Cyril of Jerus. 900
Who is this that hideth counsel from Me, and keepeth words in his heart, and thinketh to hide them from Me1 ?
1). To look upon God with eyes of flesh is impossible: for the incorporeal cannot be subject to bodily sight: and the Only begotten Son of God Himself hath testified, saying, No man hath seen God at any time2 . For if according to that which is written in Ezekiel any one should understand that Ezekiel saw Him, yet what saith the Scripture? (He saw the likeness of the glory of the Lord3 ; not the Lord Himself, but the likeness of His glory, not the glory itself, as it really is. And when he saw merely the likeness of the glory, and not the glory itself, he fell to the earth from fear. Now if the sight of the likeness of the glory brought fear and distress upon the prophets, any one who should attempt to behold God Himself would to a certainty lose his life, according to the saying, No man shall see My face and live4 . For this cause God of His great loving-kindness spread out the heaven as a veil of His proper Godhead, that we should not perish. The word is not mine, but the Prophet’s). If Thou shalt rend the heavens, trembling will take hold of the mountains at sight of Thee, and they will flaw down5. And why dost thou wonder that Ezekiel fell down on seeing the likeness of the glory? when Daniel at the sight of Gabriel, though but a servant of God, straightway shuddered and fell on his face, and, prophet as he was, dared not answer him, until the Angel transformed himself into the likeness of a son of man6 . Now if the appearing of Gabriel wrought trembling in the Prophets, had God Himself been seen as He is, would not all have perished?
2. The Divine Nature then it is impossible to see with eyes of flesh: but from the works, which are Divine, it is possible to attain to some conception of His power, according to Solomon, who says, For by the greatness and beauty of the creatures proportionably the Maker of them is seen7. He said not that from the creatures the Maker is seen, but added proportionably.For God appears the greater to every man in proportion as he has grasped a larger survey of the creatures: and when his heart is uplifted by that larger survey, he gains withal a greater conception of God.
3. Wouldest thou learn that to comprehend the nature of God is impossible? The Three Children in the furnace of fire, as they hymn the praises of God, say Blessed art thou that beholdest the depths, and sittest upon the Cherubim8 . Tell me what is the nature of the Cherubim, and then look upon Him who sitteth upon them. And yet Ezekiel the Prophet even made a description of them, as far as was possible, saying that every one has four faces, one of a man, another of a lion, another of an eagle, and another of a calf; and that each one had six wings9 , and they had eyes on all sides; and that under each one was a wheel of four sides. Nevertheless though the Prophet makes the explanation, we cannot yet understand it even as we read. But if we cannot understand the throne, which he has described, how shall we be able to comprehend Him who sitteth thereon, the Invisible and Ineffable God? To scrutinise then the nature of God is impossible: but it is in our power to send up praises of His glory for His works that are seen.
4. These things I say to you because of the following context of the Creed, and because we say, We Believe in One God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and of All Things Visible and Invisible; in order that we may remember that the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is the same as He that made the heaven and the earth10 , and that we may make ourselves safe against the wrong paths of the godless heretics, who have dared to speak evil of the All wise Artificer of all this world11 , men who see with eyes of flesh, but have the eyes of their understanding blinded.
5. For what fault have they to find with the vast creation of God?—they, who ought to have been struck with amazement on beholding the vaultings of the heavens: they, who ought to have worshipped Him who reared the sky as a dome, who out of the fluid nature of the waters formed the stable substance of the heaven. For God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the water12 . God spake once for all, and it stands fast, and falls not. The heaven is water, and the orbs therein, sun, moon, and stars are of fire: and how do the orbs of fire run their course in the water? But if any one disputes this because of the opposite natures of fire and water, let him remember the fire which in the time of Moses in Egypt flamed amid the hail, and observe the all-wise workmanship of God. For since there was need of water, because the earth was to be tilled, He made the heaven above of water that when the region of the earth should need watering by showers, the heaven might from its nature be ready for this purpose.
6. But what? Is there not cause to wonder when one looks at the constitution of the sun? For being to the sight as it were a small body he contains a mighty power; appearing from the East, and sending forth his light unto the West: whose rising at dawn the Psalmist described, saying: And he cometh forth out of his chamber as a bridegroom13 . He was describing the brightness and moderation of his state on first becoming visible unto men: for when he rides at high noon, we often flee from his blaze: but at his rising he is welcome to all as a bridegroom to look on.
Observe also his arrangement (or rather not his, but the arrangement of Him who by an ordinance determined his course), how in summer he rises higher and makes the days longer, giving men good time for their works: but in winter contracts his course, that the period of cold may be increased, and that the nights becoming longer may contribute to men’s rest, and contribute also to the fruitfulness of the products of the earth14 . See also how the days alternately respond each to other in due order, in summer increasing, and in winter diminishing; but in spring and autumn granting equal intervals one to another. And the nights again complete the like courses; so that the Psalmist also says of them, Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night proclaimeth knowledge15 . For to the heretics who have no ears, they all but cry aloud, and by their good order say, that there is none other God save the Creator who hath set them their bounds, and laid out the order of the Universe
7. But let no one tolerate any who say that one is the Creator of the light, and another of darkness16 : for let him remember how Isaiah says, I am the God who made the light, and created darkness17 . Why, O man, art thou vexed thereat? Why art thou offended at the time that is given thee for rest18 ? A servant would have had no rest from his masters, had not the darkness necessarily brought a respite. And often after wearying ourselves in the day, how are we refreshed in the night, and he who was yesterday worn with toils, rises vigorous in the morning because of the night’s rest19 ? And what more helpful to wisdom than the night20 ? For herein oftentimes we set before our minds the things of God; and herein we read and contemplate the Divine Oracles. And when is our mind most attuned to Psalmody and Prayer? Is it not at night? And when have we often called our own sins to remembrance? Is not at night21 ? Let us not then admit the evil thought, that another is the maker of darkness: for experience shews that this also is good and useful.
8. They ought to have felt astonishment and admiration not only at the arrangement of sun and moon, but also at the well-ordered choirs of the stars, their unimpeded courses, and their risings in the seasons due to each: and how some are signs of summer, and others of winter; and how some mark the season for sowing, and others shew the commencement of navigation22 . And a than sitting in his ship, and sailing amid the boundless waves, steers his ship by looking at the stars. For of these matters the Scripture says well, And let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for years23 , not for fables of astrology and nativities. But observe how He has also graciously given us the light of day by gradual increase: for we do not see the sun at once arise; but just a little light runs on before, in order that the pupil of the eye may be enabled by previous trial to look upon his stronger beam: see also how He has relieved the darkness of the night by rays of moonlight.
9). Who is the father of the rain? And who hath begotten the drops of dew24 ? Who condensed the air into clouds, and bade them carry the waters of the rain25 , now bringing golden-tinted clouds from the north26 , now changing these into one uniform appearance, and again transforming them into manifold circles and other shapes? Who can number the clouds in wisdom27 ? Whereof in Job it saith, And He knoweth the separations of the clouds28 , and hath bent down the heaven to the earth29 : and, (He who numbereth the clouds in wisdom: and, the cloud is not rent under Him30 . For so many measures of waters lie upon the clouds, yet they are not rent: but come down with all good order upon the earth. Who bringeth the winds out of their treasuries31 ? And who, as we said before, is he that hath begotten the drops of dew? And out of whose womb cometh the ice32 ? For its substance is like water, and its strength like stone. And at one time the water becomes snow like wool, at another it ministers to Him who scattereth the mist like ashes33 , and at another it is changed into a stony substance; since (He governs the waters as He will34 . Its nature is uniform, and its action manifold in force. Water becomes in vines wine that maketh glad the heart of man: and in olives oil that maketh man’s face to shine: and is transformed also into bread that strengtheneth man’s heart35 , and into fruits of all kinds which He hath created36 .
10. What should have been the effect of these wonders? Should the Creator have been blasphemed? Or worshipped rather? And so far I have said noticing of the unseen works of His wisdom. Observe, I pray you, the spring, and the flowers of every kind in all their likeness still diverse one from another; the deepest crimson of the rose, and the purest whiteness of the lily: for these spring from the same rain and the same earth, and who makes them to differ? Who fashions them? Observe, pray, the exact care: from the one substance of the tree there is part for shelter, and part for divers fruits: and the Artificer is One. Of the same vine part is for burning37 , and part for shoots, and part for leaves, and part for tendrils, and part for clusters.
Admire also the great thickness of the knots which run round the reed, as the Artificer hath made them. From one and the same earth come forth creeping things, and wild beasts, and cattle, and trees, and food; and gold, and silver, and brass, and iron, and stone. The nature of the waters is but one, yet from it comes the substance of fishes and of birds; whereby38 as the former swim in the waters, so the birds fly in the air.
11). This great and wide sea, therein are things creeping innumerable39 . Who can describe the beauty of the fishes that are therein? Who can describe the greatness of the whales, and the nature40 of its amphibious animals, how they live both on dry land and in the waters? Who can tell the depth and the breadth of the sea, or the force of its enormous waves? Yet it stays at its bounds, because of Him who said, Hitherto shalt thou come, and no further, but within thyself shall thy waves be broken41 . Which sea also clearly shews the word of the command imposed upon it, since after it has run up, it leaves upon the beach a visible line made by the waves, shewing, as it were, to those who see it, that it has not passed its appointed bounds.
12. Who can discern the nature of the birds of the air? How some carry with them a voice of melody, and others are variegated with all manner of painting on their wings, and others fly up into mid air and float motionless, as the hawk: for by the Divine command the hawk spreadeth out his wings and floateth motionless, looking towards the south42 . What man can behold the eagle’s lofty flight? If then thou canst not discern the soaring of the most senseless of the birds, how wouldest thou understand the Maker of all?
13. Who among men knows even the names of all wild beasts? Or who can accurately discern the physiology of each? But if of the wild beasts we know not even the mere names, how shall we comprehend the Maker of them? God’s command was but one, which said, Let the earth bring forth wild beasts, and cattle, and creeping things, after their kinds43 and from one earth44 , by one command, have sprung diverse natures, the gentle sheep and the carnivorous lion, and various instincts45 of irrational animals, bearing resemblance to the various characters of men; the fox to manifest the craft that is in men, and the snake the venomous treachery of friends, and the neighing horse the wantonness of young men46 , and the laborious ant, to arouse the sluggish and the dull: for when a man passes his youth in idleness, then he is instructed by the irrational animals, being reproved by the divine Scripture saying, Go to the ant, thou sluggard, see and emulate her ways, and become wiser than she47 . For when thou seest her treasuring up her food in good season, imitate her, and treasure up for thyself fruits of good works for the world to come. And again, Go to the bee, and learn how industrious she is48 : how, hovering round all kinds of flowers, she collects her honey for thy benefit: that thou also, by ranging over the Holy Scriptures, mayest lay hold of salvation for thyself, and being filled with them mayest say, How sweet are thy words unto my throat, yea sweeter than honey and the honeycomb unto my mouth49 .
14. Is not then the Artificer worthy the rather to be glorified? For what? If thou knowest not the nature of all things, do the things that have been made forthwith become useless? Canst thou know the efficacy of all herbs? Or canst thou learn all the benefit which proceeds from every animal? Ere now even from venomous adders have come antidotes for the preservation of men50 . But thou wilt say to me, “The snake is terrible.” Fear thou the Lord, and it shall not be able to hurt thee. “A scorpion stings.” Fear the Lord, and it shall not sting thee. “A lion is bloodthirsty.” Fear thou the Lord, and he shall lie down beside thee, as by Daniel. But truly wonderful also is the action of the animals: how some, as the scorpion, have the sharpness in a sting; and others have their power in their teeth; and others do battle with their claws; while the basilisk’s power is his gaze51 . So then from this varied workmanship understand the Creator’s power).
15. But these things perhaps thou knowest not: thou wouldest have nothing in common with the creatures which are without thee. Enter now into thyself, and from thine own nature consider its Artificer. What is there to find fault with in the framing of thy body? Be master of thyself, and nothing evil shall proceed from any of thy members. Adam was at first without clothing in Paradise with Eve, but it was not because of his members that he deserved to be cast out. The members then are not the cause of sin, but they who use their members amiss; and the Maker thereof is wise. Who prepared the recesses of the womb for child-bearing? Who gave life to the lifeless thing within it? Who knitted us with sinews and bones, and clothed us with skin and flesh52 , and, as soon as the child was born, brought streams of milk out of the breasts? How grows the babe into a boy, and the boy into a youth, and then into a man; and, still the same, passes again into an old man, while no one notices the exact change from day to day? Of the food, how is one part changed into blood, and another separated for excretion, and another part changed into flesh? Who gives to the heart its unceasing motion? Who wisely guarded the tenderness of the eyes with the fence of the eyelids53 ? For as to the complicated and wonderful contrivance of the eyes, the voluminous books of the physicians hardly give us explanation. Who distributes the one breath to the whole body? Thou seest, O man, the Artificer, thou seest the wise Creator.
16. These points my discourse has now treated at large, having left out many, yea, ten thousand other things, and especially things incorporeal and invisible, that thou mayest abhor those who blaspheme the wise and good Artificer, and from what is spoken and read, and whatever thou canst thyself discover or conceive, from the greatness and beauty of the creatures mayest proportionably see the maker of them54 , and bending the knee with godly reverence to the Maker of the worlds, the worlds, I mean, of sense and thought, both visible and invisible, thou mayest with a grateful and holy tongue, with unwearied lips and heart, praise God and say, How wonderful are Thy works, O Lord; in wisdom hast Thou made them all55 . For to Thee belongeth honour, and glory, and majesty, both now and throughout all ages. Amen.
1 The Septuagint, from which Cyril quotes the text, differs much from the Hebrew, and from the Hebrew, and from the English Versions: Who is this that derkeneth counsel by words without knowledge? Gird up now thy loins like a man: for I will demand of thee, and answer thou Me.
2 (Jn 1,18,
3 Ez 1,28.
4 (Ex 33,20,
5 (Is 64,1, Septuagint. R. V). Oh that Thou wouldest rend the heavens, that Thou wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow down..
6 (Da 10,9 Da 10,16 Da 10,18.
7 Wisdom 13,5. Compare Theophilus of Antioch To Autolycus, I. 5, 6: “God cannot indeed be seen by human eyes, but is beheld and perceived thorough His providence and works. . . . He is not visible to eyes of flesh,since He is incomprehensible.”
8 Song of the Three Children, 32.
9 In , the four living creatures have each four wings, as also in Ez 10,21 according to the Hebrew. But in the latter passage, according to the Vatican text of the Septuagint, each has eight wings, as Codd. R. and Casuab. read here. Cyril seems to have confused the number in Ezekiel with that in Is. 6,2: each one had six wings. By “a wheel of four sides” Cyril explains Ez. 1,16: a wheel in the midst of a wheel, as meaning two circles set at right angles to each other, like the equator and meridian on a globe.
10 Compare Cat. 4,4. Irenaeus (I. 10,1): “The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, yet received from the Apostles and their disciples the Faith in One God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea and all that therein is.” Tertullian (de Praescriptione Haeret. cap. xiii). “The rule of faith is that whereby we believe that there is One God only, and none other than the Creator of the world, who brought forth all things out of nothing through His own Word first of all sent forth.”
11 Compare Cat. 6,13, 27.
12 (Gn 1,6,
13 (Ps 19,5,
14 The common reading i[na mh; tou` yuvcou" pleivwn gevnhtai o J crovno" aAEllj i)na ai J nuvkte", k. t. l. gives a meaning contrary to the facts. The translation follows the Mss. Roe, Casaubon, which omit mhv and for aAEllav read kaiv. Compare Whewell’s Astromony , p. 22: “The length of the year is so determined as to be adapted to the constitution of most vegetables: or the construction of vegetables is so adjusted as to be suited to the length which the year really has, and unsuited to a duration longer or shorter by any considerable portion. The vegetable clock-work is so set as to go for a year.” Ibid.p. 34: “The terrestrial day, and consequently the length of the cycle of light and darkness, being what it is, we find various parts of the constitution both of animals and vegetables, which have a periodical character in their functions, corresponding to the diurnal succession of external conditions, and we find that the length of the period, as it exists in their constitution, coincides with the length of the natural day.”
15 (Ps 19,2, a beautiful passage of Theophilus of Antioch (To Autolycus, vi)..
16 See note 3 on Cat. 3,33.
17 (Is 14,7, the Homily of Chrysostom on this text.
18 Whewell, Astromomy.p. 38: “Animals also have a period in their functions and habits; as in the habits of walking, sleeping, eating, &c., and their well-being appears to depend on the coincidence of this period with the length of the natural day.”
19 Chrysostom, VI. p. 171: “As the day brings man out to his work, so the night succeeding releases him from his countless toils and thoughts, and lulling His weary eyes to sleep, and closing their lids, prepares him to welcome the sunbeam again with his force in full vigour.”
20 Clement of Alexandria (Stromat. IV. 22, E. Tr).: “And in this way they seem to have called the night Euphrone, since then the soul released from the perceptions of sense turns in on itself, and has a truer hold of intelligence (frovnmri").”
21 Chrysostom (Tom. II. p. 792): ”We usually take the reckoning of our money early in the morning, but of our actions, of all that we have said and done by day, let us demand of ourselves the account after supper, and even after nightfall, as we lie upon our bed, with none to trouble, none to disturb us. And if we see anything done amiss, let us chastise our conscience, let us rebuke our mind, let us so vehemently impugn our account, that we may no more dare to rise up and bring ourselves to the same pit of sin, being mindful of the scourging at night.”
22 Clem Alex. (Stromat. VI. 11): “The same is true also of Astronomy, for being engaged in the investigation of the heavenly bodies, as to the form of the universe, and the revolution of the heaven, and the motion of the stars, it brings the soul nearer to the Creative Power, and teaches it to be quick in perceiving the seasons of the year, the changes of the atmosphere, and the risings of the stars; since navigation also and husbandry are full of benefit from this science.” Compare Lactantius (De Irâ Dei, cap. xiii)..
23 (Gn 1,14,
24 (Jb 38,28.
25 Whewell, Astronomy, p 88: ”Clouds are produced by aqueous vapour when it returns to the state of water.” p. 89: “Clouds produce rain. In the formation of a cloud the precipitation of moisture probably forms a fine watery powder, which remains suspended in the air in consequence of the minuteness of its particles: but if from any cause the precipitation is collected in larger portions, and becomes drops, these descend by their weight and produce a shower.” Compare Aristotle, Meterologica, I. ix. 3: Ansted, Physical Geography, p. 210.
26 (Jb 37,22 “Out of the north cometh golden splendour” (R. V.).
27 Jb 38,37.
28 (Jb 37,16: “Dost thou know the balancings of the clouds?” In the Septuagint diavkpisin nefw`n may mean “the separate path of the clouds” (Vulg. “semitas nubium,”) or “the dissolving,” as in Aristotle (MeterolI. vii. 10: diakrivnesqai kai; dialuvesqai to; diavtmivzon u Jgro;n u Jpo; tou` plhvqou" th`" qermh`" aAEnaqumiavsew", w[ste mh sunivstasqai r Jadivw" eiv" u[dwr. “The moist vapour is separated and dissolved by the great heat of the evaporation, so that it does not easily condense into water.” Cf. Plato, Sophistes 243 B: diakrivsei" kai; sugkrivsei".
29 Jb 38,37 (according to the Septuagint): “And who is he that numbereth the clouds by wisdom, and bent down the heaven to the earth?” A. V., R. V. “Or who can pour out the bottles of heaven?”
30 (Jb 26,8: “He bindeth up the waters in His thick clouds; and the cloud is not rent under them.”
31 (Ps 135,7.
32 Jb 38,28.
33 (Ps 147,16: “He scattereth the hoar frost like ashes.” The Hebrew dw¹P
is rendered by pavcnh, “hoar frost,” in Jb 38,29, but here by oAEmivclh, “mist.”r
34 (Jb 37,10: “the breadth of the waters is straitened” (Marg). R. V. “congealed”). The word oi;akivzei in the Septuagint means to “steer,” Lat. “gubernare” to “turn as by a helm.”
35 (Ps 104,15.
36 There is a similar passage on the various effects of water in Cat. 16,12. Chrysostom (de Statuis, Hom. 12,2), Epiphanius (Ancoratus, p. 69), and other Fathers, appear to reproduce both the thoughts and words of Cyril.
37 For kau`sin, “burning,” Morel and Milles, with Cod. Coisl., read kau`stin, a rare word explained by Hesychius as the “growth” or “foliage” of the vine: but this is fully expressed in what follows, and the reading kau`sin is confirmed by Virgil (Georg. 2,408): “Primus devecta cremato sarmenta” (Reischl).
38 For the construction of i[na with the Indicative i[ptantai, see Bernhardy, Syntax, p. 401. Winer (Gram. N. T. III. sect. 41,c).
39 (Ps 104,25.
40 Gr). u Jpovstasin, literally “substance.”
43 (Gn 1,24,
44 Instad of fwnh`" (Milles), or phgh[" (Bened. Roe, Casaub). the recent Editors have restored th`" gh[" with the Jerusalem and Munich Mss., and Basil.
45 Gr). kinhvsei" “movements,” “impulses.” Aristotle (Historia Animalium. IX. 7,1) remarks that many imitations of man’s mode of life may be observed in the habits of other animals.
46 (Jr 5,8,
47 (Pr 6,6. Instead of the epithet “laborious” (gewrgovtato") some Mss. have “agile” or “restless” (gorgovtato").
48 After the description of the ant, , there follows in the Septuagint a similar reference to the bee: “Or go to the bee, and learn how industrious she is, and how comely she makes her work, and the produce of her labours kings and commons adopt for health, and she is desired and esteemed by all, and though feeble in strength has been exalted by her regard for wisdom.” The interpolation is supposed to be of Greek origin, as containing “idiomatic Greek expressions which would not occur to a translator from the Hebrew” (Delitzsch).
49 (Ps 119,103.
50 Compare Bacon (Natural Hist. 965): “I would have trial made of two other kinds of bracelets, for comforting the heart and spirits: one of the trochisch of vipers, made into little pieces of beads; for since they do great good inwards (especially for pestilent argues), it is like they will be effectual outwards, where thy may be applied in greater quantity. There would be trochisch likewise made of snakes; whose flesh dried is thought to have a very good opening and cordial virtue.” Ib. 969: “The writers of natural magic commend the wearing of the spoil of a snake, for preserving of health.” Thomas Jackson (On the Creed, VIII. 8, § 4): “The poisonous bitings of the scorpion are usually cured by the oil of scorpions.”
51 Shakespeare (Richard III. Act. 1,Sc. ii)..
Glo. “thine eyes, sweet lady, have infected mine.”
Anne. “Would they were basilisks to strike thee dead.”
Compare Bacon (De Augmentis, VII. cap. ii): “The fable goes of the basilisk, that if he see you first, you die for it, but if you see him firt, he dies.0’ Bacon refers to oPliny (Nat. Hist. 8,33).
52 (Jb 10,11,
53 Xenophon (Memor. Socratis. I. cap. iv): “And moreover does not this also seem to thee like a work of providence, that, whereas the sight is weak, the Creator furnished it with eyelids for doors, which are opened whenever there is need to use the sight, but are closed in sleep.”
54 Ap 13,5.
55 (Ps 104,24.
Note.—In the manuscripts which contain this discourse under the name of “A Homily of S. Basil on God as Incomprehensible,” some portions are changed to suit that subject: but the conclusion especially is marked by great addition and variation, which it is well to reproduce here. Accordingly in place of the words in §15: tiv memptovn, “What is there to find fault with?” and the following, the manuscripts before mentioned have it thus:
“What is there to find fault with in the framing of the body? Come forth into the midst and speak. Control thine own will, and nothing evil shall proceed from any of thy members. For every one of these has of necessity been made for our use. Chasten thy reasoning unto piety, submit to God’s commandments, and none of these members sin in working and serving in the uses for which they were made. If thou be not willing, the eye sees not amiss, the ear hears nothing which it ought not, the hand is not stretched out for wicked greed, the foot walketh not towards injustice, thou hast no strange loves, committest no fornication, covetest not thy neighbour’s wife. Drive out wicked thoughts from thine heart, be as God made thee, and thou wilt rather give thanks to thy Creator.
Adam at first was without clothing, faring daintily in Paradise: and after he had received the commandment, but failed to keep it, and wickedly stretched forth his hand (not because the hand wished this, but because his will stretched forth his hand to that which was forbidden), because of his disobedience he lost also the good things he had received. Thus the members are not the cause of sin to those who use them, but the wicked mind, as the Lord says, For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, fornications, adulteries, envyings, and such like. In what things thou choosest, therein thy limbs serve thee; they are excellently made for the service of the soul: they are provided as servants to thy reason. Guide them well by the motion of piety; bridle them by the fear of God; bring them into subjection to the desire of temperance and abstinence, and they will never rise up against thee to tyrannise over thee; but rather they will guard thee, and help thee more mightily in thy victory over the devil, while expecting also the incorruptible and everlasting crown of the victory. Who openeth the chambers of the womb? Who, &c.”
At the end of the same section, after the words “Wise Creator,” this is found: “Glorify Him in His unsearchable works, and concerning Him whom thou art not capable of knowing, inquire not curiously what His essence is. It is better for thee to keep silence, and in faith adore, according to the divine Word, than daringly to search after things which neither thou canst reach, nor Holy Scripture hath delivered to thee. These points my discourse has now treated at large, that thou mayest abhor those who blaspheme the wise and good Artificer, and rather mayest thyself also say, How wonderful are Thy works O Lord; in wisdom hast Thou made them all. To Thee be the glory, and power, and worship, with the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and throughout all ages. Amen.”
For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or on earth1 ; yet to us there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and One Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him.
1). They who have been taught to believe “In One God the Father Almighty,” ought also to believe in His Only-begotten Son. For he that denieth the Son, the same hath not the Father2 ). I am the Door3 , saith Jesus; no one cometh unto the Father but through Me4. For if thou deny the Door, the knowledge concerning the Father is shut off from thee). No man knoweth the father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son shall reveal Him5. For if thou deny Him who reveals, thou remainest in ignorance. There is a sentence in the Gospels, saying, (He that believeth not on the Son, shall not see life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him6 For the Father hath indignation when the Only-begotten Son is set at nought. For it is grievous to a king that merely his soldier should be dishonoured; and when one of his nobler officers or friends is dishonoured, then his anger is greatly increased: but if any should do despite to the king’s only-begotten son himself, who shall appease the father’s indignation on behalf of his only-begotten son?
2. If, therefore, any one wishes to shew piety towards God, let him worship the Son, since otherwise the Father accepts not his service. The Father spake with a loud voice from heaven, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased7 . The Father was well pleased; unless thou also be well pleased in Him, thou hast not life. Be not thou carried away with the Jews when they craftily say, There is one God alone; but with the knowledge that God is One, know that there is also an Only-begotten Son of God. I am not the first to say this, but the Psalmist in the person of the Son saith, The Lord said unto Me, Thou art My Son8 . Heed not therefore what the Jews say, but what the Prophets say. Dost thou wonder that they who stoned and slew the Prophets, set at nought the Prophets’ words?
3. Believe thou In One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God. For we say “One Lord Jesus Christ,” that His Sonship may be “Only-begotten:” we say “One,” that thou mayest not suppose another: we say “One,” that thou mayest not profanely diffuse the many names9 of His action among many sons. For He is called a Door10 ; but take not the name literally for a thing of wood, but a spiritual, a living Door, discriminating those who enter in. He is called a Way11 , not one trodden by feet, but leading to the Father in heaven; He is called a Sheep12 , not an irrational one, but the one which through its precious blood cleanses the world from its sins, which is led before the shearers, and knows when to be silent. This Sheep again is called a Shepherd, who says, I am the Good Shepherd13 : a Sheep because of His manhood, a Shepherd because of the loving-kindness of His Godhead. And wouldst thou know that there are rational sheep? the Saviour says to the Apostles, Behold, I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves14 . Again, He is called a Lion15 , not as a devourer of men, but indicating as it were by the title His kingly, and stedfast, and confident nature: a Lion He is also called in opposition to the lion our adversary, who roars and devours those who have been deceived16 . For the Saviour came, not as having changed the gentleness of His own nature, but as the strong Lion of the tribe of Judah17 , saving them that believe, but treading down the adversary. He is called a Stone, not a lifeless stone, cut out by men’s hands, but a chief corner-stone18 , on whom whosoever believeth shall not be put to shame.
4. He is called Christ, not as having been anointed by men’s hands, but eternally anointed by the Father to His High-Priesthood: on behalf of men19 . He is collect Dead, not as having abode among the dead, as all in Hades, but as being alone free among the dead20 . He is called Son of Man, not as having had His generation from earth, as each of us, but as coming upon the clouds To Judge Both Quick and Dead21 . He is called Lord, not improperly as those who are so called among men, but as having a natural and eternal Lordship22 . He is called Jesus by a fitting name, as having the appellation from His salutary healing. He is called Son, not as advanced by adoption, but as naturally begotten. And many are the titles of our Saviour; lest, therefore, His manifold appellations should make thee think of many sons, and because of the errors of the heretics, who say that Christ is one, and Jesus another, and the Door another, and so on23 , the Faith secures thee beforehand, saying well, In One Lord Jesus Christ: for though the titles are many, yet their subject is one.
5. But the Saviour comes in various forms to each man for his profit24 . For to those who have need of gladness He becomes a Vine; and to those who want to enter in He stands as a Door; and to those who need to offer up their prayers He stands a mediating High Priest. Again, to those who have sins He becomes a Sheep, that He may be sacrificed for them). (He is made all things to all men25 , remaining in His own nature what He is. For so remaining, and holding the dignity of His Sonship in reality unchangeable, He adapts Himself to our infirmities, just as some excellent physician or compassionate teacher; though He is Very Lord, and received not the Lordship by advancement26 , but has the dignity of His Lordship from nature, and is not called Lord improperly27 , as we are, but is so in verity, since by the Father’s bidding28 He is Lord of His own works. For our lordship is over men of equal rights and like passions, nay often over our elders, and often a young master rules over aged servants. But in the case of our Lord Jesus Christ the Lordship is not so: but He is first Maker, then Lord29 : first He made all things by the Father’s will, then, He is Lord of the things which were made by Him.
6). Christ the Lord is He who was born in the city of David30 . And wouldest thou know that Christ is Lord with the Father even before His Incarnation31 , that thou mayest not only accept the statement by faith, but mayest also receive proof from the Old Testament? Go to the first book, Genesis: God saith, Let us make man, not ‘in My image,’ but, in Our image32 . And after Adam was made, the sacred writer says, And God created man; in the image of God created He him33 . For he did not limit the dignity of the Godhead to the Father alone, but included the Son also: that it might be shewn that man is not only the work of God, but also of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is Himself also Very God. This Lord, who works together with the Father, wrought with Him also in the case of Sodom, according to the Scripture: And the Lord rained upon Sadam and Gomorrah fire and brimstone from the Lord out of heaven34 . This Lord is He who afterwards was seen of Moses, as much as he was able to see. For the Lord is loving unto man, ever condescending to our infirmities.
7. Moreover, that you may be sure that this is He who was seen of Moses, hear Paul’s testimony, when he says, For they all drank of a spiritual rock that followed them; and the rock was Christ35 . And again: By faith Moses forsook Egypt36 , and shortly after he says, accounting the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt37 . This Moses says to Him, Shew me Thyself. Thou seest that the Prophets also in those times saw the Christ, that is, as far as each was able. Shew me Thyself, that I may see Thee with understanding38 . But He saith, There shall no man see My face, and live39 . For this reason then, because no man could see the face of the Godhead and live, He took on Him the face of human nature, that we might see this and live. And yet when He wished to shew even that with a little majesty, when His face did shine as the sun40 , the disciples fell down affrighted. If then His bodily countenance, shining not in the full power of Him that wrought, but according to the capacity of the Disciples, affrighted them, so that even thus they could not bear it, how could any man gaze upon the majesty of the Godhead? ‘A great thing,’ saith the Lord, ‘thou desirest, O Moses: and I approve thine insatiable desire, and I will do this things for thee, but according as thou art able). Behold, I will put thee in the clift of the rock41 : for as being little, thou shalt lodge in a little space.’
8. Now here I wish you to make safe what I am going to say, because of the Jews. For our object is to prove that the Lord Jesus Christ was with the Father. The Lord then says to Moses, I will pass by before thee with My glory, and will proclaim the name of the Lord before thee42 . Being Himself the Lord, what Lord doth He proclaim? Thou seest how He was covertly teaching the godly doctrine of the Father and the Son. And again, in what follows it is written word for word: And the Lord descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and proclaimed the name of the Lord. And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, both keeping righteousness and shewing mercy unto thousands, taking away iniquities, and transgressions, and sins43 . Then in what follows, Moses bowed his head and worshipped44 before the Lord who proclaimed the Father, and said: Go Thou then, O Lord, in the midst of us45 .
9. This is the first proof: receive now a second plain one). The Lord said unto my Lord, sit Thou on My right hand46 . The Lord says this to the Lord, not to a servant, but to the Lord of all, and His own Son, to whom He put all things in subjection). But when He saith that all things are put under Him, it is manifest that He is excepted, which did put all things under Him, and what follows; that God may be all in all47 . The Only-begotten Son is Lord of all, but the obedient Son of the Father, for He grasped not the Lordship48 , but received it by nature of the Father’s own will. For neither did the Son grasp it, nor the Father grudge to impart it. He it is who saith, All things are delivered unto Me of My Father49 ; “delivered unto Me, not as though I had them not before; and I keep them well, not robbing Him who hath given them.”
10. The Son of God then is Lord: He is Lord, who was born in Bethlehem of Judaea, according to the Angel who said to the shepherds, I bring you good tidings of great joy, that unto you is born this day in the city of David Christ the Lord50 : of whom an Apostle says elsewhere, The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching the gospel of peace by Jesus Christ: He is Lord of all51 . But when he says, of all, do thou except nothing from His Lordship: for whether Angels, or Archangels, or principalities, or powers, or any created thing named by the Apostles, all are under the Lordship of the Son. Of Angels He is Lord, as thou hast it in the Gospels, Then the Devil departed from Him, and the Angels came and ministered unto Him52 ; for the Scripture saith not, they succoured Him, but they ministered unto Him, that is, like servants. When He was about to be born of a Virgin, Gabriel was then His servant, having received His service as a peculiar dignity. When He was about to go into Egypt, that He might overthrow the gods of Egypt made with hands53 , again an Angel appeareth to Joseph in a dream54 . After He had been crucified, and had risen again, an Angel brought the good tidings, and as a trustworthy servant said to the women, Go, tell His disciples that He is risen, and goeth before you into Galilee; lo, I have told you55 : almost as if he had said, “I have not neglected my command, I protest that I have told you; that if ye disregard it, the blame may not be on me, but on those who disregard it.” This then is the One Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the lesson just now read speaks: For though there be many that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, and so on, yet to us there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and One Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him56 .
11. And He is called by two names, Jesus Christ; Jesus, because He saves,—Christ, because He is a Priest57 . And knowing this the inspired Prophet Moses conferred these two titles on two men distinguished above all58 : his own successor in the government, Auses59 , he renamed Jesus; and his own brother Aaron he surnamed Christ60 , that by two well-approved men he might represent at once both the High Priesthood, and the Kingship of the One Jesus Christ who was to come. For Christ is a High Priest like Aaron; since He glorified not Himself to be made a High Priest, but He that spake unto Him, Thou art a Priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek61 . And Jesus the son of Nave was in many things a type of Him. For when he began to rule over the people, he began from Jordan62 , whence Christ also, after He was baptized, began to preach the gospel. And the son of Nave appoints twelve to divide the inheritance63 ; and twelve Apostles Jesus sends forth, as heralds of the truth, into all the world. The typical Jesus saved Rahab the harlot when she believed: and the true Jesus says, Behold, the publicans and the harlots go before you into the kingdom of God64 . With only a shout the walls of Jericho fell down in the time of the type: and because Jesus said, There shall not be left here one stone upon another65 , the Temple of the Jews opposite to us is fallen, the cause of its fall not being the denunciation but the sin of the transgressors.
12. There is One Lord Jesus Christ, a wondrous name, indirectly announced beforehand by the Prophets. For Esaias the Prophet says, Behold, thy Saviour cometh, having His own reward66 . Now Jesus in Hebrew is by interpretation Saviour. For the Prophetic gift, foreseeing the murderous spirit of the Jews against their Lord67 , veiled His name, lest from knowing it plainly beforehand they might plot against Him readily. But He was openly called Jesus not by men, but by an Angel, who came not by his own authority, but was sent by the power of God, and said to Joseph, Fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife; for that which is conceived , in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a Son, and thou shalt call His name Jesus68 . And immediately he renders the reason of this name, saying, for He shall save His people from their sins.Consider how He who was not yet born could have a people, unless He was in being before He was born69 . This also the Prophet says in His person, From the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of My name70 ; because the Angel foretold that He should be called Jesus. And again concerning Herod’s plot again he says, And under the shadow of His hand hath He hid Me71 .
13. Jesus then means according to the Hebrew “Saviour,” but in the Greek tongue “The Healer;” since He is physician of souls and bodies, curer of spirits, curing the blind in body72 , and leading minds into light, healing the visibly lame, and guiding sinners’ steps to repentance, saying to the palsied, Sin no more, and, Take up thy bed and walk73 . For since the body was palsied for the sin of the soul, He ministered first to the soul that He might extend the healing to the body. If, therefore, any one is suffering in soul from sins, there is the Physician for him: and if any one here is of little faith, let him say to Him, Help Thou mine unbelief74 . If any is encompassed also with bodily ailments, let him not be faithless, but let him draw nigh; for to such diseases also Jesus ministers75 , and let him learn that Jesus is the Christ.
14. For that He is Jesus the Jews allow, but not further that He is Christ. Therefore saith the Apostle, Who is the liar, but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ76 ? But Christ is a High Priest, whose priesthood passes not to another77 , neither having begun His Priesthood in time78 , nor having any successor in His High-Priesthood: as thou heardest on the Lord’s day, when we were discoursing in the congregation79 on the phrase, After the Order of Melchizedek. He received not the High-Priesthood from bodily succession, nor was He anointed with oil prepared by man80 , but before all ages by the Father; and He so far excels the others as with an oath He is made Priest: For they are priests without an oath, but He with an oath by Him that said, The Lord sware, and will not repent81 . The mere purpose of the Father was sufficient for surety: but the mode of assurance is twofold, namely that with the purpose there follows the oath also, that by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have strong encouragement82 for our faith, who receive Christ Jesus as the Son of God.
15. This Christ, when He was come, the Jews denied, but the devils confessed. But His forefather David was not ignorant of Him, when he said, I have ordained a lamp for mine Anointed83 : which lamp some have interpreted to be the brightness of Prophecy84 , others the flesh which He took upon Him from the Virgin, according to the Apostle’s word, But we have this treasure in earthen vessels85 . The Prophet was not ignorant of Him, when He said, and announceth unto men His Christ86 . Moses also knew Him, Isaiah knew Him, and Jeremiah; not one of the Prophets was ignorant of Him. Even devils recognised Him, for He rebuked them, and the Scripture says, because they knew that He was Christ87 . The Chief-priests knew Him not, and the devils confessed Him: the Chief Priests knew Him not, and a woman of Samaria proclaimed Him, saying, Come, see a man which told me all things that ever I did. Is not this the Christ88 ?
16. This is Jesus Christ who came a High-Priest of the good things to come89 ; who for the bountifulness of His Godhead imparted His own title to us all. For kings among men have their royal style which others may not share: but Jesus Christ being the Son of God gave us the dignity of being called Christians. But some one will say, The name of “Christians” is new, and was not in use aforetime90 : and new-fashioned phrases are often objected to on the score of strangeness91 . The prophet made this point safe beforehand, saying, But upon My servants shall a new name be called, which shall be blessed upon the earth92 . Let us question the Jews: Are ye servants of the Lord, or not? Shew then your new name. For ye were called Jews and Israelites in the time of Moses, and the other prophets, and after the return from Babylon, and up to the present time: where then is your new name? But we, since we are servants of the Lord, have that new name: new indeed, but the new name, which shall be blessed upon the earth. This name caught the world in its grasp: for Jews are only in a certain region, but Christians reach to the ends of the world: for it is the name of the Only-begotten Son of God that is proclaimed.
17. But wouldest thou know that the Apostles knew and preached the name of Christ, or rather had Christ Himself within them? Paul says to his hearers, Or seek ye a proof of Christ that speaketh in me93 ? Paul proclaims Christ, saying, For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus as Lord, and ourselves your servants for Jesus’ sake94 . Who then is this? The former persecutor. O mighty wonder! The former persecutor himself preaches Christ. But wherefore? Was he bribed? Nay there was none to use this mode of persuasion. But was it that he saw Him present on earth, and was abashed? He had already been taken up into heaven. He went forth to persecute, and after three days the persecutor is a preacher in Damascus. By what power? Others call friends as witnesses for friends but I have presented to you as a witness the former enemy: and dost thou still doubt? The testimony of Peter and John, though weighty, was yet of a kind open to suspicion: for they were His friends. But of one who was formerly his enemy, and afterwards dies for His sake, who can any longer doubt the truth?
18. At this point of my discourse I am truly filled with wonder at the wise dispensation of the Holy Spirit; how He confined the Epistles of the rest to a small number, but to Paul the former persecutor gave the privilege of writing fourteen. For it was not because Peter or John was less that He restrained the gift; God forbid! But in order that the doctrine might be beyond question, He granted to the former enemy and persecutor the privilege of writing more, in order that we all might thus be made believers. For all were amazed at Paul, and said, (Is not this he that was formerly a persecutor95 ? Did he not come hither, that he might lead us away bound to Jerusalem? Be not amazed, said Paul, I know that it is hard for me to kick against the pricks: I know that I am not worthy to be called an Apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God96 ; but I did it in ignorance97 : for I thought that the preaching of Christ was destruction of the Law, and knew not that He came Himself to fulfil the Law and not to destroy it98 ). But the grace of God was exceeding abundant in me99 .
19. Many, my beloved, are the true testimonies concerning Christ. The Father bears witness from heaven of His Son: the Holy Ghost bears witness, descending bodily in likeness of a dove: the Archangel Gabriel bears witness, bringing good tidings to Mary: the Virgin Mother of God100 bears witness: the blessed place of the manger bears witness. Egypt bears witness, which received the Lord while yet young in the body101 : Symeon bears witness, who received Him in his arms, and said, Now, Lord, lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace, according to Thy word; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people102 . Anna also, the prophetess, a most devout widow, of austere life, bears witness of Him. John the Baptist bears witness, the greatest among the Prophets, and leader of the New Covenant, who in a manner united both Covenants in Himself, the Old and the New. Jordan is His witness among rivers; the sea of Tiberias among seas: blind and lame bear witness, and dead men raised to life, and devils saying, What have we to do with Thee, Jesus? we know Thee, who Thou art, the Holy One of God103 . Winds bear witness, silenced at His bidding: five loaves multiplied into five thousand bear Him witness. The holy wood of the Cross bears witness, seen among us to this day, and from this place now almost filling the whole world, by means of those who in faith take portions from it104 . The palm-tree105 on the ravine bears witness, having supplied the palm-branches to the children who then hailed Him. Gethsemane106 bears witness, still to the thoughtful almost shewing Judas. Golgotha107 , the holy hill standing above us here, bears witness to our sight: the Holy Sepulchre bears witness, and the stone which lies there108 to this day. The sun now shining is His witness, which then at the time of His saving Passion was eclipsed109 : the darkness is His witness, which was then from the sixth hour to the ninth: the light bears witness, which shone forth from the ninth hour until evening. The Mount of Olives bears witness, that holy mount from which He ascended to the Father: the rain-bearing clouds are His witnesses, having received their Lord: yea, and the gates of heaven bear witness [having received their Lord110 ], concerning which the Psalmist said, Lift up your doors, O ye Princes, and be ye lift up ye everlasting doors; and the King of Glory shall come in111 . His former enemies bear witness, of whom the blessed Paul is one, having been a little while His enemy, but for a long time His servant: the Twelve Apostles are His witnesses, having preached the truth not only in words, but also by their own torments and deaths: the shadow of Peter112 bears witness, having healed the sick in the name of Christ. The handkerchiefs and aprons bear witness, as in like manner by Christ’s power they wrought cures of old through Paul113 . Persians114 and Goths115 , and all the Gentile converts bear witness, by dying for His sake, whom they never saw with eyes of flesh: the devils, who to this day116 are driven out by the faithful, bear witness to Him.
20. So many and diverse, yea and more than these, are His witnesses: is then the Christ thus witnessed any longer disbelieved? Nay rather if there is any one who formerly believed not, let him now believe: and if any was before a believer, let him receive a greater increase of faith, by believing in our Lord Jesus Christ, and let him understand whose name he hears. Thou art called a Christian: be tender of the name; let not our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, be blasphemed through thee: but rather let your good works shine before men that they who see them may in Christ Jesus our Lord glorify the Father which is in heaven: To whom be the glory, both now and for ever and ever. Amen).
1 (2Co 13,3,
2 (1Jn 2,23,
3 Jn 10,9.
4 Jn 14,6.
5 (Mt 11,27,
6 (Jn 3,36,
7 (Mt 3,17,
8 (Ps 2,7,
9 to; polnwvnumon, a word used by the Greek Poets of their gods, as by Homer (Hymn to Demeter, 18, 32) of Zeus, Krovnon poluwvnumo" ui;ov". Cf. Soph). Ant. 1115; Aeschyl). Prom. V. 210.
10 (Jn 10,7 Jn 10,9. Cyril calls Christ a “spiritual,” or “rational (logikhv) door, and applies the same term to His sheep, below. Origen (In Evang. Joh. Tom. 1,cap. 29): Quvra o J Swthr aAEnagevgraptai, ibid). filavnqrwpo" de; w]n. . . poimh;n ginetai.
11 (Jn 14,6.
12 Jn 1,29 Is 53,7-8 Ac 8,32.
13 (Jn 10,11,
14 (Mt 10,10 Mt 10,16.
15 (Gn 49,9 Ap 5,5,
16 (1P 5,8,
17 (Ps 118,22.
18 (Is 28,16.
19 The reading of the earlier Editions u Jpe;r aAEnqrwvpwnis free from all difficulty, and so the more likely to have been substituted for what is at first sight more difficult u Jpe;r a3nqrwpon, the reading of Cod. Coislin. adopted by the Benedictine and subsequent Editors. The idea of a super-human Priesthood to which the Son in His Divine nature was anointed by the Father from eternity is repeated by Cyril in § 14 of the Lecture, and in Cat. 11,1, 14. See Index, “Priesthood,” and the reference there given to a fuller consideration of the subject in the Introduction.
20 Ps 88,5.
21 (Jn 5,27, what Cyril says here with Cat. 4,15, and 15,10, we see that he means to explain why Christ is called the “Son of Man” when “He cometh again from heaven,” and “no more from earth.” The preceding clause refers to His first coming in the flesh, as differing in the manner of His conception and birth from other men.
22 Cf. Athanas. (c. Arian. II. 15,14), “That very Word who was by nature Lord, and was then made man, hath by means of a servant’s form been made Lord of all and Christ.”
23 Cf. Irenaeus (III. 16,8): “All therefore are outside the Dispensation, who under pretence of knowledge understand that Jesus was one, and Christ another, and the Only-begotten another (from whom again is the Word), and the Saviour another.” The Cerinthians, Ebionites, Ophites, and Valentinians are mentioned by Irenaeus as thus separating the Christ from Jesus.
24 Cf. Athanas. (Epist. X).: “Since He is rich and manifold, He varies Himself according to the individual capacity of each soul.”
25 (1Co 9,22.
26 eAEk prokoph`". We learn from Athanasius (c. Arian. 1,37, 38, 40), that from St. Paul’s language Ph 2,9: “Wherefore also God highly exalted Him, &c.,” and from Ps 45,7: “Thou has loved righteousness and hated iniquity: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows,” the Arians argued that Christ first received Divine honour as Son and Lord as the reward of His obedience as Man. Athanasius replies (c. 40): “He was not from a lower state promoted; but rather, existing as God, He took the form of a servant, and in taking it was not promoted but humbled Himself. Where then is there here any reward of virtue, or what advancement (prokophv) and promotion in humiliation?”
The same doctrine had been previously held by the disciples of Paul of Samosata, who said that Christ was not originally God, but after His Incarnation was by advance (eAEk prokoph`") made God, from being made by nature a mere man: se Athanas. (de Decretis, § 24, c. Arian. 1,38). S. Cyril refers to the error and uses the same word, in 11,1, 7, 13, 15, 17, and 14,27.
27 katacrhstikw`", i.e. in a secondary or metaphorical sense. Cf. 7,5.
28 neuvmati, “command” or “bidding,” as expressed by nodding the head.
29 Origen (De Principiis, I. 2,10) had argued the “even God cannot be called omnipotent, unless there exist those over whom He may exercise His power,” and therefore creation must have been eternal, or God could not have been eternally Omnipotent. In other passages Origen declares it an impiety to hold that matter is co-eternal with God (De Princip. II. 1,4), and yet maintains that there were other worlds before this, and that there was never a time when there was no world existing.
Methodius, in a fragment of his work On things Created, preserved by Photius, and quoted by Bishop Bull (Def. fid. Nic. II. 13,9), argues against these theories of Origen, that in John i. 2 the words “The same was in the beginning with God” indicate the authority (tu; eAExousiastikovn ) of the Word which He had with the Father before the world came into existence; since from all eternity God the Father, together with His Word, possessed the Almighty power whereby whenever He would He could create worlds to rule over.
Dean Church remarks that “On the other hand Tertullian, contra Hermog. 3, considering the attributes in question to belong not to the Divine Nature, but Office, denies that God was Almighty (Lord?) from eternity; while the Greeks affirmed this (vid. Cyril Alex). in Joann. 17,8. p. 963; Athan). Orat. ii. 12–14), as understanding by the term the inherent but latent attribute of doing what He had not yet done, to; e Jxonsiastikovn.”
Cleopas, the Jerusalem Editor, regards the passage as directed against Paul of Samosata, who asserted that Christ had become God, and received His kingdom and Lordship only after His Incarnation, and remarks: - “S. Cyril evidently regards the Lordship of Jesus Christ as twofold: one that which from eternity belonged to Him as God, which he calls natural, according to which ‘He was ever both Lord and King, as being by nature God0’ (Cyril Alex). in Johann. cap. xvii).; and the other the Lordship in time relative to the creatures, by which He exercises dominion over the works created by Him, as being their Maker.“
30 (Lc 2,11.
31 Among those who denied the Divine prae-existence of Christ Cleopas enumerates Ebion, Carpocrates, Theodotus, Artemon, Paul of Samosata, Marcellus, and Photinus.
32 (Gn 1,26,
33 Gn 1,27.
34 Gn 19,24.
35 (1Co 10,4.
36 (He 11,27.
37 (He 11,26. Quoting form memory Cyril mistakes the order of the two sentences.
38 (Ex 33,13. Cyril means that even before His Incarnation Christ was seen as far as was possible by Prophets such as Moses. This view was held by many of the Fathers before Cyril. See Justin M. (Tryph. § 56 ff).; Tertull. (adv. Praxean, § 16); Euseb. (Demonstr. Evang. V. 13—16).
39 (Ex 33,20.
40 (Mt 17,2.
41 (Ex 33,17. Gr). lovgon, “word,” in imitation of the Hebrew idiom.
42 (Ex 33,22.
43 (Ex 33,19. Literally “will call in the name of the Lord (Jehovah):” compare Gn 4,26.
44 (. For “keeping righteousness and shewing mercy,” the Hebrew has only “keeping mercy.”
45 (Ex 34,8.
46 Ex 34,9.
47 (Ps 110,1, “An oracle of Jehovah unto my lord.” Cyril’s argument is based upon the common mistake of supposing that Kuvrio" represents the same Hebrew word in both parts of the sentence.
48 (1Co 15,27-28.
49 Cyril evidently alludes to Phillip. 2,6, “Who being in the form of God thought it not a prize to be on an equality with God:” for the right interpretation of which passage, see Dean Gwynn’s notes in the Speaker’s Commentary.
50 (Mt 11,27 Lc 10,22, this text Athanasius wrote a special treatise (In illud Omnia,’ &c)., against the arguments of Arius, Eusebisu, and their fellows, who said, — “If all things were delivered (meaning by ‘all0’ the Lordship of Creation), there was once time when He had them not. But it He had them not, He is not of the Father, for it He were, He would on that account have had them always.”
Again (contr. Arian. Orat. III. cap. 27,§ 36), Athanasius argues: “Lest a man, perceiving that the Son has all that the Father hath, from the exact likeness and identity of what He hath, should wander into the impiety of Sabellius, considering Him to be the Father, therefore He has said, Was given unto Me, and I received, and Were delivered to Me, only to shew that He is not the Father, but the Father’s Word, and the Eternal Son, who, because of His likeness to the Father, has eternally what He has from Him, and because He is the Son, has from the Father what eternally He hath.”
51 (Lc 2,10-11.
52 (Ac 10,36,
53 (Mt 4 Mt 11.
54 (Is 19,1. “Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud, and cometh unto Egypt: and the idols of Egypt shall be moved at His presence.” The prophecy was supposed by many of the Fathers to have been fulfilled by the flight into Egypt. Cf. Athanas (Ep. LXI). ad Maximum, § 4): “As a child He came down to Egypt, and brought to nought its idols made with hands:” and (de Incarn. § 36): “Which of the righteous men or kings went down into Egypt, so that at his coming the idols of Egypt fell?” On the passage of Isaiah see Delitzsch, and Kay (Seaker’s Commentary)
55 (Mt 2,13.
56 Mt 28,7.
57 1Co 8,5-6.
58 Compare Eusebius ((Eccl. Hist. I. cap. iii)., a passage which Cyril seems to have followed in his explanation of the names ‘Jesus0’and ‘Christ.0’
59 For the common reading eAEgkrivtoi" pavntwn Cod. Mon. I. has eAEkkrivtoi" p. which is required both by the construction and the sense. The change may have been caused by the occurrence of eAEgkrivtwn just below.
60 Eusebius (u.s): “His successor, therefore, who had not hitherto borne the name Jesus, but had been called by another name, Auses, which had been given him by his parents, he now called Jesus, bestowing the name upon him as a gift of honour far greater than any kingly diadem.” Auses is a common corruption of the name Oshea. See the note on the passage of Eusebius in this series.
61 Eusebius: “He consecrated a man high-priest of God, in so far as that was possible, and him he called Christ.” Cf. Lv 4,5 Lv 4,16 Lv 6,22: o J i Jereu;" o J Cristov"
62 (He 5,4-6. Cyril omits from his quotation the reference to Ps 2,7, “Thou art My Son: this day have I begotten Thee.”
63 (Jos 3,1.
64 Jos 14,1.
65 (Mt 21,31.
66 (Mt 24,2.
67 (Is 72,11: “Behold, thy salvation cometh; behold, his reward is with him.”
68 to; kurioktovnon tw`n jIoudaivwn.
69 (Mt 1,20.
70 The Anathema appended to the Creed of Nicaea condemns those who said pri;n gennhqh`nai ouAEk h\n On this Eusebius of Caesarea (Epist. § 9) remarks: “Moreover to anathematize ‘Before His generation He was not,0’ did not seem preposterous, in that it is confessed by all, that the Son of God was before the generation according to the flesh.”
71 (Is 49,1.
72 Is 49,2.
73 tuqlw`n aiAEoqhtw`n.
74 (Jn 5,14 Jn 5,8.
75 (Mc 9,24.
76 Compare the fragment of the Apology of Quadratus presented to Hadrian 127 A.D., preserved by Eusebius (H. E.IV. iii).: “But the works of our Saviour were always present, for they were genuine: — those that were healed, and those that arose from the dead, who were seen not only when they were healed and when they were raised, but were also always present; and not merely while the Saviour was on earth, but also after His death they were alive for a long while, so that some of them survived even to our times.” See the notes on the passage of Eusebius, in this series.
77 (1Jn 2,22.
78 (He 7,24,
79 On the opinion that Christ was from all eternity the true High Priest of the Creation, see Index, Priesthood, and the reference there given to the Introduction. Cf. 10,4: 11,1. Athan (c. Arian). Or. 2,12, J. H. N. ).
80 The word ‘synaxis0’was used by the early Christians to distinguish their assemblies from the Jewish ‘synagogue,0’a word formed from the same root and more regularly. ‘Synaxis0’ came to be used more especially of a celebration of the Eucharist. See Suicer, Thesaurus, Dubnsciz`.
81 skeuastw`, : “a perfume compounded (mureyikovn) after the art of the perfumer” (R. V.).
82 (He 7,21,
83 He 6,18.
84 (Ps 132,17. The “lamp for the Anointed” was commonly applied by the Fathers to John the Baptist. Compare Jn 5,35, and Bishop Westcott’s note there.
85 (2P 1,19. The supposed reference in the Psalm to the lamp of prophecy is mentioned by Eusebius (Demonstr. Evang. Iv. cap. 16).
86 (2Co 4,7. The reference of the ‘lamp0’to Christ’s Incarnation is mentioned by Eusebius (u.s.) and other Fathers.
87 (Am 4,13: “and declareth unto man what is his thought.” For /jCeAjm
, ‘what is his thought,0’the LXX. read /jyvim]
, ‘His Anointed,0’ to;n Cristo;n auAEtou`.
88 (Lc 4,41.
89 (Jn 4,29.
90 (He 9,11.
91 ouAEk eAEpoliteuveto, “was not in citizenship,” “not naturalised.” Cf. Sueton). Nero. cap. 16: “Christiani, genus hominum superstitionis novae et maleficae.”
92 to; xevnon.
93 He 4,5.
94 (Ac 9,21.
95 (1Co 15,9.
96 (1Tm 1,13.
97 (Mt 5,17,
98 (1Tm 1,14.
99 h Jqeotovko" — Deipara. Gibbon (Chap. 47,34) says, “It is not easy to fix the invention of this word, which La Croze (Christianisme des Indes, tom. 1,p. 16) ascribes to Eusebius of Caesarea and the Arians. The orthodox testimonies are produced by Cyril (of Alexandris) and Petavius (Dogmat. Theolog. tom. 5,L. 5,cap. 15, p. 254, &c)., but the veracity of the Saint is questionable, and the epithet of qeotovko" so easily slides from the margin to the text of a Catholic Ms.” This passage is justly described as “Gibbon’s calumny” by Dr. Newman: see his notes on the title Qeotovko" (Athan. c. Arian. Or. 2,cap. 12, n.; Or. 3,cap. 14, 29, 33). The word is certainly used by Origen (Deut. 22,13, Lommatzxch. Tom. 10,p. 378): “She that is already betrhothed is called a wife, as also in the case of Joseph and the Theotokos.” Cf. Archelaus (Disput. cum Mane, cap. 34,“qui de Mria Dei Genetrice natus est”); Eusebius (de Vita Constantini , III. cap. 43: “The pious Empress adorned with rare memorials the place of the travail of the Theotokos”). For other examples see Suicer’s Thesaurus, qeotovko", Pearson, Creed, Art. 3,notes l, m, n, o, and Routh, Reliq. Sacr. 2,p. 332.
100 “Chrysostom describing the flourishing state of the Church in Egypt in those times, says: ‘Egypt welcomes and saves Him when a fugitive and plotted against, and receives a beginning as it were of its appropriation to Him, in order that when it shall hear Him proclaimed by the Apostles, it may in their day also be honoured as having been first to welcome Him0’” (Cleopas.
101 (Lc 2,29-30.
102 (Mc 1,24.
103 See Cat. iv. 10, note 7.
104 The Bordeaux Pilgrim, who visited the Holy Places of Jerusalem, A.D. 333, c. speaks of this palm-tree as still existing. The longevity of the palm was proverbial: cf. Aristot. (De Longitudine Vitae, c. 4,2).
105 The same Pilgrim (as quoted by the Benedictine Editor says, “There is also the rock where Judas Iscariot betrayed Christ.” Compare Cat. 13,38.
106 See Index, Golgotha.
107 See the passage of the Introduction referred to in Index, Sepulchre.
108 See Cat. ii. 15, note 8, and 13,25, 34, 38. On the supernatural character of the darkness mentioned in the Gospels see Meyer, Commentary, Mt 27,45. An eclipse of the sun was of course impossible, as the moon was full. Mr. J. R. Hind (Historical Eclipses, “Times,” 19th July, 1872) states that the solar eclipse, mentioned by Phlegon the freedman of Hadrian, which occurred on Nov. 4, A.D. 29, and was partial at Jerusalem, is “the only solar eclipse that could have been visible at Jerusalem during the period usually fixed for the ministry of Christ.” He adds, “The Moon was eclipsed on the generally received ate of the Crucifixion, 3 April, A.D. 33. I find she had emerged from the earth’s dark shadow a quarter of an hour before she rose at Jerusalem (6:36 p. m)., but the penumbra continued upon her disc for an hour afterwards.” Thus the “darkness from the sixth hour unto the ninth” cannot be explained as the natural effect of an eclipse either solar or lunar.
109 This clause is omitted in Codd. Mon, 1, 2, Roe, Casuab., and is probably repeated from the preceding line: such repetitions, however, are not uncommon in Cyril’s style.
110 (Ps 24,7. The first clause is mistranslated by the LXX. from whom Cyril quotes.
111 (Ac 5,15,
112 Ac 19,12.
113 The persecution of the Christians in Persia by Sapor II. is described at length by Sozomen (E. H. II. cc. ix.—xv., in this Series). It commenced in A.D. 343, and was going on at the date of these Lectures and long after. “During fifty years the Cross lay prostrate in blood and ashes” (Dict. Bib. ’Sassanidae’). Compare Neander). Church History, Tom. III. p 148, Bohn.
114 The Goths here mentioned are the Gothi minores dwelling on the north of the Danube, where Ulfialas, “the Apostle of the Goths” (311—381), converted many of his countrymen to Christianity. After suffering severe persecution, he was allowed by the Constantius to take refuge with his Arian converts in Moesia and Thrace. This migration took place in 348 A.D., the same year in which Cyril’s Lectures were delivered.
115 See Index. Exorcism.
116 (Mt 5,16).
Cyril of Jerus. 900