought about to him, and be transported into a calm of consolation. Art thou in a calm? Then beseech God that this calm may continue settled to thee. Hast thou seen a storm risen up against thee? Beseech God earnestly77 to cause the billow to pass, and to make a calm out of the storm. Hast thou been heard? Be heartily thankful for this; because thou hast been heard. Hast thou not been heard? Persevere,78 in order that thou mayest be heard. For even if God at any time delay the giving, it is not in hatred and aversion;79 but from the desire by the deferring of the giving perpetually to retain thee with himself; just in the way also that affectionate fathers do;80 for they also adroitly manage the perpetual and assiduous attendance of children who are rather indolent by the delay of the giving. There is to thee no need of mediators in audience with God; nor of that much canvassing;81 nor of the fawning upon others; but even if thou be destitute, even if bereft of advocacy, alone, by thyself, having called on God for help, thou wilt in any case succeed82 He is not so wont to assent when entreated by others on our behalf, as by ourselves who are in need; even if we be laden with ten thousand evil deeds. For if in the case of men, even if we have come into countless collissions with them, when both at dawn and at mid-day and in the evening we show ourselves to those who are aggrieved against us, by the unbroken continuance and the persistent meeting and interview we easily demolish their enmity—far more in the case of God would this be effected.
76 Ph 1,24-25
78 <i>Ektenw`"</i>. Like a racer. with every muscle “stretched out.” Antilochos exclaims to his horses in the chariot race, <i>Eimbhton, ka;i sfw`ij titaineton</i>. Il. 23,403. comp. Philip. iii. 13 ; <i> toi`" e[mprosqen ejpektenovmeno" diwvkw</i>; the same metaphor).
79 <i>Para(meinon</i>. wait, as it were, at the door; <i>paraj</i>, until answered. Mt 7,7, <i>tw` korouonti</i> (to him who continues kuocking) <i>ajnoighvsetai</i>).
80 Apostreqovmeno". The Pagans adopted the expression literally, Diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat, Virg). Aen. 1,482).
81 Here we have <i>poio`usi</i>, as in English, after<i> katevcein</i>. See previous note. It might be <i>katevcousi</i>, repeated).
82 <i>Peridomh`"</i>, running about for votes and favour. Lat). <i>ambitio</i>. “Non ego * Grammaticas ambire tribus et pulpita. dignor.” ”Hor). Epist. I. 19, 40).
12. But thou art unworthy. Become worthy by thy assiduity. For that it both is possible that the unworthy should become worthy from his assiduity; and that God assents more when called on by ourselves than by others; and that he often delays the giving, not from the wish that we should be utterly perplexed, nor to send us out83 with empty hands; but in order that he may become the author of greater good things to us—these three points I will endeavour to make evident by the parable which has to-day been read to you. The woman of Chanaan had come to Christ praying on behalf of a daughter possessed by a demon, and crying out with much earnestness84 (it says,85 “Have pity on me, Lord, my daughter is badly possessed by a demon.” See, the woman of a strange nation, and a barbarian, and outside of the Jewish commonwealth. For indeed what else (was she) than a dog, and unworthy of the receiving her request? For “it is not,” he says, “good to take the children’s bread, and to give it to the dogs.” But, all the same, from her assiduity, she became worthy. For not only did he admit her into the nobility of children, dog as she was; but also he sent her off with that high encomium saying, “O woman great is thy faith; be it done to thee as thou wilt.”86 Now then the Christ says, “great is thy faith,” seek thou no other demonstration of the greatness of soul which was in the woman. Seest thou how, from her assiduity the woman, being unworthy, became worthy? Desirest thou also to learn that we accomplish (our wish) by calling on him by ourselves more than by others? She cried out, and the disciples having come to him say, “Let her go away, for she is crying after us:”87 and to them he says, “I am not sent, unless to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.”88 But when she had come to him by herself and continued crying, and saying, “Yes, Lord, for even the dogs eat from the table of their masters,”89 then he granted the favour and says, “Be it done unto thee as thou wilt.” Seest thou how, when they were entreating him, he repelled; but when she who needed the gift herself cried out, he assented? For to them he says, “I am not sent, unless to the lost sheep of the house of Israel;” but to her90 he said, “Great is thy faith; be it done unto thee as thou wilt.” Again, at the beginning and in the prelude of her request he answered nothing; but when both once and twice and thrice she had come to him, then he granted the boon; by the issue making us believe that he had delayed the giving, not that be might repel her91 but that he might display to us all the woman’s endurance. For if he had delayed in order that he might repel her, he would have not granted it even at the end; but since he was waiting to display to all her spiritual wisdom, on this account he was silent.92 For if he had granted it immediately and at the beginning, we should not have known the woman’s virtue.93 “Let her go”94 it says, “because she is clamouring behind us.” But what (says) the Christ? “Ye hear a voice, but I see the mind: I know what she is going to say. I choose not to permit the treasure hidden in her mind to escape notice; but I am waiting and keeping silence; in order that having discovered it I may lay it down in publicity, and make it manifest to all.
83 To understand this description we have to bear in mind that, at Rome at least, legal advocates could claim no fees. They were forbidden, at least before the Imperial age, by the Cincian law). Turpe reos emptƒ miseros defendere linguƒ.Ov). A mor. 1,10, 30. Hence, the obtaining the secvices of an eminent lawyer required interest and entreaty. So the Sicilians begged Cicero to undertake the prosecution of Verres. Cic). in Verr. Div. c. 12).
84 <i>Ekpemyai</i>, i. e. from the hall, as it were, of audience).
85 <i>Ektenevia"</i>, as above).
86 <i>Kunarivoi"</i>. In Greek as in Latin and German, the diminutive sometimes expresses contempt).
87 Mt 15,22 Mt 15,26 Mt 15,28
88 Mt 5,23
89 Mt 5,24
90 Mt 5,27 is, the bread thrown to them, when it had been used to cleanse the fingers. Gr). <i>ajpomagdaliva</i>,ab <i> ajpouavssomai</i>). Comp. the very apposite passage, in which Agaracritus, a low person, says that this had been his own fare; <i>h[ mavthn gavn ];Apomagdaliva" sitvoumeno" toso`uto" ejktrafevihn</i>. Cleon rejoins, <i> jApomagdalivoi" wJsper kuvwn, w\ pampovnhre; pw`" ou`n kuno" borajn sitomvmeno" mavcei su;,</i> Aristoph Equ.412 .<i>Kuna[ria</i>.So “canicula”,of the dog star, invisum sidus).
92 <i>Diakrouvshtai</i>, as with rude violence. Lit. knock to a distance from himself, as with a hard blow).
93 <i>Esiga</i>. Not literally, for Christ had answered, “It is not meet to take the children’s bread.” But that was silence, as far as returning any favorable answer went).
94 <i>Th;n ajndevian th`" gunaiko;"</i>. Lit the woman’s manliness ; a courage above her sex. The antithesis is doubtless intentional). <dqŸEnavntia paravllhla ma`llon gnwvrima</dqŸ, Lat). virtus. Gibbon, using this is the general sense, has the expression. “manly virtue,” in reference to <i>ajreth`" vAdrvna</i> Hom). Odys. 17,322).
13. Having therefore learned all these things, even if we be in sins, and unworthy of receiving, let us not despair; knowing, that by assiduity of soul we shall be able to become worthy of the request. Even if we be unaided by advocate and destitute, let us not faint; knowing that it is a strong advocacy—the coming to God one’s self by one’s self with much eagerness. Even if he delay and defer with respect to the giving, let us not be dispirited; having learned that the putting it off and delay is a sure proof of caring and love for mankind. If we have thus persuaded ourselves; and with a soul deeply pained and fervent, and thoroughly roused purpose; and such as that with which the woman of Chanaan approached, we too come to him, even if we be dogs; even if we have done anything whatever dreadful; we shall both rebut95 our own crimes, and obtain so great liberty of speech96 as also to be advocates for others; in the way in which also this woman of Chanaan not only herself enjoyed liberty of speech and ten thousand encomiums but had power to snatch her dear daughter97 out of her intolerable sufferings. For nothing—nothing is more powerful than prayer when fervent and genuine. This both disperses present dangers, and rescues from the penalties which take place at that hour.98 That therefore we may both complete our passage through the present life with ease,99 and depart thither100 with confidence, with much zeal and eagerness let us perform this perpetually. For thus shall we be able both to attain the good things which are laid up, and to enjoy those excellent hopes; which God grant that we may all attain; by the grace and loving kindness and compassion of our Lord Jesus Christ—with whom to the Father together with the Holy Spirit be glory, honour, dominion, to the ages of the ages.101 Amen).
95 Fhsi;n with no nominative Certainly not Christ-the disciples said it. We might expect <i>favsin</i>; but this I believe Chrysostom never uses in these cases. “It says i. e. the history, or he”, the Evangelist. Sometimes <i>ti" </i> is understood).
96 <i>Apokrousovmeqa</i>. Rebut the charges brought against us.<i><dqŸKaka</dqŸ, comp. the double sense of the Lat). crimen).
97 <i>Parrhsivan</i>. Here, liberty to address the Court. So King Agrippa says, “Paul, thou art permitted to speak for thyself” Ac 26,1. Chrysostom throughout maintains the metaphor of the judicial process— <i>ajprostavteuto", k.t.l</i>
98 <i>Qugatrion</i>. Here a diminutive of endearment filola). <i> \W Swkratidion filtaton</i>, Arist). Nub. 736. As the Greeks said, <i>uJpokoristidw`"</i>).
99 <i>Kairon, <dqŸmevro" cronou</dqŸ</i>, Aristotle, A critical moment).
100 <i>Eujkoliv"</i>. Effect for cause ; contentedness for that which creates it; ease. Comp. “O Melib’e, Deus nobis haec otia fecit”, Virg). Ecl. 1,6).
101 <i>Eke`i</i>. The Greek euphemism for the other world. Aristophanes speaks of the kindliness and contentedness of Sophocles in both states of being,<i> JO dj ejukolo" mevn ejnqavd e[ukalo" dj ejkei. </i> Ran’, 82. See last note).
Chrysostom: Homilies 35001