THE CATECHISM OF ST. PIUS X
1 Q: What is the sacrament of Confirmation?
A: Confirmation is a sacrament which gives us the Holy Ghost, imprints on our souls the mark of a soldier of Jesus Christ, and makes us perfect Christians.
2 Q: How does the sacrament of Confirmation make us perfect Christians?
A: The sacrament of Confirmation makes us perfect Christians by confirming us in the faith and perfecting the other virtues and gifts received in Baptism; hence it is called Confirmation.
3 Q: What gifts of the Holy Ghost are received in Confirmation?
A: The gifts of the Holy Ghost received in Confirmation are these seven: Wisdom, Understanding, Counsel, Fortitude, Knowledge, Piety, and the Fear of the Lord.
4 Q: What is the matter of this sacrament?
A: The matter of this sacrament, besides the imposition of hands by the bishop, is the anointing of the forehead of the baptized with sacred chrism; and for this reason it is also called the sacrament of Chrism, that is Anointing.
5 Q: What is sacred Chrism?
A: Sacred Chrism is oil of olive mingled with balsam, and consecrated by the bishop on Holy Thursday.
6 Q: What do the oil and balsam in this sacrament signify?
A: In this sacrament the oil, which is unctuous and strengthening, signifies the abounding grace which is diffused over the soul of the Christian to confirm him in his faith; and the balsam, which is fragrant and prevents corruption, signifies that the Christian, strengthened by this grace, is enabled to give forth a good odor of Christian virtue and preserve himself from the corruption of vice.
7 Q: What is the form of the sacrament of Confirmation?
A: The form of the sacrament of Confirmation is this: "I sign thee with the Sign of the Cross, and I confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen."
8 Q: Who is the minister of the sacrament of Confirmation?
A: The ordinary minister of the sacrament of Confirmation is the bishop alone.
9 Q: How does the bishop administer Confirmation?
A: In administering the sacrament of Confirmation the bishop first stretches his hands over those to be confirmed, and invokes the Holy Ghost upon them; next, he anoints the forehead of each one with sacred chrism in the form of a cross, saying the words of the form; then he gives each one confirmed a light stroke on the cheek with his right hand, saying: Peace be with you; finally, he solemnly blesses all those he has confirmed.
10 Q: Why is the anointing made on the forehead?
A: The anointing is made on the forehead, where signs of fear and shame appear, in order that he who is confirmed may understand that he should not blush at the name and profession of a Christian, nor fear the enemies of his faith.
11 Q: Why is a light stroke given to the person confirmed?
A: A light stroke is given to the person confirmed to show him that he should be ready to bear all insults and endure all sufferings for the faith of Jesus Christ.
12 Q: Should all endeavor to receive the sacrament of Confirmation?
A: Yes, all should endeavor to receive the sacrament of Confirmation and to have those under them receive it.
13 Q: At what age is it advisable to receive the sacrament of Confirmation?
A: The age at which it is advisable to receive the sacrament of Confirmation is about the seventh year, because it is then that temptations usually begin, and the grace of the sacrament can be sufficiently discerned and a recollection be had of having received it.?
14 Q: What dispositions are required to receive worthily the sacrament of Confirmation?
A: To receive worthily the sacrament of Confirmation it is necessary to be in the grace of God; know the principal mysteries of our holy faith; and approach it with reverence and devotion.
15 Q: Would he who received Confirmation a second time be guilty of sin?
A: He would commit a sacrilege; because Confirmation is one of the sacraments that imprint a character on the soul and hence may be received only once.
16 Q: What should a Christian do to preserve the grace of Confirmation?
A: To preserve the grace of Confirmation a Christian should pray often, do good works, and live according to the laws of Jesus Christ, in spite of human respect.
17 Q: Why are there also godfathers and godmothers in Confirmation?
A: In order that, by word and example, they may show the confirmed the way to eternal life and help him in the spiritual combat.
18 Q: What qualifications are required in sponsors?
A: They should be of proper age, Catholics, confirmed, instructed in the necessary truths of religion, and persons of good life.
19 Q: Does a sponsor in Confirmation contract any relationship with the confirmed and the parents of the confirmed?
A: The sponsor in Confirmation contracts the same spiritual relationship as is contracted in Baptism.
:The Nature of This Sacrament -- The Real Presence
1 Q: What is the sacrament of the Eucharist?
A: The Eucharist is a sacrament in which, by the marvelous conversion of the whole substance of bread into the Body of Jesus Christ, and that of wine into His precious Blood, is contained truly, really, and substantially, the Body, the Blood, the Soul and Divinity of the same Lord Jesus Christ, under the appearance of bread and wine as our spiritual food.
2 Q: In the Eucharist is there the same Jesus Christ who is in heaven, and who was born on earth of the Blessed Virgin?
A: Yes, in the Eucharist there is truly the same Jesus Christ who is in heaven, and who was born on earth of the Blessed Virgin.
3 Q: Why do you believe that in the Eucharist Jesus Christ is really present?
A: I believe that in the Eucharist Jesus Christ is truly present, because He Himself has said it, and holy Church teaches it.
4 Q: What is the matter of the sacrament of the Eucharist?
A: The matter of the sacrament of the Eucharist is that which was used by Jesus Christ Himself, that is, wheaten bread and wine of the vine.
5 Q: What is the form of the sacrament of the Eucharist?
A: The form of the sacrament of the Eucharist consists of the words used by Jesus Christ Himself: "This is My Body: This is My Blood."
6 Q: What is the host before consecration?
A: The host before consecration is bread.
7 Q: After consecration what is the host?
A: After consecration the host is the true Body of our Lord Jesus Christ under the species of bread
8 Q: What is in the chalice before consecration?
A: In the chalice before consecration there is wine with a few drops of water.
9 Q: After consecration what is in the chalice?
A: After consecration there is in the chalice the true Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, under the species of wine.
10 Q: When does the change of the bread into the Body and of the wine into the Blood of Jesus Christ take place?
A: The change of the bread into the Body and of the wine into the Blood of Jesus Christ is made in the very moment in which the priest pronounces the words of consecration during holy Mass.
11 Q: What is the consecration?
A: The consecration is the renewal, by means of the priest, of the miracle wrought by Jesus Christ at the Last Supper, of changing bread and wine into His adorable Body and Blood by saying: "This is My Body: This is My Blood."
12 Q: What does the Church call the miraculous change of bread and of wine into the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ?
A: The Church calls the miraculous change which is daily wrought upon our altars transubstantiation.
13 Q: Who gave this great power to the words of consecration?
A: Our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, who is Almighty God, gave this great power to the words of consecration.
14 Q: Is there nothing left of the bread and of the wine after consecration?
A: After consecration the species of the bread and of the wine alone are left.
15 Q: What are the species of the bread and of the wine?
A: The species of the bread and of the wine are the quantity and sensible qualities of the bread and of the wine, such as the form, the color, and the taste.
16 Q: How can the species of the bread and of the wine remain without their substance?
A: The species of the bread and of the wine remain without their substance in a wonderful way by the power of God Almighty.
17 Q: Under the species of the bread is there only the Body of Jesus Christ and under the species of the wine only His Blood?
A: Both under the species of the bread and under the species of the wine the living Jesus Christ is all present, with His Body, His Blood, His Soul and His Divinity.
18 Q: Can you tell me why Jesus Christ is whole and entire both in the host and in the chalice?
A: Both in the host and in the chalice Jesus Christ is whole and entire, because He is living and immortal in the Eucharist as He is in heaven; hence where His Body is, there also are His Blood, His Soul, and His Divinity; and where His Blood is, there also are His Body, His Soul and His Divinity, all these being inseparable in Jesus Christ.
19 Q: When Jesus Christ is in the host does He cease to be in heaven?
A: When Jesus Christ is in the host He does not cease to be in heaven, but is at one and the same time in heaven and in the Blessed Sacrament.
20 Q: Is Jesus Christ present in all the consecrated hosts in the world?
A: Yes, Jesus Christ is present in all consecrated hosts in the world.
21 Q: How can Jesus Christ be present in all the consecrated hosts in the world?
A: Jesus Christ is present in all the consecrated hosts in the world by the Omnipotence of God, to whom nothing is impossible.
22 Q: When the host is broken is the Body of Jesus Christ broken also?
A: When the host is broken, the Body of Jesus Christ is not broken, but only the species of the bread are broken.
23 Q: In which part of the host is the Body of Jesus Christ?
A: The Body of Jesus Christ is entire in all the parts into which the host is broken.
24 Q: Is Jesus Christ just as much in a particle of a host as in a whole host?
A: Yes, the same Jesus Christ is just as much in a particle of a host as in a whole host.
25 Q: Why is the Most Blessed Eucharist preserved in our churches?
A: The Most Blessed Eucharist is preserved in our churches that It may be adored by the faithful, and brought to the sick when necessary.
26 Q: Ought the Eucharist to be adored?
A: The Eucharist ought to be adored by all, because it contains really, truly, and substantially, our Lord Jesus Christ Himself.
:The Institution and Effects of the Sacrament of the Eucharist
27 Q: When did Jesus Christ institute the sacrament of the Eucharist?
A: Jesus Christ instituted the sacrament of the Eucharist at the last supper, which He took with His disciples, the evening before His passion.
28 Q: Why did Jesus Christ institute the Most Holy Eucharist?
A: Jesus Christ instituted the Most Holy Eucharist for three principal reasons: (1) To be the Sacrifice of the New Law; (2) To be the food of our souls; (3) To be a perpetual memorial of His passion and death and a precious pledge both of His love for us and of eternal life.
29 Q: Why did Jesus Christ institute this sacrament under the appearances of bread and wine?
A: Jesus Christ instituted this sacrament under the appearances of bread and wine, because, the Eucharist being intended to be our spiritual nourishment, it was therefore fitting that it should be given to us under the form of food and drink.
30 Q: What are the effects which the Most Holy Eucharist produces in us?
A: The principal effects which the Most Holy Eucharist produces in those who worthily receive it are these: (1) It preserves and increases the life of the soul, which is grace, just as natural food sustains and increases the life of the body; (2) It remits venial sins and preserves us from mortal sin; (3) It produces spiritual consolation.
31 Q: Does not the Most Holy Eucharist produce other effects in us?
A: Yes; the Most Holy Eucharist produces three other effects in (1) It weakens our passions, and in particular it allays in us the fires of concupiscence; (2) It increases in us the fervor of charity towards God and our neighbor, and aids us to act in conformity with the will of Jesus Christ; (3) It gives us a pledge of future glory and of the resurrection of our body.
The Dispositions necessary to Receive Holy Communion worthily
32 Q: Does the sacrament of the Eucharist always produce its marvelous effects in us?
A: The sacrament of the Eucharist produces its marvelous effects in us when it is received with the requisite dispositions
33 Q: What conditions are necessary to make a good Communion?
A: To make a good communion three conditions are necessary: (1) To be in the grace of God (2) To be fasting from midnight until the moment of Holy Communion; (3) To know what we are about to receive, and to approach Holy Communion devoutly.
1. NOTE: The discipline of fasting from midnight has been changed. Currently, only a fast of one hour before Communion is required (CIC 919).
34 Q: What is meant by being in the grace of God?
A: To be in the grace of God means to have a pure conscience And to be free from every mortal sin.
35 Q: What should one who knows that he is in mortal sin do before receiving Communion?
A: One who knows that he is in mortal sin must make a good confession before going to Holy Communion, for even an act of perfect contrition is not enough without confession to enable one who is in mortal sin to receive Holy Communion properly.
36 Q: Why does not even an act of perfect contrition suffice to enable one who knows he is in mortal sin to go to Communion?
A: Because the Church, out of respect for this sacrament, has ordained that no one in mortal sin should dare to go to Communion without first going to confession.
37 Q: Does he who goes to Communion in mortal sin receive Jesus Christ?
A: He who goes to Communion in mortal sin receives Jesus Christ but not His grace; moreover, he commits a sacrilege and renders himself deserving of sentence of damnation.
38 Q: What sort of fast is required before Communion?
A: Before communion there is required a natural fast which is broken by taking the least thing by way of food or drink.
2. NOTE: Under the current discipline, taking water or medicine does not break the Eucharistic fast (CIC 919).
39 Q: If one were to swallow a particle that had remained between the teeth, or a drop of water while washing, might he still go to Communion?
A: If one were to swallow a particle that had remained between the teeth, or a drop of water while washing, he might still go to Communion, because in both cases these things would either not be taken as food or drink, or they would have already lost the nature of either.
40 Q: Is it ever allowed to go to Communion after having broken the fast?
A: To go to Communion after having broken the fast is permitted to the sick, who are in danger of death, and to those who on account of prolonged illness have received a special dispensation from the Pope. Communion given to the sick in danger of death is called viaticum, because it supports them on their way from this life to eternity.
3. NOTE: The discipline concerning exemption from the Eucharistic fast has been significantly changed. See Code of Canon Law, CIC 919 for the current regulations.
41 Q: What is meant by the words: To know what we are about to receive?
A: To know what we are about to receive means to know and firmly believe what is taught in Christian doctrine concerning this sacrament.
42 Q: What do the words: To receive Holy Communion with devotion mean?
A: To receive Holy Communion with devotion means to approach Holy Communion with humility and modesty in person And dress; and to make a preparation before, and an act of thanksgiving after, Holy Communion.
43 Q: In what does the preparation before Communion consist?
A: Preparation before Communion consists in meditating for some time on Whom we are about to receive, and on who we are; and in making acts of faith, hope, charity, contrition, adoration, humility, and desire to receive Jesus Christ.
44 Q: In what does the thanksgiving after Communion consist?
A: Thanksgiving after Communion consists in keeping ourselves recollected in order to honor the Lord who is within us; renewing our acts of faith, of hope, of charity, of adoration, of thanksgiving, of offerings, and of requests, especially for those graces which are most necessary for ourselves and for those for whom we are bound to pray.
45 Q: What should we do during the day on which we have received Communion?
A: During the day on which we have received Communion we should remain as recollected as possible, occupy ourselves in works of piety, and discharge the duties of our state with greater diligence.
46 Q: How long does Jesus Christ abide within us after Holy Communion?
A: After Holy Communion Jesus Christ abides within us by His grace as long as we commit no mortal sin; and He abides within us by His Real Presence until the sacramental species are consumed.
4. NOTE: The consumption of the species is not the same as the consumption of the sacrament. We consume the sacrament when we receive Communion. The species are consumed when what we have received would no longer appear to be bread or wine. The Way to Go to Communion
47 Q: How should we act while receiving Holy Communion?
A: In the act of receiving Holy Communion we should be kneeling, hold our head slightly raised, our eyes modest and fixed on the sacred Host, our mouth sufficiently open, and the tongue slightly out over the lips.
5. NOTE: Reception of Communion in the hand is now commonly permitted. This also affects the next question.
48 Q: How should the Communion cloth be held?
A: The Communion cloth should be held in such a way as to receive the sacred Host in case it should fall.
49 Q: When should the sacred Host be swallowed?
A: We should try to swallow the sacred Host as soon as possible, and we should avoid spitting for some time.
50 Q: If the sacred Host should cling to the palate what should be done?
A: If the sacred Host should cling to the palate it should be removed with the tongue, but never with the finger.
The Precept of Holy Communion
51 Q: When are we bound to receive Communion?
A: We are bound to go to Communion once a year, at Easter, each one in his own parish; and also when in danger of death.
52 Q: At what age does the precept of paschal Communion begin to bind?
A: The precept of paschal Communion begins to bind as soon As a child is capable of receiving with the requisite dispositions.
53 Q: Do they sin who are old enough to receive Communion and do not?
A: They who are old enough to receive Communion and do not either because they are unwilling, or because, through their own fault, they are not instructed, undoubtedly sin. Their parents or guardians also sin if the delay of Communion is owing to their fault, and they shall have to render a strict account to God for it.
54 Q: Is it a good and useful thing to go often to Communion?
A: It is an excellent thing to go to Communion often, and even daily in accordance with the desire of the Church, provided we do so with the requisite dispositions.
55 Q: How often may we go to Holy Communion?
A: We may go to Holy Communion as often as we are advised to do so by a pious and learned confessor.
The Essence, Institution and Ends of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
1 Q: Should the Holy Eucharist be considered only as a sacrament?
A: The Holy Eucharist, besides being a sacrament, is also the permanent Sacrifice of the New Law, which Jesus Christ left to His Church to be offered to God by the hands of His priests.
2 Q: In what in general does a sacrifice consist?
A: In general a sacrifice consists in the offering of some sensible thing to God and in some way destroying it as an acknowledgment of His Supreme Dominion over us and over all things.
3 Q: What is this Sacrifice of the New Law called?
A: This Sacrifice of the New Law is called the Holy Mass.
4 Q: What, then, is the Holy Mass?
A: The Holy Mass is the Sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ offered on our altars under the appearances of bread and wine, in commemoration of the Sacrifice of the Cross.
5 Q: Is the Sacrifice of the Mass the same as that of the Cross?
A: The Sacrifice of the Mass is substantially the same as that of the Cross, for the same Jesus Christ, Who offered Himself on the Cross, it is Who offers Himself by the hands of the priests, His ministers, on our altars; but as regards the way in which He is offered, the Sacrifice of the Mass differs from the Sacrifice of the Cross, though retaining the most intimate and essential relation to it.
6 Q: What difference and relation then is there between the Sacrifice of the Mass and that of the Cross?
A: Between the Sacrifice of the Mass and that of the Cross there is this difference and relation, that on the Cross Jesus Christ offered Himself by shedding His Blood and meriting for us; whereas on our altars He sacrifices Himself without the shedding of His Blood, and applies to us the fruits of His passion And death.
7 Q: What other relation has the Sacrifice of the Mass to that of the Cross?
A: Another relation of the Sacrifice of the Mass to that of the Cross is, that the Sacrifice of the Mass represents in a sensible way the shedding of the Blood of Jesus Christ on the Cross, because, in virtue of the words of consecration, only the Body of our Savior is made present under the species of the bread and only His Blood under the species of the wine; although by natural concomitance and by the hypostatic union, the living And real Jesus Christ is present under each of the species.
8 Q: Is not the Sacrifice of the Cross the one only Sacrifice of the New Law?
A: The Sacrifice of the Cross is the one only Sacrifice of the New Law, inasmuch as through it Our Lord satisfied Divine Justice, acquired all the merits necessary to save us, and thus, on His part, fully accomplished our redemption. These merits, however, He applies to us through the means instituted by Him in His Church, among which is the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.
9 Q: For what ends then is the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass offered?
A: The Sacrifice of the Mass is offered to God for four ends: (1) To honor Him properly, and hence it is called Latreutical; (2) To thank Him for His favors, and hence it is called Eucharistical; (3) To appease Him, make Him due satisfaction for our sins, and to help the souls in Purgatory, and hence it is called Propitiatory; (4) To obtain all the graces necessary for us, and hence it is called Impetratory.
10 Q: Who is it that offers to God the Sacrifice of the Holy Mass?
A: The first and principal Offerer of the Sacrifice of the Holy Mass is Jesus Christ, while the priest is the minister who in the Name of Jesus Christ offers the same Sacrifice to the Eternal Father.
11 Q: Who instituted the Sacrifice of the Holy Mass?
A: Jesus Christ Himself instituted the Sacrifice of the Holy Mass when He instituted the Sacrament of the Blessed Eucharist and said that this should be done in memory of His passion.
12 Q: To whom is the Holy Mass offered?
A: The Holy Mass is offered to God alone.
13 Q: If the Holy Mass is offered to God alone why are so many Masses celebrated in honor of the Blessed Virgin And the Saints?
A: Mass celebrated in honor of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints is always a sacrifice offered to God alone; it is said to be celebrated in honor of the Blessed Virgin and the Saints to thank God for the gifts He has given them, and through their intercession to obtain from Him more abundantly the graces of which we have need.
14 Q: Who shares in the fruits of the Mass?
A: The entire Church shares in the fruits of the Mass, but more particularly: (1) The priest and those who assist at Mass, the latter being united with the priest; (2) Those for whom the Mass is applied, both living and dead.
The Way to Assist at Mass
15 Q: What is required in order to assist at Holy Mass well and profitably?
A: To assist at Holy Mass well and profitably two things are necessary: (1) Modesty of person and (2) Devotion of heart.
16 Q: In what does modesty of person consist?
A: Modesty of person consists especially in being modestly dressed, in observing silence and recollection and, as far as possible, in remaining kneeling, except during the time of the two Gospels which are heard standing.
17 Q: In hearing Holy Mass which is the best way to practice true devotion?
A: In hearing Holy Mass the best way to practice true devotion is the following: (1) From the very beginning to unite our intention with that of the priest, offering the Holy Sacrifice to God for the ends for which it was instituted. (2) To accompany the priest in each prayer and action of the Sacrifice. (3) To meditate on the passion and death of Jesus Christ And to heartily detest our sins, which have been the cause of them. (4) To go to Communion, or at least to make a spiritual Communion while the priest communicates.
18 Q: What is spiritual Communion?
A: Spiritual Communion is a great desire to be united sacramentally with Jesus Christ. saying, for example: "My Lord Jesus Christ, I desire with my whole heart to be united with Thee now and forever;" and then make the same acts that are to be made before and after sacramental Communion.
19 Q: Does the recitation of the Rosary or other prayers during Mass prevent us from hearing it with profit?
A: The recitation of the Rosary and other prayers during Mass does not prevent us from hearing it with profit, provided we try As far as possible to follow the parts of the Holy Sacrifice.
20 Q: Is it advisable to pray for others while assisting at Mass?
A: Yes it is advisable to pray for others while assisting at Mass; nay more, the time of Holy Mass is the most suitable of all times to pray for the living and the dead.
21 Q: What should we do after Mass?
A: After Mass we should give God thanks for having allowed us to assist at this great Sacrifice, and we should ask pardon for All the faults we may have committed while assisting at it.
1 Q: What is the sacrament of Penance?
A: The sacrament of Penance, also called Confession, is a sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ to remit the sins committed after Baptism.
2 Q: Why is the name of Penance given to this sacrament?
A: The name of Penance is given to this sacrament, because to obtain pardon for sins it is necessary to detest them penitently; and because he who has committed a fault must submit to the penance which the priest imposes.
3 Q: Why is this sacrament also called Confession?
A: This sacrament is also called Confession, because to obtain pardon for sins it is not enough to detest them, but it is necessary also to accuse oneself of them to the priest, that is, to make a confession of them.
4 Q: When did Jesus Christ institute the sacrament of Penance?
A: Jesus Christ instituted the sacrament of Penance on the day of His resurrection when, entering the Supper Room, He solemnly gave His Apostles the power of remitting sin.
5 Q: How did Jesus Christ give His Apostles the power of remitting sin?
A: Jesus Christ gave His Apostles the power of remitting sin thus: Breathing upon them He said: "Receive ye the Holy Ghost; whose sins you shall forgive they are forgiven; and whose sins you shall retain they are retained."
6 Q: What is the matter of the sacrament of Penance?
A: The matter of the sacrament of Penance is divided into remote and proximate. The remote matter consists of the sins committed by the penitent after Baptism; and the proximate matter are the acts of the penitent himself, that is, contrition, confession and satisfaction.
7 Q: What is the form of the sacrament of Penance?
A: The form of the sacrament of Penance is this: "I absolve thee from thy sins."
8 Q: Who is the minister of the sacrament of Penance?
A: The minister of the sacrament of Penance is a priest authorized by the Bishop to hear confessions.
9 Q: Why do you say that a priest must be authorized by the Bishop?
A: A priest must be authorized by the Bishop to hear confessions because to administer this sacrament validly the power of Orders is not enough, but there is also necessary the power of jurisdiction, that is, the power to judge, which must be given by the Bishop.
10 Q: Which are the parts of the sacrament of Penance?
A: The parts of the sacrament of Penance are contrition, confession, and satisfaction on the part of the penitent, and absolution on the part of the priest.
11 Q: What is contrition or sorrow for sins?
A: Contrition or sorrow for sin is a grief of the soul leading us to detest sins committed and to resolve not to commit them any more.
12 Q: What does the word contrition mean?
A: Contrition means a crushing or breaking up into pieces as when a stone is hammered and reduced to dust.
13 Q: Why is the name of contrition given to sorrow for sin?
A: The name of contrition is given to sorrow for sin to signify that the hard heart of the sinner is in a certain way crushed by sorrow for having offended God.
14 Q: In what does confession of sins consist?
A: Confession of sins consists in a distinct accusation of our sins made to the confessor in order to obtain absolution and receive penance for them.
15 Q: Why is confession called an accusation?
A: Confession is called an accusation, because it must not be a careless recital, but a true and sorrowful manifestation of our sins.
16 Q: What is satisfaction or penance?
A: Satisfaction or penance is that prayer or other good work which the confessor enjoins on the penitent in expiation of his sins.
17 Q: What is absolution?
A: Absolution is the sentence which the priest pronounces in the name of Jesus Christ when remitting the penitent's sins.
18 Q: Of all the parts of the sacrament of Penance which is the most necessary?
A: Of all the parts of the sacrament of Penance the most necessary is contrition, because without it no pardon for sins is obtainable, while with it alone, perfect pardon can be obtained, provided that along with it there is the desire, at least implicit, of going to confession.
The Effects and the Necessity of the Sacrament of Penance and the Dispositions to Receive It Properly
19 Q: Which are the effects of the sacrament of Penance?
A: The sacrament of Penance confers sanctifying grace by which are remitted the mortal sins and also the venial sins which we confess and for which we are sorry; it changes eternal punishment into temporal punishment, of which it even remits more or less according to our dispositions; it revives the merits of the good works done before committing mortal sin; it gives the soul aid in due time against falling into sin again, and it restores peace of conscience.
20 Q: Is the sacrament of Penance necessary to all for salvation?
A: The sacrament of Penance is necessary for salvation to all who have committed a mortal sin after Baptism.
21 Q: Is it a good thing to go to confession often?
A: Yes, it is an excellent thing to go to confession often, because the sacrament of Penance, besides taking away sin, gives the graces necessary to avoid sin in the future.
22 Q: Has the sacrament of Penance the power of remitting all sins, no matter how numerous or how great they are?
A: The sacrament of Penance has the power of remitting all sins no matter how numerous and great they are, provided it is received with the requisite dispositions.
23 Q: How many conditions are necessary to make a good confession?
A: To make a good confession five things are necessary: (1) Examination of conscience; (2) Sorrow for having offended God; (3) A resolution of sinning no more; (4) Confession of our sins; (5) Satisfaction or penance
24 Q: What should we do first of all to make a good confession?
A: To make a good confession we should first of all earnestly beseech God to give us light to know all our sins and strength to detest them.
Examination of Conscience
25 Q: What is the examination of conscience?
A: The examination of conscience is a diligent search for the sins committed since the last good confession.
26 Q: How is the examination of conscience made?
A: The examination of conscience is made by carefully calling to mind before God all the sins committed but not confessed, in thought, word, deed and omission, against the Commandments of God and the Church, and against the duties of our state.
27 Q: On what else should we examine ourselves?
A: We should also examine ourselves on our bad habits and on the occasions of sin.
28 Q: In our examination should we also try to discover the number of our sins?
A: In our examination we should also try to discover the number of our mortal sins.
29 Q: What is required for a sin to be mortal?
A: For a sin to be mortal three things are required: (1) Grave matter, (2) Full advertence, (3) Perfect consent of the will.
30 Q: When is the matter to be considered grave?
A: The matter is grave when the thing under examination is seriously contrary to the laws of God and His Church.
31 Q: When is there full advertence in sinning?
A: Full advertence in sinning is had when we know perfectly well that we are doing a serious evil.
32 Q: When is perfect consent of the will verified in sinning?
A: Perfect consent of the will is verified in sinning when we deliberately determine to do a thing although we know that thing to be sinful.
33 Q: What diligence should be used in the examination of conscience?
A: In the examination of conscience the same diligence is demanded as is used in a matter of great importance.
34 Q: How much time should be spent in the examination of conscience?
A: More or less time should be spent in the examination of conscience according to the needs of each case, that is, according to the number or kind of sins that burden the conscience and according to the time that has elapsed since the last good confession.
35 Q: How may the examination of conscience be rendered easy?
A: The examination of conscience is rendered easy by making An examination of conscience every evening upon the actions of the day.
36 Q: What is sorrow for sin?
A: Sorrow for sin consists in grief of soul and in a sincere detestation of the offense offered to God.
37 Q: How many kinds of sorrow are there?
A: Sorrow is of two kinds: perfect sorrow or contrition; and imperfect sorrow or attrition.
38 Q: What is perfect sorrow or contrition?
A: Perfect sorrow is a grief of soul for having offended God because He is infinitely good and worthy of being loved for His own sake.
39 Q: Why do you call the sorrow of contrition perfect sorrow?
A: I call the sorrow of contrition perfect sorrow for two reasons: (1) Because it considers the goodness of God alone and not our own advantage or loss; (2) Because it enables us at once to obtain pardon for sins, even though the obligation to confess them still remains.
40 Q: Perfect sorrow, then, obtains us pardon of our sins independently of confession?
A: Perfect sorrow does not obtain us pardon of our sins independently of confession, because it always includes the intention to confess them.
41 Q: Why does perfect sorrow or contrition produce the effect of restoring us to the grace of God?
A: Perfect sorrow or contrition produces this effect, because it proceeds from charity which cannot exist in the soul together with sin.
42 Q: What is imperfect sorrow or attrition?
A: Imperfect sorrow or attrition is that by which we repent of having offended God because He is our Supreme Judge, that is, for fear of the chastisement deserved in this life or in the life to come, or because of the very foulness of sin itself.
43 Q: What qualities must sorrow have to be true sorrow?
A: Sorrow in order to be true must have four qualities: It must be internal, supernatural, supreme and universal.
44 Q: What is meant by saying that sorrow must be internal?
A: It means that it must exist in the heart and will, and not in words alone.
45 Q: Why must sorrow be internal?
A: Sorrow must be internal because the will, which has been alienated from God by sin, must return to God by detesting the sin committed.
46 Q: What is meant by saying that sorrow must be supernatural?
A: It means that it must be excited in us by the grace of God and conceived through motives of faith.
47 Q: Why must sorrow be supernatural?
A: Sorrow must be supernatural because the end to which it is directed is supernatural, namely, God's pardon, the acquisition of sanctifying grace, and the right to eternal glory.
48 Q: Explain more clearly the difference between natural and supernatural sorrow.
A: He who repents of having offended God because God is infinitely good and worthy of being loved for His own sake; of having lost Heaven and merited hell; or because of the intrinsic malice of sin, has supernatural sorrow, since all these are motives of faith. On the contrary, he who repents only because of the dishonor or chastisement inflicted by men, or because of some purely temporal loss, has a natural sorrow, since he repents from human motives alone.
49 Q: Why must sorrow be supreme?
A: Sorrow must be supreme because we must look upon and hate sin as the greatest of all evils, being as it is an offense against God.
50 Q: To have sorrow for sin, is it necessary to weep, as we sometimes do, in consequence of the misfortunes of this life?
A: It is not necessary to shed tears of sorrow for our sins; it is enough if in our heart we make more of having offended God than of any other misfortune whatsoever.
51 Q: What is meant by saying that sorrow must be universal?
A: It means that it must extend to every mortal sin committed.
52 Q: Why should sorrow extend to every mortal sin committed?
A: Because he who does not repent of even one mortal sin still remains an enemy to God.
53 Q: What should we do to have sorrow for our sins?
A: To have sorrow for our sins we should ask it of God with our whole heart, and excite it in ourselves by the thought of the great evil we have done by sinning.
54 Q: What should you do to excite yourself to detest your sins?
A: To excite myself to detest my sins: (1) I will consider the rigor of the infinite justice of God And the foulness of sin which has defiled my soul and made me worthy of the eternal punishment of hell; (2) I will consider that by sin I have lost the grace, friendship and sonship of God and the inheritance of Heaven; (3) That I have offended my Redeemer who died for me And that my sins caused His death; (4) That I have despised my Creator and my God, that I have turned my back upon Him who is my Supreme Good and worthy of being loved above everything else And of being faithfully served.
55 Q: In going to confession should we be extremely solicitous to have a true sorrow for our sins?
A: In going to confession we should certainly be very solicitous to have a true sorrow for our sins, because this is of all things the most important; and if sorrow is wanting the confession is no good.
56 Q: If one has only venial sins to confess, must he be sorry for all of them?
A: If one has only venial sins to confess it is enough to repent of some of them for his confession to be valid; but to obtain pardon of all of them it is necessary to repent of all he remembers having committed.
57 Q: If one has only venial sins to confess and if he does not repent of even one of them, does he make a good confession?
A: If one confesses only venial sins without having sorrow for at least one of them, his confession is in vain; moreover it would be sacrilegious if the absence of sorrow was conscious.
58 Q: What should be done to render the confession of only venial sins more secure?
A: To render the confession of venial sins more secure it is prudent also to confess with true sorrow some grave sin of the past, even though it has been already confessed.
59 Q: Is it well to make an act of contrition often?
A: It is well and most useful to make an act of contrition often, especially before going to sleep or when we know we have or fear we have fallen into mortal sin, in order to recover God's grace as soon as possible; and this practice will make it easier for us to obtain from God the grace of making a like act at time of our greatest need, that is, when in danger of death.
Resolution of Sinning No More
60 Q: In what does a good resolution consist?
A: A good resolution consists in a determined will not to commit sin for the future and to use all necessary means to avoid it.
61 Q: What conditions should a resolution have in order to be good?
A: A resolution, in order to be good, should have three principal conditions: It ought to be absolute, universal, and efficacious.
62 Q: What is meant by an absolute resolution?
A: It means that the resolution ought to be without any restrictions of time, place or person.
63 Q: What is meant by a universal resolution?
A: It means that we should avoid all mortal sins, both those already committed as well as those which we can possibly commit.
64 Q: What is meant by an efficacious resolution?
A: It means that there must be a determined will to lose everything rather than commit another sin; to avoid the dangerous occasions of sin; to stamp out our bad habits; and to discharge the obligations that may have been contracted in consequence of our sins.
65 Q: What is meant by a bad habit?
A: By a bad habit is meant an acquired disposition to fall easily into those sins to which we have become accustomed.
66 Q: What must be done to correct bad habits?
A: To correct bad habits we must watch over ourselves, pray much, go often to confession, have one good director, and put into practice the counsels and remedies which he gives us.
67 Q: What is meant by dangerous occasions of sin?
A: By dangerous occasions of sin are meant all those circumstances of time, place, person, or things, which, of their very nature or because of our frailty, lead us to commit sin.
68 Q: Are we strictly bound to shun dangerous occasions?
A: We are strictly bound to shun those dangerous occasions which ordinarily lead us to commit mortal sin, and which are called the proximate occasions of sin.
69 Q: What should a person do who cannot avoid a certain occasion of sin?
A: A person who cannot avoid a certain occasion of sin should lay the matter before his confessor and follow his advice.
70 Q: What considerations will help us to make a good resolution?
A: The same considerations help us to make a good resolution as are efficacious in exciting sorrow; that is, a consideration of the motives we have to fear God's justice and to love His infinite goodness.
The Accusation of Sins to the Confessor
71 Q: Having prepared properly for confession by an examination of conscience, by exciting sorrow, and by forming a good resolution, what do you do next?
A: Having prepared properly for confession by an examination of conscience, by sorrow, and by a purpose of amendment, I will go to make an accusation of my sins to the confessor in order to get absolution.
72 Q: What sins are we bound to confess?
A: We are bound to confess all our mortal sins; it is well, however, to confess our venial sins also.
73 Q: Which are the qualities the accusation of sins, or confession, ought to have?
A: The principal qualities which the accusation of our sins ought to have are five: It ought to be humble, entire, sincere, prudent and brief.
74 Q: What is meant by saying that the accusation ought to be humble?
A: That the accusation ought to be humble, means that the penitent should accuse himself to his confessor without pride or boasting; but with the feelings of one who is guilty, who confesses his guilt, and who appears before his judge.
75 Q: What is meant by saying that the accusation ought to be entire?
A: That the accusation ought to be entire means that all mortal sins we are conscious of having committed since our last good confession must be made known, together with the circumstances and number.
76 Q: What circumstances must be made known for the accusation to be entire?
A: For the accusation to be entire, the circumstances which change the species of the sin must be made known.
77 Q: Which are the circumstances which change the species of a sin?
A: The circumstances which change the species of a sin are: (1) Those by which a sinful action from being venial becomes mortal; (2) Those by means of which a sinful action contains the malice of two or more mortal sins.
78 Q: Give an example of a circumstance making a venial sin mortal.
A: If, to excuse himself, a man were to tell a lie and by doing so occasion serious harm to another, he would be bound to make known this circumstance, which changes the lie from an officious lie to a seriously harmful lie.
79 Q: Give an example of a circumstance on account of which a single sinful action contains the malice of two or more sins.
A: If a man were to steal a sacred object he would be bound to accuse himself of this circumstance which adds to the theft the malice of sacrilege.
80 Q: If a penitent is not certain of having committed a sin must he confess it?
A: If a penitent is not certain of having committed a sin he is not bound to confess it; and if he does confess it, he should add that he is not certain of having committed it.
81 Q: What should he do who does not remember the exact number of his sins?
A: He who does not distinctly remember the number of his sins must mention the number as nearly as he can.
82 Q: Does he who through forgetfulness does not confess a mortal sin, or a necessary circumstance, make a good confession?
A: He who through pure forgetfulness does not confess a mortal sin, or a necessary circumstance, makes a good confession, provided he has been duly diligent in trying to remember it.
83 Q: If a mortal sin, forgotten in confession, is afterwards remembered, are we bound to confess it in another confession?
A: If a mortal sin forgotten in confession is afterwards remembered we are certainly bound to confess it the next time we go to confession.
84 Q: What does he commit who, through shame or some other motive, willfully conceals a mortal sin in confession?
A: He who, through shame or some other motive, willfully conceals a mortal sin in confession, profanes the sacrament and is consequently guilty of a very great sacrilege.
85 Q: In what way must he relieve his conscience who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in confession?
A: He who has willfully concealed a mortal sin in confession, must reveal to his confessor the sin concealed, say in how many confessions he has concealed it, and make all these confessions over again, from the last good confession.
86 Q: What reflection should a penitent make who is tempted to conceal a sin in confession?
A: He who is tempted to conceal a mortal sin in confession should reflect: (1) That he was not ashamed to sin, in the presence of God who sees all; (2) That it is better to manifest his sin secretly to the confessor than to live tormented by sin, die an unhappy death, and be covered with shame before the whole world on the day of general judgment; (3) That the confessor is bound by the seal of confession under the gravest sin and under threat of the severest punishments both temporal and eternal.
87 Q: What is meant by saying that the accusation ought to be sincere?
A: By saying that the accusation ought to be sincere, is meant that we must unfold our sins as they are, without excusing them, lessening them, or increasing them.
88 Q: What is meant by saying that the confession ought to be prudent?
A: That the confession ought to be prudent, means that in confessing our sins we should use the most careful words possible and be on our guard against revealing the sins of others.
89 Q: What is meant by saying the confession ought to be short?
A: That the confession ought to be short, means that we should say nothing that is useless for the purpose of confession.
90 Q: Is it not a heavy burden to be obliged to confess one's sins to another, especially when these are shameful sins?
A: Although it may be a heavy burden to confess one's sins to another, still it must be done, because it is of divine precept, and because pardon can be obtained in no other way; and, moreover, because the difficulty is compensated by many advantages and great consolations.
How to Make a Good Confession
91 Q: How do you present yourself to the confessor?
A: I kneel at the feet of the confessor and I say: "Bless me, Father, for I have sinned."
92 Q: What do you do while the confessor blesses you?
A: I humbly bow my head to receive the blessing and I make the Sign of the Cross.
93 Q: Having made the sign of the Cross what should you say?
A: Having made the sign of the Cross, I say: "I confess to Almighty God, to blessed Mary ever Virgin, to all the Saints, and to you, my spiritual Father, that I have sinned."
94 Q: And then what must you say?
A: Then I must say: "I was at confession such a time; by the grace of God I received absolution, performed my penance, and went to Holy Communion." Then I accuse myself of my sins.
95 Q: When you have finished the accusation of your sins what do you do?
A: When I have finished the accusation of my sins I say: "I accuse myself also of all the sins of my past life, especially of those against such or such a virtue" -- for example, against purity or against the Fourth Commandment, etc.
96 Q: After this accusation what should you say?
A: I should say: "For all these sins and for those I do not remember, I ask pardon of God with my whole heart, and penance and absolution of you, my spiritual Father."
97 Q: Having thus finished the accusation of your sins what remains to be done?
A: Having finished the accusation of my sins I should listen respectfully to what the confessor says, accept the penance with a sincere intention of performing it; and, from my heart, renew my act of contrition while he gives me absolution.
98 Q: Having received absolution what remains to be done?
A: Having received absolution I should thank the Lord, perform my penance as soon as possible, and put in practice the advice of the confessor.
99 Q: Must confessors always give absolution to those who go to confession to them?
A: Confessors should give absolution to those only whom they judge properly disposed to receive it.
100 Q: May confessors sometimes defer or refuse absolution?
A: Confessors not only may, but must defer or refuse absolution in certain cases so as not to profane the sacrament.
101 Q: Who are those penitents who are to be accounted badly disposed and to whom absolution must as a rule be refused or deferred?
A: Penitents who are to be accounted badly disposed are chiefly the following: (1) Those who do not know the principal mysteries of their faith, or who neglect to learn those other truths of Christian Doctrine which they are bound to know According to their state; (2) Those who are gravely negligent in examining their conscience, who show no signs of sorrow or repentance; (3) Those who are able but not willing to restore the goods of others, or the reputations they have injured; (4) Those who do not from their heart forgive their enemies; (5) Those who will not practice the means necessary to correct their bad habits; (6) Those who will not abandon the proximate occasions of sin.
102 Q: Is not a confessor too severe, who defers absolution because he does not believe the penitent is well enough disposed?
A: A confessor who defers absolution because he does not believe the penitent well enough disposed, is not too severe; on the contrary, he is very charitable and acts as a good physician who tries all remedies, even those that are disagreeable and painful, to save the life of his patient.
103 Q: Should the sinner to whom absolution is deferred or refused, despair or leave off going to confession altogether?
A: A sinner to whom absolution is deferred or refused, should not despair or leave off going to confession altogether; he should, on the contrary, humble himself, acknowledge his deplorable state, profit by the good advice his confessor gives him, and thus put himself as soon as possible in a state deserving of absolution.
104 Q: What should a penitent do with regard to selecting a confessor?
A: A genuine penitent should earnestly recommend himself to God for help to enable him to select a pious, learned, and prudent confessor, into whose hands he should put himself, obeying him as his judge and physician.
Satisfaction or Penance
105 Q: What is satisfaction?
A: Satisfaction, which is also called sacramental penance, is one of the acts of the penitent by which he makes a certain reparation to the justice of God for his sins, by performing the works the confessor imposes on him.
106 Q: Is the penitent bound to accept the penance imposed on him by the confessor?
A: Yes, the penitent is bound to accept the penance imposed on him by the confessor if he can perform it; and if he cannot, he should humbly say so, and ask some other penance.
107 Q: When should the penance be performed?
A: If the confessor has fixed no time, the penance should be performed as soon as convenient, and as far as possible while in the state of grace.
108 Q: How should the penance be performed?
A: The penance should be performed entirely and devoutly.
109 Q: Why is a penance imposed in confession?
A: A penance is imposed because, after sacramental absolution which remits sin and its eternal punishment, there generally remains a temporal punishment to be undergone, either in this world or in Purgatory.
110 Q: Why has our Lord willed to remit all the punishment due to sin in the sacrament of Baptism, and not in the sacrament of Penance?
A: Our Lord has willed to remit all the punishment due to sin in the sacrament of Baptism, and not in the sacrament of Penance, 'because the sins after Baptism are much more grievous, being committed with fuller knowledge and greater ingratitude for God's benefits, and also in order that the obligation of satisfying for them may restrain us from falling into sin again.
111 Q: Can we of ourselves make satisfaction to God?
A: Of ourselves we cannot make satisfaction to God, but we certainly can do so by uniting ourselves to Jesus Christ, who gives value to our actions by the merits of His passion and death.
112 Q: Does the penance which the confessor imposes always suffice to discharge the punishment which remains due to our sins?
A: The penance which the confessor imposes does not ordinarily suffice to discharge the punishment remaining due to our sins; and hence we must try to supply it by other voluntary penances.
113 Q: Which are the works of penance?
A: The works of penance may be reduced to three kinds: Prayer, Fasting, and Alms-deeds.
114 Q: What is meant by prayer?
A: By prayer is meant every kind of pious exercise.
115 Q: What is meant by fasting?
A: By fasting is meant every kind of mortification.
116 Q: What is meant by almsgiving?
A: By almsgiving is meant every spiritual or corporal work of mercy.
117 Q: Which penance is the more meritorious, that which the confessor gives, or that which we do of our own choice?
A: The penance which the confessor imposes is the most meritorious, because being part of the sacrament it receives greater virtue from the merits of the passion of Jesus Christ.
118 Q: Do those who die after having received absolution but before they have fully satisfied the justice of God, go straight to Heaven?
A: No, they go to Purgatory there to satisfy the justice of God and be perfectly purified.
119 Q: Can the souls in Purgatory be relieved of their pains by us?
A: Yes, the souls in Purgatory can be relieved by our prayers, alms-deeds, all our other good works, and by indulgences, but above all by the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.
120 Q: Besides his penance, what else must the penitent do after confession?
A: Besides performing his penance after confession, the penitent, if he has justly injured another in his goods or reputation, or if he has given him scandal, must as soon as possible, and as far as he is able, restore him his goods, repair his honor, and remedy the scandal.
121 Q: How can the scandal given be remedied?
A: The scandal given can be remedied by removing the occasion of it and by edifying by word and example those whom we have scandalized.
122 Q: How should we make satisfaction to one whom we have offended?
A: We should make satisfaction to one whom we have offended, by asking his pardon, or by some other suitable reparation.
123 Q: What fruits does a good confession produce in us?
A: A good confession: (1) Remits the sins we have committed and gives us the grace of God; (2) Restores us peace and quiet of conscience; (3) Reopens the gates of Heaven and changes the eternal punishment of hell into a temporal punishment; (4) Preserves us from falling again, and renders us capable of partaking of the treasury of Indulgences.
124 Q: What is an Indulgence?
A: An Indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due on account of our sins which have been already pardoned as far as their guilt is concerned -- a remission accorded by the Church outside the sacrament of Penance.
125 Q: From whom has the Church received the power to grant Indulgences?
A: The Church has received the power to grant Indulgences from Jesus Christ.
126 Q: In what way does the Church by means of Indulgences remit this temporal punishment?
A: The Church by means of Indulgences remits this temporal punishment by applying to us the superabundant merits of Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Virgin and of the Saints, which constitute what is known as the Treasure of the Church.
127 Q: Who has the power to grant Indulgences?
A: The Pope alone has the power to grant Indulgences in the whole Church, and the Bishop in his own diocese, according to the faculty given him by the Pope.
128 Q: How many kinds of Indulgences are there?
A: Indulgences are of two kinds: plenary and partial.
129 Q: What is a plenary Indulgence?
A: A plenary Indulgence is that by which the whole temporal punishment due to our sins is remitted. Hence, if one were to die after having gained such an Indulgence, he would go straight to Heaven, being, as he is, perfectly exempt from the pains of Purgatory.
130 Q: What is a partial Indulgence?
A: A partial Indulgence is that by which is remitted only a part of the temporal punishment due to our sins.
131 Q: Why does the Church grant Indulgences?
A: In granting Indulgences the Church intends to aid our incapacity to expiate all the temporal punishment in this world, by enabling us to obtain by means of works of piety and Christian charity that which in the first ages Christians gained by the rigor of Canonical penances.
132 Q: What is meant by an Indulgence of forty or a hundred days or of seven years, and the like?
A: By an Indulgence of forty or a hundred days, or of seven years and the like, is meant the remission of so much of the temporal punishment as would have been paid by penances of forty or a hundred days, or seven years, anciently prescribed in the Church.
133 Q: What value should we set on Indulgences?
A: We should set the greatest value on Indulgences because by them we satisfy the justice of God and obtain possession of Heaven sooner and more easily.
134 Q: Which are the conditions necessary to gain Indulgences?
A: The conditions necessary to gain Indulgences are: (1) The state of grace (at least at the final completion of the work), and freedom from those venial faults, the punishment of which we wish to cancel; (2) The fulfillment of all the works the Church enjoins in order to gain the Indulgence; (3) The intention to gain it.
135 Q: Can Indulgences be applied also to the souls in Purgatory?
A: Yes, Indulgences can be applied also to the souls in Purgatory, when he who grants them says that they may be so applied.
136 Q: What is a Jubilee?
A: A Jubilee, which as a rule is granted every twenty-five years, is a Plenary Indulgence to which are attached many privileges and special concessions, such as that of being able to obtain absolution from certain reserved sins and from censures, and the commutation of certain vows.
THE CATECHISM OF ST. PIUS X