Chrysostom hom. on Mt 23
23 Mt 7,1-21
What then? Ought we not to blame them that sin? Because Paul also saith this selfsame thing: or rather, there too it is Christ, speaking by Paul, and saying, Rm 14,10 “Why dost thou judge thy brother? And thou, why dost thou set at nought thy brother?” and, “Who art thou that judgest another man’s servant?” Rm 14,4 And again, “Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord Come.” 1Co 4,5
How then doth He say elsewhere, “Reprove, rebuke, exhort,” 2Tm 4,2 and, “Them that sin rebuke before all?” 1Tm 5,20 5 And Christ too to Peter, “Go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone,” and if he neglect to hear, add to thyself another also; and if not even so doth he yield, declare it to the church likewise?” Mt 18,15-17 And how hath He set over us so many to reprove; and not only to reprove, but also to punish? For him that hearkens to none of these, He hath commanded to be “as a heathen man and a publican.” Mt 18,17 And how gave He them the keys also? since if they are not to judge, they will be without authority in any matter, and in vain have they received the power to bind and to loose.
5. [R. V., reprove. The Greek verb is the same in Mt 18,15 also.—R.]
And besides, if this were to obtain, all would be lost alike, whether in churches, or in states, 8 or in houses. For except the master judge the servant, and the mistress the maid, and the father the son, and friends one another, there will be an increase of all wickedness. And why say I, friends? unless we judge our enemies, we shall never be able to put an end to our enmity, but all things will be turned upside down.
What then can the saying be? Let us carefully attend, lest the medicines of salvation, and the laws of peace, be accounted by any man laws of overthrow and confusion. First of all, then, even by what follows, He hath pointed out to them that have understanding the excellency of this law, saying, “Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Mt 7,3
But if to many of the less attentive, it seem yet rather obscure, I will endeavor to explain it from the beginning. In this place, then, as it seems at least to me, He doth not simply command us not to judge any of men’s sins, neither doth He simply forbid the doing of such a thing, but to them that are full of innumerable ills, and are trampling upon other men for trifles. And I think that certain Jews too are here hinted at, for that while they were bitter accusing their neighbors for small faults, and such as came to nothing, they were themselves insensibly committing deadly9 sins. Herewith towards the end also He was upbraiding them, when He said, “Ye bind heavy burdens, and grievous to be borne, but ye will not move them with your finger,”(Mt 23,4 and, “ye pay tithe of mint and anise, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith.”(Mt 23,23
10 ta; megalav. The article implies the distiitction).
Well then, I think that these are comprehended in His invective; that He is checking them beforehand as to those things, wherein they were hereafter to accuse His disciples. For although His disciples had been guilty of no such sin, yet in them were supposed to be offenses; as, for instance, not keeping the sabbath, eating with unwashen hands, sitting at meat with publicans; of which He saith also in another place, “Ye which strain at the gnat, and swallow the camel.”12 But yet it is also a general law that He is laying down on these matters.
And the Corinthians 13 too Paul did not absolutely command not to judge, but not to judge their own superiors, and upon grounds that are not acknowledged; not absolutely to refrain from correcting them that sin. Neither indeed was He then rebuking all without distinction, but disciples doing so to their teachers were the object of His reproof; and they who, being guilty of innumerable sins, bring an evil report upon the guiltless.
This then is the sort of thing which Christ also in this place intimated; not intimated merely, but guarded) it too with a great terror, and the punishment from which no prayers can deliver.
Mt 7,2. “For with what judgment ye judge,” saith He, “ye shall be judged.
That is, “it is not the other,” saith Christ, “that thou condemnest, but thyself, and thou art making the judgment-seat dreadful to thyself, and the account strict.” As then in the forgiveness of our sins the beginnings are from us, so also in this judgment, it is by ourselves that the measures of our condemnation are laid down. You see, we ought not to upbraid nor trample upon them, but to admonish; not to revile, but to advise; not to assail with pride, but to correct with tenderness. For not him, but thyself, dost thou give over to extreme vengeance, by not sparing him, when it may be needful to give sentence on his offenses.
Seest thou, how these two commandments are both easy, and fraught with great blessings to the obedient, even as of evils on the other hand, to the regardless? For both he that forgives his neighbor, hath freed himself first of the two from the grounds of complaint, and that without any labor; and he that with tenderness and indulgence inquires into other men’s offenses, great is the allowance2) of pardon, which he hath by his judgment laid up beforehand for himself.
“What then!” say you: “if one commit fornication, may I not say that fornication is a bad thing, nor at all correct him that is playing the wanton?” Nay, correct him, but not as a foe, nor as an adversary exacting a penalty, but as a physician providing medicines. For neither did Christ say, “stay not him that is sinning,” but “judge not;” that is, be not bitter in pronouncing sentence.
And besides, it is not of great thingsas I have already observed), nor of things prohibited, that this is said, but of those which are not even counted offenses. Wherefore He said also.
“Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother’s eye?”14
13 Mt 23,24). [R. V., more correctly, “strain out;” the word “at” is probably a typographical blunder of the A. V.—R.]
14 1Co 4,5.
Yea, for many now do this; if they see but a monk wearing an unnecessary garment, they produce against him the law of our Lord,15 while they themselves are extorting without end, and defrauding men every day. If they see him but partaking rather largely of food, they become bitter accusers, while they themselves are daily drinking to excess and surfeiting: not knowing, that besides their own sins, they do hereby gather up for themselves a greater flame, and deprive themselves of every plea. For on this point, that thine own doings must be strictly inquired into, thou thyself hast first made the law, by thus sentencing those of thy neighbor. Account it not then to be a grievous thing, if thou art also thyself to undergo the same kind of trial.
“Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye.”16
16 Mt 7,2.
Here His will is to signify the great wrath, which He hath against them that do such things. For so, wheresoever He would indicate that the sin is great, and the punishment and wrath in store for it grievous, He begins with a reproach.6) As then unto him that was exacting the hundred pence, He said in His deep displeasure, “Thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt;”17 even so here also, “Thou hypocrite.” For not of protecting care comes such a judgment, but of ill will to man; and while a man puts forward a mask of benevolence, he is doing a work of the utmost wickedness, causing reproaches without ground, and accusations, to cleave unto his neighbors, and usurping a teacher’s rank, when he is not worthy to be so much as a disciple. On account of this He called him “hypocrite.” For thou, who in other men’s doings art so bitter, as to see even the little things; how hast thou become so remiss in thine own, as that even the great things are hurried over by thee?
“First cast out the beam out of thine own eye.”
Seest thou, that He forbids not judging, but commands to cast out first the beam from thine eye, and then to set right the doings of the rest of the world? For indeed each one knows his own things better than those of others; and sees the greater rather than the less; and loves himself more than his neighbor. Wherefore, if thou doest it out of guardian care, I bid thee care for thyself first, in whose case the sin is both more certain and greater. But if thou neglect thyself, it is quite evident that neither dost thou judge thy brother in care for him, but in hatred, and wishing to expose him. For what if he ought to be judged? it should be by one who commits no such sin, not by thee.
Thus, because He had introduced great and high doctrines of self denial, lest any man should say, it is easy so to practise it in words; He willing to signify His entire confidence, and that He was not chargeable with any of the things that had been mentioned, but had duly fulfilled all, spake this parable. And that, because He too was afterwards to judge, saying, “Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites.”1) Yet was not he chargeable with what hath been mentioned; for neither did He pull out a mote, nor had He a beam on His eyes, but being clean from all these, He so corrected the faults of all. “For it is not at all meet,” saith He, “to judge others, when one is chargeable with the same things.” And why marvel at His establishing this law, when even the very thief knew it upon the cross, saying to the other thief, “Dost not thou fear God, seeing we are in the same condemnation;”2) expressing the same sentiments with Christ?
But thou, so far from casting out thine own beam, dost not even see it, but another’s mote thou not only seest, but also judgest, and essayest to cast it out; as if any one seized with a grievous dropsy, or indeed with any other incurable disease, were to neglect this, and find fault with another who was neglecting a slight swelling. And if it be an evil not to see one’s own sins, it is a twofold and threefold evil to be even sitting in judgment on others, while men themselves, as if past feeling, are bearing about beams in their own eyes: since no beam is so heavy as sin.
2303 His injunction therefore in these words is as follows, that he who is chargeable with countless evil deeds, should not be a bitter censor of other men’s offenses, and especially when these are trifling. He is not overthrowing reproof nor correction, but forbidding men to neglect their own faults, and exult over those of other men.
For indeed this was a cause of men’s going unto great vice, bringing in a twofold wickedness. For he, whose practice it had been to slight his own faults, great as they were, and to search bitterly into those of others, being slight and of no account, was spoiling himself two ways: first, by thinking lightly of his own faults; next, by incurring enmities and feuds with all men, and training himself every day to extreme fierceness, and want of feeling for others.
3. Having then put away all these things, by this His excellent legislation, He added yet another charge, saying,
“Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine.”3)
“Yet surely further on,” it will be said, “He commanded, “What ye have heard in the ear, that preach ye upon the housetops.”4) But this is in no wise contrary to the former. For neither in that place did He simply command to tell all men, but to whom it should be spoken, to them He bade speak with freedom.5) And by “dogs” here He figuratively described them that are living in incurable ungodliness, and affording no hope of change for the better; and by “swine,” them that abide continually in an unchaste life, all of whom He hath pronounced unworthy of hearing such things. Paul also, it may be observed, declared this when He said, “But a natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit, for they are foolishness unto him.”5) And in many other places too He saith that corruption of life is the cause of men’s not receiving the more perfect doctrines. Wherefore He commands not to open the doors to them; for indeed they become more insolent after learning. For as to the well-disposed and intelligent, things appear venerable when revealed, so to the insensible, when they are unknown rather. “Since then from their nature, they are not able to learn them, “let the thing be hidden,” saith He, “that6) at least for ignorance they may reverence them. For neither doth the swine know at all what a pearl is. Therefore since he knows not, neither let him see it, lest he trample under foot what he knows not.”
For nothing results, beyond greater mischief to them that are so disposed when they hear; for both the holy things are profaned by them, not knowing what they are; and they are the more lifted up and armed against us. For this is meant by, “lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.”8)
Nay, “surely,” saith one, “they ought to be so strong as to remain equally impregnable after men’s learning them, and not to yield to other people occasions against us.” But it is not the things that yield it, but that these men are swine; even as when the pearl is trampled under foot, it is not so trampled, because it is really contemptible, but because it fell among swine.
And full well did He say, “turn again and rend you:” for they feign gentleness,9) so as to be taught: then after they have learnt, quite changing from one sort to another, they jeer, mock and deride us, as deceived persons. Therefore Paul also said to Timothy,1) “Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our words;” and again in another place, “From such turn away,”2) and, “A man that is an heretic, after the firs and second admonition, reject.”3)
It is not, you see, that those truths furnish them with armor, but they become fools in this way of their own accord, being filled with more willfulness. On this account it is no small gain for them to abide in ignorance, for so they are not such entire scorners. But if they learn, the mischief is twofold. For neither will they themselves be at all profited thereby, but rather the more damaged, and to thee they will cause endless difficulties.
Let them hearken, who shamelessly associate with all, and make the awful things contemptible. For the mysteries we too therefore celebrate with closed doors, and keep out the uninitiated, not for any weakness of which we have convicted our rites, but because the many are as yet imperfectly prepared for them. For this very reason He Himself also discoursed much unto the Jews in parables, “because they seeing saw not.” For this, Paul likewise commanded “to know how we ought to answer every man.”4)
2304 4. “Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.”5)
18 Mt 7,3.
19 Mt 10,10.
20 Mt 7,5.
22 Mt 18,32.
23 Mt 23,1.
24 Lc 23,40-41). [R. V., “Dust thou not even fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation.” In several places Chrysostom gives the plural form, as here, but there is little authority for it in the New Testament text.—R.]
25 Mt 7,6. [R. V., “the swine,” the article is in the Greek text of the Homily.]
For inasmuch as He had enjoined things great and marvellous, and had commanded men to be superior to all their passions, and had led them up to Heaven itself, and had enjoined them to strive after the resemblance, not of angels and archangels, butas far as was possible) of the very Lord of all; and had bidden His disciples not only themselves duly to perform all this, but also to correct others, and to distinguish between the evil and them that are not such, the dogs and them that are not dogsalthough there be much that is hidden in men):—that they might not say, “these things are grievous and intolerable,”for indeed in the sequel Peter did utter some such things, saying, “Who can be saved?”6) and again, “If the case of the man be so, it is not good to marry): in order therefore that they might not now likewise say so; as in the first place even by what had gone before He had proved it all to be easy, setting down many reasons one upon another, of power to persuade men: so after all He adds also the pinnacle of all facility, devising as no ordinary relief to our toils, the assistance derived from persevering prayers. Thus, we are not ourselves, saith He, to strive alone, but also to invoke the help from above: and it will surely come and be present with us, and will aid us in our struggles, and make all easy. Therefore He both commanded us to ask, and pledged Himself to the giving.
However, not simply to ask did He command us, but with much assiduity and earnestness. For this is the meaning of “seek.” For so he that seeks, putting all things out of his mind, is taken up with that alone which is sought, and forms no idea of any of the persons present. And this which I am saying they know, as many as have lost either gold, or servants, and are seeking diligently after them.
By “seeking,” then, He declared this; by “knocking,” that we approach with earnestness and a glowing mind.
Despond not therefore, O man, nor show less of zeal about virtue, than they do of desire for wealth. For things of that kind thou hast often sought and not found, but nevertheless, though thou know this, that thou art not sure to find them, thou puttest in motion every mode of search; but here, although having a promise that thou wilt surely receive, thou dost not show even the smallest part of that earnestness. And if thou dost not receive straightway, do not even thus despair. For to this end He said, “knock,” to signify that even if He should not straightway open the door, we are to continue there.
5. And if thou doubt my affirmation, at any rate believe His example.
“For what man is there of you,” saith He, “whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone?”18
Because, as among men, if thou keep on doing so, thou art even accounted troublesome, and disgusting: so with God, when thou doest not so, then thou dost more entirely provoke Him. And if thou continue asking, though thou receive not at once, thou surely wilt receive. For to this end was the door shut, that He may induce thee to knock: to this end He doth not straightway assent, that thou mayest ask. Continue then to do these things, and thou wilt surely receive. For that thou mightest not say, “What then if I should ask and not receive?” He hath blocked up19 thy approach with that similitude, again framing arguments, and by those human things urging us to be confident on these matters; implying by them that we must not only ask, but ask what we ought.20
“For which of you is there, a father, of whom if his son shall ask bread, will he give him a stone?” So that if thou receive not, thy asking a stone is the cause of thy not receiving. For though thou be a son, this suffices not for thy receiving: rather this very thing even hinders thy receiving, that being a son, thou askest what is not profitable.
Do thou also therefore ask nothing worldly, but all things spiritual, and thou wilt surely receive. For so Solomon,21 because he asked what he ought, behold how quickly he received. Two things now, you see, should be in him that prays, asking earnestly, and asking what he ought: “since ye too,” saith He, “though ye be fathers, wait for your sons to ask: and if they should ask of you anything inexpedient, ye refuse the gifts; just as, if it be expedient, ye consent and bestow it.” Do thou too, considering these things, not withdraw until thou receive; until thou have found, retire not; relax not thy diligence, until the door be opened. For if thou approach with this mind, and say, “Except I receive, I depart not;” thou wilt surely receive, provided thou ask such things, as are both suitable for Him of whom thou askest to give, and expedient for thee the petitioner. But what are these? To seek the things spiritual, all of them; to forgive them that have trespassed, and so to draw nigh asking forgiveness; “to lift up holy hands without wrath and doubting.”22 If we thus ask, we shall receive. As it is, surely our asking is a mockery, and the act of drunken rather than of sober men.
“What then,” saith one, “if I ask even spiritual things, and do not receive?” Thou didst not surely knock with earnestness; or thou madest thyself unworthy to receive; or didst quickly leave off.
“And wherefore,” it may be inquired, “did He not say, what things we ought to ask”? Nay verily, He hath mentioned them all in what precedes, and hath signified for what things we ought to draw nigh. Say not then, “I drew nigh, and did not receive.” For in no case is it owing to God that we receive not, God who loves us so much as to surpass even fathers, to surpass them as far as goodness doth this evil nature.
“For if ye, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more your heavenly Father.”23
Now this He said, not to bring an evil name on man’s nature, nor to condemn our race as bad; but in contrast to His own goodness He calls paternal tenderness evil,24 so great is the excess of His love to man.
2305 Seest thou an argument unspeakable, of power to arouse to good hopes even him that hath become utterly desperate?
Now here indeed He signifies His goodness by means of our fathers, but in what precedes by the chief among His gifts, by the “soul,”25 by the body. And nowhere doth He set down the chief of all good things, nor bring forward His own coming:—for He who thus made speed to give up His Son to the slaughter, “how shall He not freely give us all things?”—because it had not yet come to pass. But Paul indeed sets it forth, thus saying, “He that spared not His own Son, how shall He not also with Him freely give us all things.”26 But His discourse with them is still from the things of men.
6. After this, to indicate that we ought neither to feel confidence in prayer, while neglecting our own doings; nor, when taking pains, trust only to our own endeavors; but both to seek after the help from above, and contribute withal our own part; He sets forth the one in connection with the other. For so after much exhortation, He taught also how to pray, and when He had taught how to pray, He proceeded again to His exhortation concerning what we are to do; then from that again to the necessity of praying continually, saying, “Ask,” and “seek,” and “knock.” And thence again, to the necessity of being also diligent ourselves.
“For all things,” saith He, “whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them.”27
Summing up all in brief, and signifying, that virtue is compendious, and easy, and readily known of all men.
And He did not merely say, “All things whatsoever ye would,” but, “Therefore all things whatsoever ye would.” For this word, “therefore,” He did not add without purpose, but with a concealed meaning: “if ye desire,” saith He, “to be heard, together with what I have said, do these things also.” What then are these? “Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you.” Seest thou how He hath hereby also signified that together with prayer we need exact conversation?28 And He did not say, “whatsoever things thou wouldest to be done unto thee of God, those do unto thy neighbor;” lest thou should say, “But how is it possible? He is God and I am man:” but, “whatsoever thou wouldest to be done unto thee of thy fellow servant, these things do thou also thyself show forth towards thy neighbor.” What is less burdensome than this? what fairer?
Then the praise also, before the rewards, is exceeding great.“For this is the law and the prophets.” Whence it is evident, that virtue is according to our nature; that we all, of ourselves, know our duties; and that it is not possible for us ever to find refuge in ignorance.
7. “Enter ye in at the strait gate, for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat: and strait is the gate and narrow 29 is the way which leadeth unto life. and few there be that find it.”30
And yet after this He said, “My yoke is easy, and my burden is light.”31 And in what He hath lately said also, He intimated the same: how then cloth He here say it is strait and confined? In the first place, if thou attend, even here He points to it as very light, and easy, and accessible. “And how,” it may be said, “is the narrow and confined way easy?” Because it is a way and a gate; even as also the other, though it be wide, though spacious, is also a way and a gate. And of these there is nothing permanent, but all things are passing away, both the pains and the good things of life.
And not only herein is the part of virtue easy, but also by the end again it becomes yet easier. For not the passing away of our labors and toils, but also their issuing in a good end (for they end in life) is enough to console those in conflict. So that both the temporary nature of our labors, and the perpetuity of our crowns, and the fact that the labors come first, and the crowns after, must prove a very great relief in our toils. Wherefore Paul also called their affliction “light”; not from the nature of the events, but because of the mind of the combatants, and the hope of the future. “For our light affliction,” saith he, “worketh an eternal weight of glory, while we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen.”32 For if to sailors the waves and the seas, to soldiers their slaughters and wounds, to husbandmen the winters and the frosts, to boxers the sharp blows, be light and tolerable things, all of them, for the hope of those rewards which are temporary and perishing; much more when heaven is set forth, and the unspeakable blessings, and the eternal rewards, will no one feel any of the present hardships. Or if any account it, even thus, to be toilsome, the suspicion comes of nothing but their own remissness.
26 Mt 10,27.
27 1Co 2,14. In the verse before that to which reference is here made,our Saviour says, “Fear them not therefore.” And again in the verse after, “Fear not them which kill the body:” whence the natural conclusion is, that His chief purpose here was to caution His disciples against the fear of man).
28 The words in italics are omitted in the manuscripts). [The construction of the Greek is very difficult, if the Mss. text is accepted. One Ms., however. has an imperative in the last clause: “let them reverence them,” thus relieving the difficulty.—R.]
30 [R. V., properly omits “again.”—R.]
32 2Tm 4,15.
2306 See, at any rate, how He on another side also makes it easy, commanding not to hold intercourse with the dogs, nor to give one’s self over to the swine, and to “beware of the false prophets;” thus on all accounts causing men to feel as if in real conflict. And the very fact too of calling it narrow contributed very greatly towards making it easy; for it wrought on them to be vigilant. As Paul then, when he saith, “We wrestle not against flesh and blood,”33 cloth so not to cast down, but to rouse up the spirits of the soldiers: even so He also, to shake the travellers out of their sleep, called the way rough. And not in this way only did He work upon men, to be vigilant, but also by adding, that it contains likewise many to supplant them; and, what is yet more grievous, they do not even attack openly, but hiding themselves; for such is the race of the false prophets. “But look not to this,” saith He, “that it is rough and narrow, but where it ends; nor that the opposite is wide and spacious, but where it issues.”
And all these things He saith, thoroughly to awaken our alacrity; even as elsewhere also He said, “Violent men take it by force.”34 For whoever is in conflict, when he actually sees the judge of the lists marvelling at the painfulness of his efforts, is the more inspirited.
Let it not then bewilder us, when many things spring up hence, that turn to our vexation. For the way is strait, and the gate narrow, but not the city.35 Therefore must one neither look for rest here, nor there expect any more aught that is painful.
Now in saying, “Few there be that find it,” here again He both declared the carelessness of the generality, and instructed His hearers not to regard the felicities of the many, but the labors of the few. For the more part, saith He, so far from walking this way, do not so much as make it their choice: a thing of most extreme criminality. But we should not regard the many, nor be troubled thereat, but emulate the few; and, by all means equipping36 ourselves, should so walk therein.
For besides that it is strait, there are also many to overthrow us in the way that leads thither. Wherefore He also added,
8. “Beware of false prophets, for they will come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.”37 Behold together with the dogs and swine another kind of ambush and conspiracy, far more grievous than that. For those are acknowledged and open, but these shaded over. For which cause also, while from those He commanded to hold off, these He charged men to watch with exact care, as though it were not possible to see them at the first approach. Wherefore He also said, “beware”; making us more exact to discern them.
Then, lest when they had heard that it was narrow and strait, and that they must walk on a way opposite to the many, and must keep themselves from swine and dogs, and together. with these from another more wicked kind, even this of wolves; lest, I say, they should sink down at this multitude of vexations, having both to go a way contrary to most men, and therewith again to have such anxiety about these things: He reminded them of what took place in the days of their fathers, by using the term, “false prophets,” for then also no less did such things happen. Be not now, I pray you, troubled (so He speaks), for nothing new nor strange is to befall you. Since for all truth the devil is always secretly substituting its appropriate deceit.
And by the figure of “false prophets,” here, I think He shadows out not the heretics, but them that are of a corrupt life, yet wear a mask of virtue; whom the generality are wont to call by the name of impostors.38 Wherefore He also said further,
“By their fruits ye shall know them.”39
33 2Tm 3,5. [The citation is modified.—R.]
34 Tt 3,10. [R. V., “A man that is heretical (or factious) after a first and second admonition, refuse (or avoid).”—R.]
35 Col 4,6.
36 Mt 7,6.
37 Mt 19,25 Mt 19,10.
38 Mt 7,9. [The citation is not exact. Here, as below, Chrysostom gives the form “For which is there of you,” omitting “man.” The Oxford translator follows the A. V. here but not below. “Of whom” (in R. V). is better English (see (below); the Greek is the same in both passages.—R.]
For amongst heretics one may often find actual goodness,40 but amongst those whom I was mentioning, by no means.
“What then,” it may be said, “if in these things too they counterfeit?” “Nay, they will be easily detected; for such is the nature of this way, in which I commanded men to walk, painful and irksome; but the hypocrite would not choose to take pains, but to make a show only; wherefore also he is easily convicted.” Thus, inasmuch as He had said, “there be few that find it,” He clears them out again from among those, who find it not, yet feign so to do, by commanding us not to look to them that wear the masks only, but to them who in reality pursue it.
“But wherefore,” one may say, “did He not make them manifest, but set us on the search for them?” That we might watch, and be ever prepared for conflict, guarding against our disguised as well as against our open enemies: which kind indeed Paul also was intimating, when he said, that “by their good words they deceive the hearts of the simple.”41 Let us not be troubled therefor, when we see many such even now. Nay, for this too Christ foretold from the beginning.
And see His gentleness: how He said not, “Punish them,” but, “Be not hurt by them,” “Do not fall amongst them unguarded.” Then that thou mightest not say, “it is impossible to distinguish that sort of men,” again He states an argument from a human example, thus saying,
2307 “Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, but the corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit. A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.”42
Now what He saith is like this: they have nothing gentle nor sweet; it is the sheep only so far as the skin; wherefore also it is easy to discern them. And lest thou shouldest have any the least doubt, He compares it to certain natural necessities, in matters which admit of no result but one. In which sense Paul also said, “The carnal mind is death; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.”43
And if He states the same thing twice, it is not tautology. But, lest any one should say, “Though the evil tree bear evil fruit, it bears also good, and makes the distinction difficult, the crop being twofold:” “This is not so,” saith He, “for it bears evil fruit only, and never can bear good: as indeed in the contrary case also.”
“What then? Is there no such thing as a good man becoming wicked? And the contrary again takes place, and life abounds with many such examples.”
But Christ saith not this, that for the wicked there is no way to change, or that the good cannot fall away, but that so long as he is living in wickedness, he will not be able to bear good fruit. For he may indeed change to virtue, being evil; but while continuing in wickedness, he will not bear good fruit.
What then? did not David, being good, bear evil fruit? Not continuing good, but being changed; since, undoubtedly, had he remained always what he was, he would not have brought forth such fruit. For not surely while abiding in the habit of virtue, did he commit what he committed.
Now by these words He was also stopping the mouths of those who speak evil at random, and putting a bridle on the lips of all calumniators. I mean, whereas many suspect the good by reason of the bad, He by this saying hath deprived them of all excuse. “For thou canst not say, ’I am deceived and beguiled;’ since I have given thee exactly this way of distinguishing them by their works, having added the injunction to go to their actions, and not to confound all at random.”
9. Then forasmuch as He had not commanded to punish, but only to beware of them, He, at once both to comfort those whom they vex, and to alarm and change them, set up as a bulwark against44 them the punishment they should receive at His hands, saying,
“Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.”45
Then, to make the saying less grievous, He added,
“Wherefore by their fruits ye shall know them.”46
40 [oujk aitei`n xrhv movnou, ajlla; kai; a[ chn; ajitei;n, “not only is it fitting to ask,” but to ask what “is fitting”.—R.]
42 1Tm 2,8, perhaps “disputing” rather than “doubting.”[R. V. text “disputing,” in the margin “doubting.” Comp. XIX. 11 p. 138.—R.]
43 Mt 7,11. (“Heavenly” is substituted for “which is in Heaven.”—R.]
45 Or “life:” see Mt 6,25.
46 Rm 8,32.
That He might not seem to introduce the threatening as His leading topic, but to be stirring up their mind in the way of admonition and counsel.
Here He seems to me to be hinting at the Jews also, who were exhibiting such fruits. Wherefore also He reminded them of the sayings of John, in the very same terms delineating their punishment. For he too said the very same, making mention to them of an “axe,” and of a “tree cut down,” and of “unquenchable fire.”
And though it appear indeed to be some single judgment, the being burnt up, yet if one examine carefully, these are two punishments. For he that is burnt is also cast of course out of God’s kingdom; and this latter punishment is more grievous than the other. Now I know indeed that many tremble only at hell, but I affirm the loss of that glory to be a far greater punishment than hell. And if it be not possible to exhibit it such in words, this is nothing marvellous. For neither do we know the blessedness of those good things, that we should on the other hand clearly perceive the wretchedness ensuing on being deprived of them; since Paul, as knowing these things clearly, is aware, that to fall from Christ’s glory is more grievous than all. And this we shall know at that time, when we shall fall into the actual trial of it.
But may this never be our case, O thou only-begotten Son of God, neither may we ever have any experience of this irremediable punishment. For how great an evil it is to fall from those good things, cannot indeed be accurately told: nevertheless, as I may be able, I will labor and strive by an example to make it clear to you, though it be but in some small degree.
Let us then imagine a wondrous child, having besides His virtue the dominion of the whole world, and in all respects so virtuous, as to be capable of bringing all men to the yearning of a father’s affection. What theft do you think the father of this child would not gladly suffer, not to be cast out of Him society? And what evil, small or great, would he not welcome, on condition of seeing and enjoying Him? Now let us reason just so with respect to that glory also. For no child, be he never so virtuous, is so desirable and lovely to a father, as the having our portion in those good things, and “to depart and be with Christ.”47
No doubt hell, and that punishment, is a thing not to be borne. Yet though one suppose ten thousand hells, he will utter nothing like what it will be to fail of that blessed glory, to be hated of Christ, to hear “I know you not,”48 to be accused for not feeding Him when we saw Him an hungered.49 Yea, better surely to endure a thousand thunderbolts, than to see that face of mildness turning away from us, and that eye of peace not enduring to look upon us. For if He, while I was an enemy, and hating Him, and turning from Him, did in such wise follow after me, as not to spare even Himself, but to give Himself up unto death: when after all this I do not vouchsafe to Him so much as a loaf in His hunger, with what kind of eyes shall I ever again behold Him?
But mark even here His gentleness; in that He doth not at all speak of His benefits, nor say, “Thou hast despised Him that hath done thee so much good:” neither cloth He say, “Me, who brought thee from that which is not into being, who breathed into thee a soul, and set thee over all things on earth, who for thy sake made earth, and heaven, and sea, and air, and all things that are, who had been dishonored by thee, yea accounted of less honor than the devil, and did not even so withdraw Himself, but had innumerable thoughts for thee after it all; who chose to become a slave, who was beaten with rods and spit upon, who was slain, who died the most shameful death, who also on high makes intercession for thee, who freely gives thee His Spirit, who vouchsafes to thee a kingdom, who makes thee such promises, whose will it is to be unto thee Head, and Bridegroom, and Garment, and House, and Root, and Meat, and Drink, and Shepherd, and King, and who hath taken thee to be brother, and heir, and joint-heir with Himself; who hath brought thee out of darkness into the dominion of light.” These things, I say, and more than these He might speak of, but He mentions none of these; but what? only the sin itself.
Even here He shows His love, and indicates the yearning which He hath toward thee: not saying, “Depart into the fire prepared for you,” but “prepared for the devil.” And before He tells them what wrongs they had done, and neither so doth He endure to mention all, but a few. And before these He calls the other sort, those who have done well, to signify from this too that He is blaming them justly.
What amount of punishment, then, is so grievous as these words? For if any one seeing but a man who was his benefactor an hungered, would not neglect him; or if he should neglect him, being upbraided with it, would choose rather to sink into the earth than to hear of it in the presence of two or three friends; what will be our feelings, on hearing these words in the presence of the whole world; such as He would not say even then, were He not earnestly accounting for His own doings? For that not to upbraid did He bring these things forward, but in self-defense, and for the sake of showing, that not without ground nor at random was He saying, “depart from me;” this is evident from His unspeakable benefits. For if He had been minded to upbraid, He would have brought forwards all these, but now He mentions only what treatment He had received.
10. Let us therefore, beloved, fear the hearing these words. Life is not a plaything: or rather our present life is a plaything, but the things to come are not such; or perchance our life is not a plaything only, but even worse than this. For it ends not in laughter, but rather brings exceeding damage on them who are not minded to order their own ways strictly. For what, I pray thee, is the difference between children who are playing at building houses, and us when we are building our fine houses? what again between them making out their dinners, and us in our delicate fare? None, hut just that we do it at the risk of being punished. And if we do not yet quite perceive the poverty of what is going on, no wonder, for we are not yet become men; but when we are become so, we shall know that all these things are childish.
For so those other things too, as we grow to manhood, we laugh to scorn; but when we are children we account them to be worth anxiety; and while we are gathering together potsherds and mire we think no less of ourselves than they who are erecting their great circuits of walls Nevertheless they straightway perish and fall down, and not even when standing can they be of any use to us, as indeed neither can those fine houses. For the citizen of Heaven they cannot receive, neither can he bear to abide in them, who hath his country above; but as we throw down these with our feet, so he too those by his high spirit. And as we laugh at the children, weeping at that overthrow, even so these also, when we are bewailing it all, do not laugh only, but weep also: because both their bowels are compassionate, and great is the mischief thence arising.
Let us therefore become men. How long are we to crawl on the earth, priding ourselves on stones and stocks? How long are we to play? And would we played only! But now we even betray our own salvation; and as children when they neglect their learning, and practise themselves in these things at their leisure, suffer very severe blows; even so we too, spending all our diligence herein, and having then our spiritual lessons required of us in our works, and not being able to produce them, shall have to pay the utmost penalty. And there is none to deliver us; though he be father, brother, what you will. But while these things shall all pass away, the torment ensuing upon them remains immortal and unceasing; which sort of thing indeed takes place with respect to the children as well, their father destroying their childish toys altogether for their idleness, and causing them to weep incessantly.
11. And to convince thee that these things are such, let us bring before us wealth, that which more than anything seems to be worthy of our pains, and let us set against it a virtue of the soul (which soever thou wilt), and then shalt thou see most clearly the vileness thereof. Let us, I say, suppose there are two men (and I do not now speak of injuriousness,50 but as yet of honest wealth); and of these two, let the one get together money, and sail on the sea, and till the land, and find many other ways of merchandise (although I know not quite, whether, so doing, he can make honest gains); nevertheless let it be so, and let it be granted that his gains are gotten with honesty; that he buys fields, and slaves, and all such things, and suppose no injustice connected therewith. But let the other one, possessing as much, sell fields, sell houses, and vessels of gold and silver, and give to the poor; let him supply the necessitous, heal the sick, free such as are in straits, some let him deliver from bonds, others let him release that are in mines, these let him bring back from the noose, those, who are captives, let him rescue from their punishment. Of whose side then would you be? And we have not as yet spoken of the future, but as yet of what is here. Of whose part then would ye be? his that is gathering gold, or his that is doing away with calamities? with him that is purchasing fields, or him who is making himself a harbor of refuge for the human race? him that is clothed with much gold, or him that is crowned with innumerable blessings? Is not the one like some angel come down from Heaven for the amendment of the rest of mankind; but the other not so much as like a man, but like some little child that is gathering all together vainly and at random?
But if to get money honestly be thus absurd, and of extreme madness; when not even the honesty is there, how can such a man choose but be more wretched than any? I say, if the absurdity be so great; when hell is added thereto, and the loss of the kingdom, how great wailings are due to him, both living and dead?
12. Or wilt thou that we take in hand some other part also of virtue? Let us then introduce again another man, who is in power, commanding all, invested with great dignity, having a gorgeous herald, and girdle, and lictors, and a large company of attendants. both not this seem great, and meet to be called happy? Well then, against this man again let us set another, him that is patient of injuries, and meek, and lowly, and long suffering; and let this last be despitefully used, be beaten, and let him bear it quietly, and bless them that are doing such things.
Now which is the one to be admired, I pray thee? He that is puffed up, and inflamed, or he that is self-subdued? Is not the one again like the powers above, that are so free from passion, but the other like a blown bladder, or a man who hath the dropsy, and great inflammation? The one like a spiritual physician, the other, a ridiculous child that is puffing out his cheeks?
For why dost thou pride thyself, O man? Because thou art borne on high in a chariot? Because a yoke of mules is drawing thee? And what is this? Why, this one may see befalling mere logs of wood and stones. Is it that thou art clothed with beautiful garments? But look at him that is clad with virtue for garments, and thou wilt see thyself to be like withering hay, but him like a tree that bears marvellous fruit, and affords much delight to the beholders. For thou art bearing about food for worms and moths, who, if they should set upon thee, will quickly strip thee bare of this adorning (for truly garments and gold and silver, are the one, the spinning of worms; the other earth and dust, and again become earth and nothing more): but he that is clothed with virtue hath such raiment, as not only worms cannot hurt, but not even death itself. And very naturally; for these virtues of the soul have not their origin from the earth, but are a fruit of the Spirit; wherefore neither are they subject to the mouths of worms. Nay, for these garments are woven in Heaven, where is neither moth, nor worm, nor any other such thing.
Which then is better, tell me? To be rich, or to be poor? To be in power, or in dishonor? In luxury, or in hunger? It is quite clear; to be in honor, and enjoyment, and wealth. Therefore, if thou wouldest have the things and not the names, leave the earth and what is here, and find thee a place to anchor in Heaven: for what is here is a shadow, but all things there are immovable, stedfast, and beyond any assault.
Let us therefore choose them with all diligent care, that we may be delivered from the turmoil of the things here, and having sailed into that calm harbor, may be found with our lading abundant, and with that unspeakable wealth of almsgiving; unto which God grant we may all attain, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory and the might, world without end. Amen.
47 Mt 7,12. [ou(tw" is omitted so the Vulgate.—R.]
49 Confined, teqlimmevnh).
50 Mt 6,13-14. [R. V., “by the narrow gate ”; “enter in thereby;” “For narrow is the gate, and straitened the way,” &c. Chrysostom introduces verse 14 with kaiv ; and in some Mss. of the Homilies tiv is added. Comp. R.V. margin.. “How narrow,” etc.—R.]
Chrysostom hom. on Mt 23