Chrysostom hom. on Mt 36
36 Mt 11,1-7
“And it came to pass, when Jesus had made an end of commanding His twelve disciples, He departed thence to teach and to preach in their cities.”
That is, after He had sent them, He proceeded to withdraw Himself, to give them room and opportunity to do what He had enjoined. For while He was present and healing, no one would be willing to approach them.
“Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Jesus,1 he sent two of2 his disciples, and asked Him, saying, Art thou He that should come? or do we look for another?”3 (4. Mt 11,2-3
But Luke saith, they also told John of the miracles, and then he sent them.4 However, this contains no matter of difficulty, but of consideration only; for this, among other things, indicates their jealousy towards Him.
1 [R. V., “Of the Christ,” as in nearly all authorities, but Chrysostom reads tou` Ihsou`.—R.]
2 [R. V. “by his disciples”, but some ancient authorities (Vulgate also) support “two.”
3 [R. V.“ He that cometh.”]
But what follows is completely among the. controverted points. Of what nature then is this? Their saying, “Art Thou He that should come, or do we look for another?” That is, he that knew Him before His miracles, he that had learned it of the Spirit, he that heard it of the Father, he who had proclaimed Him before all men; doth he now send to learn of Him, whether it be Himself or no? And if yet thou didst not know that it is surely He, how thinkest thou thyself credible, affirming as thou dost concerning things, whereof thou art ignorant? For he that is to bear witness to others, must be first worthy of credit himself. Didst thou not say, “I am not meet to loose the latchet of His shoe? “5 Didst thou not say, “I knew Him not, but He that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and resting upon Him, the same is He which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost?”6 Didst thou not see the Spirit in form of a dove? didst thou not hear the voice? Didst thou not utterly forbid Him, saying, “I have need to be baptized of Thee?”7 Didst thou not say even to thy disciples, “He must increase, I must decrease?”8 Didst thou not teach all the people, that “He should baptize them with the Holy Ghost and with fire?”9 and that He “is the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world?”10 Didst thou not before His signs and miracles proclaim all these things? How then now, when He hath been made manifest to all, and the fame of Him hath gone out everywhere, and dead men have been raised, and devils driven away, and a display made of so great miracles, dost thou after this send to learn of Him?
What then is the fact? Were all these sayings a kind of fraud: a stage play and fables? Nay, who that hath any understanding would say so? I say not, John, who leaped in the womb, who before his own birth proclaimed Him, the citizen of the wilderness, the exhibitor of the conversation of angels; but even though he were one of the common sort, and of them that are utterly outcast, he would not have hesitated, after so many testimonies, both on his own part and on the part of others.
Whence it is evident, that neither did he send as being himself in doubt, nor did he ask in ignorance. Since no one surely could say this, that though he knew it fully, yet on account of his prison he was become rather timid: for neither was he looking to be delivered therefrom, nor if he did look for it, would he have betrayed his duty to God, armed as he was against various kinds of death. For unless he had been prepared for this, he would not have evinced so great courage towards a whole people, practised in shedding blood of prophets; nor would he have rebuked that savage tyrant with so much boldness in the midst of the city and the forum, severely chiding him, as though he were a little child, in hearing of all men. And even if he were grown more timid, how was he not ashamed before his own disciples, in whose presence he had so often borne witness unto Him, but asked his question by them, which he should have done by others? And yet surely he knew full well, that they too were jealous of Christ, and desired to find some handle against Him. And how could he but be abashed before the Jewish people, in whose presence he had proclaimed such high things? Or what advantage accrued to him thereby, towards deliverance from his bonds? For not for Christ’s sake had he been cast into prison, nor for having proclaimed His power, but for his own rebuke touching the unlawful marriage. And what child so silly, what person so frantic, but that so he would have put on himself their character?11
5 Lc 7,18.
6 Jn 1,27.
7 Jn 1,33.
8 Mt 3,14.
9 Jn 3,30.
10 Mt 3,11.
11 Jn 1,29. [R. V. “Or, beareth the sin”. etc.]
2. What then is it which he is bringing about? For that it belongs not to John to have doubt hereupon, no nor to any ordinary person, nor even to one extremely foolish and frenzied; so much is evident from what we have said.And now we have only to add the solution.
For what intent then did he send to ask? John’s disciples were starting aside from Jesus, and this surely any one may see, and they had always a jealous feeling towards Him. And it is plain, from what they said to their master: “He that was with thee,” it is said, “beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come unto Him.”12 And again, “There arose a question between John’s disciples and the Jews about purifying.”13 And again they came unto Him, and said, “Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but Thy disciples fast not? “14 For as yet they knew not who Christ was, but imagining Jesus to be a mere man, but John greater than after the manner of man, were vexed at seeing the former held in estimation, but the latter, as he had said, now ceasing. And this hindered them from coming unto Him, their jealousy quite blocking up the access. Now so long as John was with them, he was exhorting them continually and instructing them, and not even so did he persuade them; but when he was now on the point of dying, he uses the more diligence: fearing as he did lest he might leave a foundation for bad doctrine, and they continue broken off from Christ. For as he was diligent even at first to bring to Christ all that pertained to himself; so on his failing to persuade them, now towards his end he does but exert the more zeal.
Now if he had said, “Go ye away unto Him, He is better than I,” he would not have persuaded them, minded as they were not easily to be separated from him, but rather he would have been thought to say it out of modesty, and they would have been the more rivetted to him; or if he had held his peace, then again nothing was gained. What then doth he? He waits to hear from them that Christ is working miracles, and not even so doth he admonish them, nor doth he send all, but some two (whom he perhaps knew to be more teachable than the rest); that the inquiry might be made without suspicion, in order that from His acts they might learn the difference between Jesus and himself. And he saith, Go ye, and say, “Art thou He that should come, or do we look for another? “15
But Christ knowing the purpose of John, did not say, I am He; for this would again have offended the hearers, although this was what it naturally followed for Him to say, but He leaves them to learn it from His acts. For it saith, “when these were come to Him, then “He cured many.”16 And yet what congruity was there, that being asked, “Art thou He,” He should say nothing to that, but should presently cure them that were sick; unless it had been His mind to establish this which I have mentioned? Because they of course would account the testimony of His deeds surer, and more above suspicion than that of His words.
Knowing therefore, as being God, the mind with which John had sent them, He straightway cured blind, lame, and many others; not to teach him (for how should He him that was convinced), but these that were doubting: and having healed them, He saith,
“Go and show John again those things which ye do hear and see; the blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, and the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached unto them.”17 And he added, “And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me;”18 implying that He knows even their unuttered thoughts. For if He had said, “I am He,” both this would have offended them, as I have already said; and they would have thought, even if they had not spoken, much as the Jews said to Him, “Thou bearest record of Thyself.”19 Wherefore He saith not this Himself, but leaves them to learn all from the miracles, freeing what He taught from suspicion, and making it plainer. Wherefore also He covertly added His reproof of them. That is, because they were “offended in Him,” He by setting forth their case and leaving it to their own conscience alone, and by calling no witness of this His accusation, but only themselves that knew it all, did thus also draw them the more unto Himself, in saying, Blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me.” For indeed His secret meaning was of them when He said this.
12 [oujk a[n eJautw`/ divxab oeruevqgje.]
13 Jn 3,26.
14 Jn 3,25. [R. V., “with a Jew.” So one Ms. here. In Homily XXIX. on John, Chrysostom distinctly accepts the singular, as do nearly all Greek Mss.—R.]
15 Mt 9,14.
16 Mt 11,3.
17 Lc 7,21.
18 Mt 4,5.
19 Mt 11,6. [R. V., “shall find none occasion of stumbling in me.”]
3. But in order to our making the truth more evident to you by the comparison of the several statements, producing not only our own sayings, but also what is stated by others; we must needs add some account of them.
What then do some affirm? That this which we have stated was not the cause, but that John was in ignorance, yet not in ignorance of all; but that He was the Christ, he knew, but whether He was also to die for mankind, he knew not, therefore he said, “Art Thou He that should come?” that is, He that is to descend into hell.20 But this is not tenable; for neither of this was John ignorant. This at least he proclaimed even before all the others, and bare record of this first, “Behold,” saith he, “the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.”21 Now he called Him a lamb, as proclaiming the cross, and again in saying, “That taketh away the sin of the world,” he declared this same thing. For not otherwise than by the cross did He effect this; as Paul likewise said: “And the handwriting which was contrary to us, even it He took out of the way, nailing it to His cross.”22 And his saying too, “He shall baptize you with the Spirit,”23 is that of one who was foretelling the events after the resurrection.
Well: that He was to rise again, he knew, say they, and that He was to give the Holy Ghost; but that He should likewise be crucified, he knew not. How then was He to rise again, who had not suffered, nor been crucified? And how was this man greater than a prophet, who knew not even what the prophets knew? For that he was greater than a prophet, even Christ Himself bare record,24 but that the prophets knew of the passion is surely plain to every one. For so Isaiah saith, “He is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearer is dumb.”25 And before this testimony also he saith, “There shall be a root of Jesse, and He that shall rise again to rule the Gentiles, in Him shall the Gentiles trust.”26 Then speaking of His passion, and of the ensuing glory, he added. “And His rest shall be honor.” And this prophet foretold not only that He should be crucified, but also with whom. “For,” saith he, “He was numbered with the transgressors.”27 And not this only, but that He should not even plead For Himself; “For this man,” he saith, “openeth not His mouth:” and that He should be unjustly condemned; “For in His humiliation,” saith he, “His judgment was taken away.”28 And before this again, David both saith this, and describes the judgment hall. “Why,” saith he, “do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth stand up, and the rulers are gathered together against the Lord, and against His anointed.”29 And elsewhere he mentions also the image of the cross, saying on this wise, “They pierced my hand and my feet,”30 and those things which the soldiers were emboldened to do, he adds with all exactness, “For they parted my garments,” saith he, “among them, and for my vesture they did east lots.”31 And elsewhere again he saith, that they also offered Him vinegar;” For they gave me,” saith He, “gall for my meat, and for my thirst they made me drink Vinegar.”32
So then the prophets, so many years before, speak of the hall of judgment, and of the condemnation, and of them that were crucified with Him, and of the division of the garments, and of the lot cast upon them, and of many more things besides (for indeed it is unnecessary to allege all now, lest we make our discourse long): and was this man, greater than them all, ignorant of all these things? Nay, how should this be reasonable?
And why did he not say, “Art thou He that should come to hell,”33 but simply, “He that should come?” Although this were far more absurd than the others, I mean their saying, “he therefore said these things, that he might preach there also after his departure.” To whom it were seasonable to say, “Brethren, be not children in understanding, howbeit in malice be ye children.”34 For the present life indeed is the season for right conversation, but after death is judgment and punishment. “For in hell,” it is said, “who will confess unto thee?”35
20 Jn 8,13. [R. V., “witness.”]
21 See Origen, 2 Hom). in Reg. t. ii. p.495,6 St. Ambr). in Luc. 7,19 St. Jerome in loc). [The Greek term used is “Hades,” not “Gehenna”.—R.]
22 Jn 1,29.
23 Col 2,14. [Comp. R. V., in loco.]
24 Mt 3,11.
25 Mt 11,9.
26 Is 53,7.
27 Is 11,10.
28 Is 53,12.
29 Is 53,8 from LXX).
30 Ps 2,1-2.
31 Ps 22,16.
32 Ps 22,18.
33 Ps 69,21.
How then were “the gates of brass burst, and the bars of iron broken in sunder”?36 By His body; for then first was a body shown, immortal, and destroying the tyranny of death. And besides, this indicates the destruction of the might of death, not the loosing of the sins of those who had died before His coming. And if this were not so, but He have delivered all that were before Him from hell,37 how saith He, “It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah?”38 For this saying supposes that those are also to be punished; more mildly indeed, yet still that they are to be punished. And yet they did also suffer here the most extreme punishment, nevertheless not even this will deliver them. And if it is so with them, much more with such as have suffered nothing.
“What then?” one may say, “were they wronged, who lived before His coming?” By no means, for men might then be saved, even though they had not confessed Christ. For this was not required of them, but not to worship idols, and to know the true God. “For the Lord thy God,” it is said, “is one Lord.”39 Therefore the Maccabees were admired, because for the observance of the law they suffered what they did suffer; and the three children, and many others too amongst the Jews, having shown forth a very virtuous life, and having maintained the standard of this their knowledge, had nothing more required of them. For then it was sufficient for salvation, as I have said already, to know God only; but now it is so no more, but there is need also of the knowledge of Christ. Therefore He said, “If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin, but now they have no cloak for their sin.”40
So likewise with regard to the rule of practice. Then murder was the destruction of him that committed it, but now even to be angry. And then to commit adultery, and to lie with another man’s wife, brought punishment, but now even to look with unchaste eyes. For as the knowledge, so also the rule of life is now made stricter. So that there was no need of a forerunner there.
And besides, if unbelievers are after death to be saved on their believing, no man shall ever perish. For all will then repent and adore. And in proof that this is true, hear Paul saying, “Every tongue shall confess, and every knee shall bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth.”41 And, “The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.”42 But there is no advantage in that submission, for it comes not of a rightly disposed choice, but of the necessity of things, as one may say, thenceforth taking place.
Let us not then any more bring in such old wives’ doctrines, and Jewish fables. Hear at least what Paul saith touching these things. “For as many as have sinned without law, shall also perish without law;”43 where his discourse is of those who lived in the time before the law; and, “As many as have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the law.”44 speaking of all after Moses. And, “That the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness, and unrighteousness of men,”45 and, “indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish upon every soul of man that worketh evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile.”46 And yet countless were the evils which the Gentiles have suffered in this world, and this is declared alike by the histories of the heathens, and by the Scriptures that are in our hands. For who could recount the tragic calamities of the Babylon-fans, or those of the Egyptians? But in proof that they who, not having known Christ before His coming in the flesh, yet refrained from idolatry and worshipped God only, and showed forth an excellent life, shall enjoy all the blessings; hear what is said: “But glory, and honor, and peace to every one that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile.” Seest thou that for their good deeds there are many rewards, and chastisements again, and penalties for such as have done the contrary?
4. Where now, tell me, are the utter unbelievers in hell? Why, if those before Christ’s coming, who had not so much as heard the name of hell,47 nor of a resurrection, and were punished here, shall suffer punishment there also; how much more we that have been nurtured in so many lessons of strict virtue?48
And how is it reasonable, asks one, that they that have never heard of hell? should fall into hell,49 For they will say, “If thou hadst threatened hell, we should have feared more, and have been sobered.” To be sure; (is it not so?) at our rate of living now, who hear daily the sayings about hell, and give no heed at all.
And besides, there is this also to be said; that he who is not restrained by the judgments in sight, much less will he be restrained by those others. For the less reasonable sort, and those of a grosset disposition, are wont to be sobered rather by things which are at hand, and straightway to happen, than by such as will come to pass a long time after. “But over us,” one may say, “a greater fear is suspended, and herein were they wronged.” By no means. For first, there are not the same measures50 set to us as to them, but much greater for us. Now they that have undertaken greater labors, ought to enjoy greater help. And it is no little help, that our fear has been increased. And if we have an advantage over them in knowing things to come, they have an advantage over us m that the severe punishments are presently laid upon them.
But there is something else, which the multitude say with respect to this also. For “where,” say they, “is God’s justice, when any one for sinning here, is punished both here and there?” Would ye then I should put you in mind of your own sayings, that ye may no longer give us trouble, but furnish the solution from within yourselves. I have heard many of our people, if haply they were told of a murderer cut off in a court of justice, how they had indignation, and talked in this way: “This unholy and accursed wretch, having perpetrated thirty murders, or even many more, hath himself undergone one death only; and where is the justice of it?” So that ye yourselves confess, that one death is not sufficient for punishment; how give ye then an opposite sentence now. Because not others but yourselves are the objects of your judgment: so great a hindrance is self-love to our perceiving what is just. Because of this, when we are judging others, we search out all things with strictness, but when we are sitting in judgment on ourselves, we are blinded. Since if we were to search into these things in our own case too, as we do with regard to other men, we should give an uncorrupt sentence. For we also have sins, deserving not two or three, but ten thousand deaths. And to pass over all the rest, let us recollect ourselves, as many of us as partake unworthily of the mysteries; such men being guilty of the body and blood of Christ. Wherefore, when thou art talking of the murderer, take account of thyself also. For he indeed hath murdered a man, but thou art under the guilt of slaying the Lord; and he, not having partaken of mysteries, but we, while enjoying the benefit of the sacred table.
And what are they that bite and devour their brethren, and pour out such abundance of venom? What is he that robs the poor of their food? For if he who imparts not of his own, is such as I have said, much more he that takes the things of others.51 How many robbers do the covetous surpass in wickedness! how many murderers and robbers of tombs, the rapacious! and how many after spoiling men are desirous even of their blood!
“Nay,” saith he, “God forbid.” Now thou sayest, God forbid. When thou hast an enemy, then say, God forbid, and call to mind what hath been said, and show forth a life full of great strictness; lest the portion of Sodom await us also, lest we suffer the lot of Gomorrha, lest we undergo the ills of the Tyrians and Sidonians; or rather, test we offend Christ, which were a thing more grievous and more to be feared than all.
For though to many hell52 seem to be a fearful thing, yet I for my part will not cease continually to say, that this is more grievous and fearful than any hell; and you I entreat to be of the same mind. For so shall we both be delivered from hell, and enjoy the glory that is bestowed of Christ; unto which may we all attain,by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and might forever and ever. Amen.
34 [eij" to;n a(dh/n.]
35 1Co 14,20.
36 Ps 6,5 [a(dh/]).
37 Ps 107,16.
39 Mt 10,15.
40 Dt 6,4.
41 Jn 15,22. [R. V., “excuse.”]
42 Ph 2,10-11.
43 1Co 15,26.
44 Rm 2,12
45 Rm 2,12.
46 Rm 1,18.
47 Rm 2,8-9.
50 [geevnnh", and so throughout the paragraph.—R.]
52 The words in italics, both here and below, are omitted in several Mss.
37 Mt 10,7-9
“And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken with the wind? But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment; behold, they that wear soft clothing are makings’ houses. But what went ye out for to see? A prophet?1 yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet.”
For the matter indeed of John’s disciples had been ordered well, and they were gone away assured by the miracles which had just been performed; but there was need after that of remedy as regarded the people. For although they could not suspect anything of the kind of their own master, the common people might from the inquiry of John’s disciples form many strange suspicions, not knowing the mind with which he sent his disciples. And it was natural for them to reason with themselves, and say, “He that bore such abundant witness, hath he now changed his persuasion, and doth he doubt whether this or another be He that should come? Can it be, that in dissension with Jesus he saith this? that the prison hath made him more timid? that his former words were spoken vainly, and at random?” It being then natural for them to suspect many such things, see how He corrects their weakness, and removes these their suspicions. For “as they departed, He began to say to the multitudes.” Why, “as they departed?” That He might not seem to be flattering the man.
And in correcting the people, He doth not publish their suspicion, but adds only the solution of the thoughts that were mentally disturbing them: signifying that He knew the secrets of all men. For He saith not, as unto the Jews, “Wherefore think ye evil?”2 Because if they had it in their minds, not of wickedness did they so reason, but of ignorance on the points that had been spoken of. Wherefore neither doth He discourse unto them in the way of rebuke, but merely sets right their understanding, and defends John, and signifies that he is not fallen away from his former opinion, neither is he changed, not being at all a man easily swayed and fickle, but steadfast and sure, and far from being such as to betray the things committed unto him.
And in establishing this, He employs not at first his own sentence, but their former testimony, pointing out how they bare record of his firmness, not by their words only, but also by their deeds.
Wherefore He saith, “What went ye out into the wilderness to see?” as though He had said, Wherefore did ye leave your cities, and your houses, and come together all of you into the wilderness? To see a pitiful and flexible kind of person? Nay, this were out of all reason, this is not what is indicated by that earnestness, and the concourse of all men unto the wilderness. So much people and so many cities would not have poured themselves out with so great zeal towards the wilderness and the river Jordan at that time, had ye not expected to see some great and marvellous one, one firmer than any rock. Yea, it was not “a reed” surely, that “ye went out to see shaken by the wind:” for the flexible and such as are lightly brought round, and now say one thing, now another, and stand firm in nothing, are most like that.
And see how He omits all wickedness, and mentions this, which then especially haunted3 them; and removes the suspicion of lightness.
“But what went ye out for to see? a man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings’ houses.”4
Now His meaning is like this: He was not of himself a waverer; and this ye yourselves showed by your earnestness. Much less could any one say this, that he was indeed firm, but having made himself a slave to luxury, he afterwards became languid. For among men, some are such as they are of themselves, others become so; for instance, one man is passionate by nature, and another from having fallen into a long illness gets this infirmity. Again, some men are flexible and fickle by nature, while others become so by being slaves to luxury, and by living effeminately. “But John,” saith He, “neither was such a character by nature, for neither was it a reed that ye went out to see; nor by giving himself to luxury did he lose the advantage he possessed.” For that he did not make himself a slave to luxury, his garb shows, and the wilderness, and the prison. Since, had he been minded to wear soft raiment, he would not have lived in the wilderness, nor in the prison, but in the king’s courts: it being in his power, merely by keeping silence, to have enjoyed honor without limit. For since Herod so reverenced him, even when he had rebuked him, and was in chains, much more would he have courted him, had he held his peace. You see, he had indeed given proof of his firmness and fortitude; and how could he justly incur suspicions of that kind?
2. When therefore as well by the place, as by his garments, and by their concourse unto Him, He had delineated his character, He proceeds to bring in the prophet. For having said, “Why went ye out? To see a prophet? Yea I say unto you, and more than a prophet;”5 He goes on, “For this is he of whom it is written,6 Behold, I send my messenger before Thy face, which shall prepare Thy way before Thee.”7 Having before set down the testimony of the Jews, He then applies that of the prophets; or rather, He puts in the first place the sentence of the Jews, which must have been a very strong demonstration, the witness being borne by his enemies; secondly, the man’s life; thirdly, His own judgment; fourthly, the prophet; by all means stopping their mouths.
Then lest they should say, “But what if at that time indeed he were such an one, but now is changed?” He added also what follows; his garments, his prison, and together with these the prophecy.
Then having said, that he is greater than a prophet, He signifies also in what he is greater. And in what is he greater? In being near Him that was come. For, “I send,” saith He, “my messenger before Thy face;” that is, nigh Thee. For as with kings, they who ride near the chariot, these are more illustrious than the rest, just so John also appears in his course near the advent itself. See how He signified John’s excellency by this also; and not even here doth He stop, but adds afterwards His own suffrage as well, saying, “Verily I say unto you, among them that rare born of women, there hath not arisen a greater than John the Baptist.”8
Now what He said is like this: “woman hath not borne a greater than this man.” And His very sentence is indeed sufficient; but if thou art minded to learn from facts also, consider his table, his manner of life, the height of his soul.9 For he so lived as though he were in heaven: and having got above the necessities of nature, he travelled as it were a new way, spending all his time in hymns and prayers, and holding inter course with none among men, but with God alone continually. For he did not so much as see any of his fellow-servants, neither was he seen by any one of them; he fed not on milk, he enjoyed not the comfort of bed, or roof, or market, or any other of the things of men; and yet he was at once mild and earnest. Hear, for example, how considerately he reasons with his own disciples, courageously with the people of the Jews, how openly with the king. For this cause He said also, “There hath not risen among them that are born of women a greater than John the Baptist.”
3. But lest the exceeding greatness of His praises should produce a sort of extravagant feeling, the Jews honoring John above Christ; mark how He corrects this also. For as the things which edified His own disciples did harm to the multitudes, they supposing Him an easy kind of person; so again the remedies employed for the multitudes might have proved more mischievous, they deriving from Christ’s words a more reverential opinion of John than of Himself.
Wherefore this also, in an unsuspected way, He corrects by saying, “He that is less,10 in the kingdom of Heaven is greater than he.” Less in age, and according to the opinion of the multitude, since they even called Him “a gluttonous man and a winebibber;”11 and, “Is not this the carpenter’s son?”12 and on every occasion they used to make light of Him.
“What then?” it may be said, is it by comparison that He is greater than John?” Far from it. For neither when John saith, He is mightier than I,”13 doth he say it as comparing them; nor Paul, when remembering Moses he writes, For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses,”14 doth he so write by way of comparison; and He Himself too, in saying, Behold, a greater than Solomon is here,”15 speaks not as making a comparison.
Or if we should even grant that this was said by Him in the way of comparison, this was done in condescension,16 because of the weakness of the hearers. For the men really had their gaze very much fixed upon John; and then he was rendered the more illustrious both by his imprisonment, and by his plainness of speech to the king; and it was a great point for the present, that even so much should be received among the multitude. And so too, the Old Testament uses in the same way to correct the souls of the erring, by putting together in a way of comparison things that cannot be compared; as when it saith, “Among the gods there is none like unto Thee, O Lord:”17 and again, “There is no god like our God.”18
Now some affirm, that Christ said this of the apostles, others again, of angels.19 Thus, when any have turned aside from the truth, they are wont to wander many ways. For what sort of connexion hath it, to speak either of angels or of apostles? And besides, if He were speaking of the apostles, what hindered his bringing them forward by name? whereas, when He is speaking of Himself, He naturally conceals His person, because of the still prevailing suspicion, and that He may not seem to say anything great of Himself; yea, and we often find Him doing so.
But what is, “In the kingdom of heaven?” Among spiritual beings, and all them that are in heaven.
And moreover His saying, “There hath not risen among them that are born of women a greater than John,” suited one contrasting John with Himself, and thus tacitly excepting Himself. For though He too were born of a woman, yet not as John, for He was not a mere man, neither was He born in like manner as a man, but by a strange and wondrous kind of birth.
4. “And from the days of John the Baptist,” saith He, “until now, the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force.”20
And what sort of connexion may this have with what was said before? Much, assuredly, and in full accordance therewith. Yea, by this topic also He proceeds to urge and press them into the faith of Himself; and at the same time likewise, He is speaking in agreement with what had been before said by John. “For if all things are fulfilled even down to John, I am “He that should come.”
“For all the prophets,” saith He, “and the law prophesied until John.”21
1 [R. V. text, “But wherefore went ye out? to see a prophet?” In the margin the received reading is given. Chrysostom gives the latter here, but has the other in his comments. See sec 2.—R).
2 Mt 9,4.
4 Mt 11,8.
5 Mt 11,9. [See note i, p.243.]
6 See Ml 3,1.
7 Mt 11,10.
8 Mt 11,11.
9 [th`" gnwvmh";“zeal” would be a better rendering, though there is no precise English equivalent.—R.]
10 [R.V., “but little;” Gr. “lesser.”]
11 Mt 11,19.
12 Mt 13,55.
13 Mt 3,11.
14 He 3,3.
15 Mt 12,42.
16 Or, “by way of economy;” oijkonomikw`".
17 Ps 86,8.
18 Ps 77,13.
19 “Many will understand this of the Saviour; that he who is less in time is greater in dignity. But let us simply understand, that every Saint who is already with God is greater than he whose post is yet in the battle. For it is one thing to possess the crown of victory, another still to fight in the battle. Some will take it that the lowest angel serving God in Heaven is greater than any even the first of men who as yet dwells on earth.” St. Jerome, in loco.
“Finally, it is so utterly impossible that there should be any comparison between Jn and the Son of God, that the former is of less esteem even than the angels. Thus, on the one hand, in as much as He had called him an angel” Ml 3,1, “He is of course set above men; on the other, because he had declared him chief among those born of women, He therefore added, For he who is lesser in the kingdom of heaven is greater than he:that you might know he could not compare with the angels.” St. Ambr on St. Lc 7,27; St. Aug. Contr. Advers. Legis et Proph.ii. xx, states both interpretations, without any preference for either. But in his 13 Tract. on St. John, c. 2,he gives the same as St. Chrysostom).
20 Mt 11,12. [R. V., “men of violence.”]
21 Mt 11,13.
For the prophets would not have ceased, unless I were come. Expect therefore nothing further, neither wait for any one else. For that I am He is manifest both from the prophets ceasing, and from those that every day “take by force” the faith that is in me. For so manifest is it and certain, that many even take it by force. Why, who hath so taken it? tell me. All who approach it with earnestness of mind.
Then He states also another infallible sign, saying, “If ye will receive it, he is Elias, which was for to come.” For “I will send you,” it is said, “Elias the Tishbite, who shall turn the heart of the father to the children.”22 This man then is Elias, if ye attend exactly, saith He. For “I will send,” saith He, “my messenger before Thy face.”23
And well hath He said, “If ye will receive it,” to show the absence of force. For I do not constrain, saith He. And this He said, as requiring a candid mind, and showing that John is Elias, and Elias John. For both of them received one ministry, and both of them became forerunners. Wherefore neither did He simply say, “This is Elias,” but, “If ye are willing to receive it, this is he,” that is, if with a candid mind ye give heed to what is going on. And He did not stop even at this, but to the words, “This is Elias, which was for to come,” He added, to show that understanding is needed,He that hathears to hear, let him hear.”24
Now He used so many dark sayings, to stir them up to inquiry. And if not even so were they awakened, much more, had all been plain and clear. For this surely no man could say, that they dared not ask Him, and that He was difficult of approach. For they that were asking him questions, and tempting Him about common matters, and whose mouths were stopped a thousand times, yet they did not withdraw from Him; how should they but have inquired of Him, and besought Him touching the indispensable things, had they indeed been desirous to learn? For if concerning the matters of the law they asked, “Which is the first commandment,” and all such questions, although there was of course no need of His telling them that; how should they but ask the meaning of what He Himself said, for which also He was bound to give account in His answers? And especially when it was He Himself that was encouraging and drawing them on to do this. For by saying, “The violent take it by force,” He stirs them up to earnestness of mind; and by saying, “He that hath ears to hear, let him hear,” He doth just the same thing.
5. “But whereunto shall I liken this generation?” saith He,” “It is like unto children sitting in the market place, and saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented.”25 This again seems to be unconnected with what came before, but it is the most natural consequence thereof. Yea, He still keeps to the same point, the showing that John is acting in harmony with Himself, although the results were opposite; as indeed with respect to his inquiry also. And He implies that there was nothing that ought to have been done for their salvation, and was omitted; which thing the prophet26 saith of the vineyard; “What ought I to have done to this vineyard, and have not done it? For whereunto,” saith He, “shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the market, and saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced, we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented. For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He hath a devil.27 The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners.”28
Now what He saith is like this: We have come each of us an opposite way, I and John; and we have done just as if it were some hunters with a wild beast that was hard to catch, and which might by two ways fall into the toils; as if each of the two were to cut it off his several way, and drive it, taking his stand opposite to the other; so that it must needs fall into one of the two snares. Mark, for instance, the whole race of man, how it is astonished at the wonder of men’s fasting, and at this hard and self-denying life. For this reason it had been so ordered, that John should be thus brought up from his earliest youth, so that hereby (among other things) his sayings might obtain credit.
But wherefore, it may be asked, did not He Himself choose that way? In the first place He did also Himself proceed by it, when He fasted the forty days, and went about teaching, and not having where to lay His head. Nevertheless He did also in another mode accomplish this same object, and provide for the advantage thence accruing. For to be testified of by him that came this way was the same thing, or even a much greater thing than to have come this way Himself.
And besides, John indeed exhibited no more than his life and conversation; for “John,” it is said, “did no sign,”29 but He Himself had the testimony also from signs and from miracles. Leaving therefore John to be illustrious by his fasting, He Himself came the opposite way, both coming unto publicans’ tables, and eating and drinking.
Let us ask the Jews then, “Is fasting a good thing, and to be admired? you should then have obeyed John, and received him, and believed his sayings. For so would those sayings have led you towards Jesus. Is fasting, on the other hand, a thing grievous, and burdensome? then should you have obeyed Jesus, and have believed in Him that came the opposite way. Thus, either way, ye would have found yourselves in the kingdom.” But, like an intractable wild beast, they were speaking evil of both. The fault is not then theirs who were not believed, but they are to be blamed who did not believe. For no man would ever choose to speak evil of opposite things, any more than he would on the other hand commend them. I mean thus: he that approves the cheerful and free character, will not approve him that is sad and grave; he that commends the man of a sad countenance will not commend the cheerful man. For it is a thing impossible to give your vote both ways at once. Therefore also He saith, “We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced;” that is, “I have exhibited the freer kind of life, and ye obeyed not:” and, “We have mourned, and ye have not lamented;” that is, “John followed the rugged and grave life, and ye took no heed.” And He saith not, “he this, I that,” but the purpose of both being one, although their modes of life were opposite, for this cause He speaks of their doings as common. Yea, for even their coming by opposite ways arose out of a most exact accordance, such as continued looking to one and the same end. What sort of excuse then can ye have after all this?
Wherefore He subjoined, “And wisdom is justified of her children;”30 that is, though ye be not persuaded, yet with me after this ye cannot find fault. As the prophet saith touching the Father, “That Thou mightest be justified in Thy sayings.”31 For God, though He should effect nothing more by His care over us, fulfills all His part, so as to leave to them that will be shameless not so much as a shadow of excuse for uncandid doubt.
22 Ml 4,5-6 [LXX., but with “children” substituted for “son.”—R.]
23 Ml 3,1. [“My face,” in Ml 3,1, but “thy face” in the New Testament citations. Comp. Verse 10, Mc 1, 2, Lc 7,27.—R.]
24 Mt 11,15.
25 Mt 11,16-17. [The former verse is abridged. R. V. (Ver. 17), “We piped unto you, and ye did not dance we wailed, and ye did not mourn (Greek, beat the breast).”—R.]
26 Is 5,4 [LXX.]
28 [see note 1]).
29 Jn 10,41.
30 Mt 11,19. [The text of the Homily agrees with the received text. Comp. Lc 7,35 , where this reading is undoubtedly the correct one
And if the similitudes be mean, and of an ill sound, marvel not, for He was discoursing with a view to the weakness of His hearers. Since Ezekiel too mentions many similitudes like them, and unworthy of God’s majesty.32 But this too especially becomes His tender care.
And mark them, how in another respect also they are carried about into contradictory opinions. For whereas they had said of John, “he hath a devil,”33 they stopped not at this, but said the very same again concerning Him,34 taking as He did the opposite course; thus were they forever carried about into conflicting opinions.
But Luke herewith sets down also another and a heavier charge against them, saying, “For the publicans justified God, having received the baptism of John.”35
6. Then He proceeds to upbraid the cities now that wisdom hath been justified; now that He hath shown all to be fully performed. That is, having failed to persuade them, He now doth but lament over them; which is more than terrifying For He had exhibited both His teaching by His words, and His wonder-working power by His signs. But forasmuch as they abode in their own unbelief, He now does but upbraid.
For “then,” it is said, “began Jesus to upbraid the cities, wherein most of His mighty works were done, because they repented not; saying, Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida36
Then, to show thee that they are not such by nature, He states also the name of the city out of which proceeded five apostles. For both Philip, and those two pairs of the chief apostles, were from thence.37
“For if,” saith He, “the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented in sackcloth and ashes. But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon, at the day of judgment, than for you. And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell,38 for if the mighty works which have been done in thee had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom in the day of judgment, than for thee.”39
And He adds not Sodom with the others for nought, but to aggravate the charge against them. Yea, for it is a very great proof of wickedness, when not only of them that now are, but even of all those that ever were wicked, none are found so bad as they.
Thus elsewhere also He makes a comparison, condemning them by the Ninevites, and by the Queen of the south; there, however, it was by them that did right, here, even by them that sinned; a thing far more grievous. With this law of condemnation, Ezekiel too was acquainted: wherefore also he said to Jerusalem, “Thou hast justified thy sisters in all thy sins.”40 Thus everywhere is He wont to linger in the Old Testament, as in a favored place. And not even at this doth He stay His speech, but makes their fears yet more intense, by saying, that they should suffer things more grievous than Sodomites and Tyrians, so as by every means to gather them in, both by bewailing, and by alarming them.
7. To these same things let us also listen: since not for the unbelievers only, but for us also, hath He appointed a punishment more grievous than that of the Sodomites, if we will not receive the strangers that come in unto us; I mean, when He commanded to shake off the very dust: and very fitly. For as to the Sodomites, although they committed a great transgression, yet it was before the law and grace; but we, after so much care shown towards us, of what indulgence should we be worthy, showing so much inhospitality, and shutting our doors against them that are in need, and before our doors our ears? or rather not against the poor only, but against the apostles themselves? For therefore we do it to the poor, because we do it to the very apostles. For whereas Paul is read, and thou attendest not; whereas John preaches, and thou hearest not: when wilt thou receive a poor man, who wilt not receive an apostle?
In order then that both our houses may be continually open to the one, and our ears to the others, let us purge away the filth from the ears of our soul. For as filth and mud close up the ears of our flesh, so do the hatlot’s songs, and worldly news, and debts, and the business of usury and loans, close up the ear of the mind, worse than any filth; nay rather, they do not close it up only, but also make it unclean. And they are putting dung in your ears, who tell you of these things. And that which the barbarian threatened, saying, “Ye shall eat your own dung,” and what follows;41 this do these men also make you undergo, not in word, but in deeds; or rather, somewhat even much worse. For truly those songs are more loathsome even than all this; and what is yet worse, so far from feeling annoyance when ye hear them, ye rather laugh, when ye ought to abominate them and fly.
But if they be not abominable, go down unto the stage, imitate that which thou praisest; or rather, do thou merely take a walk with him that is exciting that laugh. Nay, thou couldest not bear it. Why then bestow on him so great honor? Yea, while the laws that are enacted by the Gentiles would have them to be dishonored, thou receivest them with thy whole city, like ambassadors and generals, and dost convoke all men, to receive dung in their ears. And thy servant, if he say anything filthy in thy hearing, will receive stripes in abundance; and be it a son, a wife, whoever it may, that doth as I have said, thou callest the act an affront; but if worthless fellows, that deserve the scourge, should invite thee to hear the filthy words, not only art thou not indignant, thou dost even rejoice and applaud. And what could be equal to this folly?
But dost thou thyself never utter these base words? Why what is the profit? or rather, this very fact, whence is it manifest? For if thou didst not utter these things, neither wouldest thou at all laugh at hearing them, nor wouldest thou run with such zeal to the voice that makes thee ashamed.
For tell me, art thou pleased at hearing men blaspheme? Dost thou not rather shudder, and stop thine ears? Surely I think thou dost. Why so? Because thou blasphemest not thyself. Just so do thou act with respect to filthy talking also; and if thou wouldest show us clearly, that thou hast no pleasure in filthy speaking, endure not so much as to hear them. For when wilt thou be able to become good, bred up as thou art with such sounds in thine ears? When wilt thou venture to undergo such labors as chastity requires, now that thou art falling gradually away through this laughter, these songs, and filthy words? Yea, it is a great thing for a soul that keeps itself pure from all this, to be able to become grave and chaste; how much more for one that is nourished up in such hearings? Know ye not, that we are of the two more inclined to evil? While then we make it even an art, and a business, when shall we escape that furnace?
8. Heardest thou not what Paul saith, “Rejoice in the Lord?”42 He said not, “in the devil.” When then wilt thou be able to hear Paul? when, to gain a sense of thy wrong actions? drunken as thou art, ever and incessantly, with the spectacle I was speaking of. For thy having come here is nothing wonderful nor great; or rather it is wonderful. For here thou comest any how, and so as just to satisfy a scruple,43 but there with diligence and speed, and great readiness. And it is evident from what thou bringest home, on returning thence.
For even all the mire that is there poured out for you, by the speeches, by the songs, by the laughter, ye collect and take every man to his home, or rather not to his home only, but every man even into his own mind.
And from things not worthy of abhorrence thou turnest away; while others which are to be abhorred, so far from hating, thou dost even court. Many, for instance, on coming back from tombs, are used to wash themselves, but on returning from theatres they have never groaned, nor poured forth any fountains of tears; yet surely the dead man is no unclean thing, whereas sin induces such a blot, that not even with ten thousand fountains could one purge it away, but with tears only, and with confessions. But no one hath any sense of this blot. Thus because we fear not what we ought, therefore we shrink from what we ought not.
And what again is the applause? what the tumult, and the satanical cries, and the devilish gestures? For first one, being a young man, wears his hair long behind, and changing his nature into that of a woman, is striving both in aspect, and in gesture, and in garments, and generally in all ways, to pass into the likeness of a tender damsel.44 Then another who is grown old, in the opposite way to this, having his hair shaven, and with his loins girt about, his shame cut off before his hair, stands ready to be smitten with the rod, prepared both to say and do anything. The women again, their heads uncovered, stand without a blush, discoursing with a whole people, so complete is their practice in shamelessness; and thus pour forth all effrontery and impurity into the souls of their hearers. And their one study is, to pluck up all chastity from the foundations, to disgrace our nature, to satiate the desire of the wicked demon. Yea, and there are both foul sayings, and gestures yet fouler; and the dressing of the hair tends that way, and the gait, and apparel, and voice, and flexure of the limbs; and there are turnings of the eyes, and flutes, and pipes, and dramas, and plots; and all things, in short, full of the most extreme impurity. When then wilt thou be sober again, I pray thee, now that the devil is pouring out for theeso much of the strong wine of whoredom, mingling so many cups of unchastity? For indeed both adulteries and stolen marriages are there. and there are women playing the harlot, men prostituting, youths corrupting themselves: all there is iniquity to the full, all sorcery, all shame. Wherefore they that sit by should not laugh at these things, but weep and groan bitterly.
“What then? Are we to shut up the stage?” it will be said, “and are all things to be turned upside down at thy word?” Nay, but as it is, all things are turned upside down. For whence are they, tell me, that plot against our marriages? Is it not from this theatre? Whence are they that dig through into chambers? Is it not from that stage? Comes it not of this, when husbands are insupportable to their wives? of this, when the wives are contemptible to their husbands? of this, that the more part are adulterers? So that the subverter of all things is he that goes to the theatre; it is he that brings in a grievous tyranny. “Nay,” thou wilt say, “this is appointed by the good order of the laws.” Why, to tear away men’s wives, and to insult young boys, and to overthrow houses, is proper to those who have seized on citadels.45 “And what adulterer,” wilt thou say, “hath been made such by these spectacles?” Nay, who hath not been made an adulterer? And if one might but mention them now by name, I could point out how many husbands those harlots have severed from their wives, how many they have taken captive, drawing some even from the marriage bed itself, not suffering others so much as to live at all in marriage.
“What then? I pray thee, are we to overthrow all the laws?” Nay, but it is overthrowing lawlessness, if we do away with these spectacles, For hence are they that make havoc in our cities; hence, for example, are seditions and tumults. For they that are maintained by the dancers, and who sell their own voice to the belly, whose work it is to shout, and to practise everything that is monstrous, these especially are the men that stir up the populace, that make the tumults in our cities. For youth, when it hath joined hands with idleness, and is brought up in so great evils, becomes fiercer than any wild beast. The necromancers too, I pray thee, whence are they? Is it not from hence, that in order to excite the people who are idling without object, and make the dancing men have the benefit of much and loud applause, and fortify the harlot women against the chaste, they proceed so far in sorcery, as not even to shrink from disturbing the bones of the dead? Comes it not hence, when men are forced to spend without limit on that wicked choir of the devil? And lasciviousness, whence is that, and its innumerable mischiefs? Thou seest, it is thou who art subverting our life, by drawing men to these things, while I am recruiting it by putting them down.
“Let us then pull down the stage,” say they. Would that it were possible to pull it down; or rather, if ye be willing, as far as regards us, it is pulled down, and digged up. Nevertheless, I enjoin no such thing. Standing as these places are, I bid you make them of no effect; which thing were a greater praise than pulling them down.
9. Imitate at least the barbarians, if no one else; for they verily are altogether clean from seeking such sights. What excuse then can we have after all this, we, the citizens of Heaven, and partners in the choirs of the cherubim, and in fellowship with the angels, making ourselves in this respect worse even than the barbarians, and this, when innumerable other pleasures, better than these, are within our reach?
Why, if thou desirest that thy soul may find delight, go to pleasure grounds, to a river flowing by, and to lakes, take notice of gardens, listen to grasshoppers as they sing, be continually by the coffins of martyrs, where is health of body and benefit of soul, and no hurt, no remorse after the pleasure, as there is here.
Thou hast a wife, thou hast children; what is equal to this pleasure? Thou hast a house, thou hast friends, these are the true delights: besides their purity, great is the advantage they bestow. For what, I pray thee, is sweeter than children? what sweeter than a wife, to him that will be chaste in mind?
To this purpose, we are told, that the barbarians uttered on some occasion a saying full of wise severity. I mean, that having heard of these wicked spectacles, and the unseasonable delight of them; “why the Romans,” say they, “have devised these pleasures, as though they had not wives and children;” implying that nothing is sweeter than children and wife, if thou art willing to live honestly.
“What then,” one may say, “if I point to some, who are nothing hurt by their pastime in that place?” In the first place, even this is a hurt, to spend one’s time without object or fruit, and to become an offense to others For even if thou shouldest not be hurt, thou makest some other more eager herein. And how canst thou but be thyself hurt, giving occasion to what goes on? Yea, both the fortune-teller, and the prostitute boy, and the harlot woman, and all those choirs of the devil, cast upon thy head the blame of their proceedings. For as surely as, if there were no spectators, there would be none to follow these employments; so, since there are, they too have their share of the fire due to such deeds. So that even if in chastity thou weft quite unhurt (a thing impossible), yet for others’ ruin thou wilt render a grievous account; both the spectators’, and that of those who assemble them.
And in chastity too thou wouldest profit more, didst thou refrain from going thither. For if even now thou art chaste, thou wouldest have become chaster by avoiding such sights. Let us not then delight in useless argument, nor devise unprofitable apologies: there being but one apology, to flee from the Babylonian furnace, to keep far from the Egyptian harlot, though one must escape her hands naked.46
For so shall we both enjoy much delight, our conscience not accusing us, and we shall live this present life with chastity, and attain unto the good things to come, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ; to whom be glory and might, now and ever, and world without end. Amen.
31 Ps 51,4.
32 See Ez 4,5 Ez 12,13, &c.
33 Mt 11,18.
34 Jn 7,20 Jn 8,48 Jn 52 Jn 10,20,
35 Lc 7,29-30.[dexavmenoi for baprisqevnte"in Luke.]
36 Mt 11,20-21.
37 Jn 1,44.
38 [R. V., “Hades.”]
39 . [The Greek here agrees with the received text. In verse 23 the R. V. follows a different and better established reading.—R.]
40 Ez 16,51. [The LXX. is not cited with verbal accuracy.—R.]
41 Is 36,12.
42 Ph 4,4.
43 ajfosiouvmeno", “just saying, ‘God forgive me ; ’just doing enough to come without scruple.” Vid. Suicer in verb. who quotes St. Chrys.on Ps.41. “Let us not come in hither anyhow nor make our responses ajfosiouvmenoi, just well enough to keep off a curse” (i. 617. Sav.). Also Hom. XXIX). on Acts, t. iv. p.777. “How may one form a judgment of a church? If we go away daily with some profit, great or small, not simply satisfying a rule and ajfosiouvmenoi, quitting ourselves of a Scruple.” Again, ibid. “What we do, is turned into a mere regulation and "jfosivwsi", a formal deprecation of a curse.” Cf. Is’us de Appollodorii Hered. p. 185. Ed. Reiske, “not ajfosiouvmeno", but preparing himself as well as possible”).
44 The women in plays were personated by men: those mentioned below were singers; the slave’s part is described in the next sentence).
45 i. e., to tyrants, such as Pisistratus and others).
46 Gn 39,12.
Chrysostom hom. on Mt 36