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Sources of dogma I

Most Ancient Forms of the Apostolic Creed

1 THE creed which is called Apostolic is composed essentially of (1) a Trinitarian part, three articles professing faith in three divine persons; (2) a Christological part which was added to the first section.

There are extant, however, certain formulae composed in the manner of creeds, but lacking the Christological part. These formulae seem to be more ancient than the Apostolic Creed. An achristological formula of this kind which seems to be the most ancient of all-exists in a work infected with Gnosticism written between the years 150 and 180, Testamentum in Galilaea D.N.I. Christi (or in an almost identical work Gesprache Jesu mit seinen Jungern nach der Auferstehung) where the short Creed (reads):

"[I believe] in the Father almighty,--and in Jesus Christ, our Savior; --and in the Holy Spirit, the Paraclete, in the holy Church, and in the remission of sins."

Another achristological formula, perhaps already used in the liturgy of Egypt probably in the third century, is shown by a papyrus discovered in Der-Balyzeh, written in the seventh or eighth century (cf. Dict. d'Archeol. chrét. et de Lit. s.v. Canon, II, 2, 1882 ff.):

"I believe in God almighty;--and in his only-begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ;--and in the Holy Spirit and in the resurrection of the body <in> the holy Catholic Church."

The More Ancient Western Form of the Apostolic Creed

[Called Roman (R)]


11 A. [The following]show at least elements of some Creed or a rule

of faith or questions in common use at baptism:

ST. JUSTIN MARTYR, martyred 167.-Apology I and II; Dial. c. Tryph. [MG 6, 328 pp.]--A twofold form, western and eastern can be conjectured with some probability; therefore, a comparison will be made below [n. 8].

ST. IRENAEUS, died 202, bishop of Lyons. -- Adv. haer. 1, 10, 1; 3, 4, 1 and 2; 16, 5 (which are the chief places) [MG 7, 549 A 855 B 924 B]. He shows (1, 10, 1) almost all the elements of the Roman creed as a faith which the Church received from the apostles and their disciples (1, 10, 1).- (Greek text deleted)C.3 and 6. [Karapat Ter-Mekerttschian und Erwand Ter-Minassiantz, Des hl. Irenaus Schrift zum Erweise der apostolischen Verkundigung (Texte und Untersuchungen, Harnack-Schmidt XXXI, I) Leipzig: 1907].

ST. HIPPOLYTUS, died 235, Roman presbyter. — Paradosis--Heshows the baptismal creed by means of questions from "You believe in Jesus Christ . . ." [H. Elfers, Die Kirchenordnung Hippolyts von Rom,1938, 321. E. Hauler, Didasc. apost. fragm., Veron. 1900, 110 f., L 10 f. R.-H. Connolly, The so called Egyptian Church Order and derived documents, 1916].

TERTULLIAN, died after 225 (probably in 240), perhaps a presbyter in Carthage.--De praescr. haer.13,De virg. vel. I; De carne Chr. 20; Adv. Prax.2 [ML2, 26B 88 B 785B 856B]. He says that the church at Carthage received the rule of faith from the church at Rome (De praescr. haer. 36) and that it was common to the apostolic churches; (l.c. 21) the form of the creed was somewhat fixed.

ORIGEN, died 254, presbyter at Alexandria.—De princip. I, praef. 4 et 5 [MG 11, 117 A]. He has a rule of faith similar to the creed.

CANONES HIPPOLYTI, of uncertain date (Some 200-235, others about 500) [Achelis, Die altesten Quellen des oriental Kirchenrects I 38 (Texte und Untersuchungen, Gebhardt-Harnack VI) Leipzig: 1891].-They contain questions.


[According to the Psalter of Rufinus (The Roman form)]

2 1. I believe in God, the Father almighty;

2. and in Christ Jesus, His only-begotten Son, our Lord,

3. who was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary,

a. was crucified by Pontius Pilate, and was buried;


5. the third day He arose again from the dead;

a. He ascended into heaven,

b. sits at the right hand of the Father,

7. whence He is coming to judge the living and the dead;

8. and in the Holy Spirit,

9. a. the holy [Church,]



b. the forgiveness of sins,

11. the resurrection of the body. Amen.

[According to the Psalter of Aethelstane]

1. I believe in God the Father almighty

2. and in Christ Jesus, His only begotten Son, our Lord

3. born of the Holy Spirit and Mary the virgin

4. a. was crucified by Pontius Pilate and was buried


5. the third day He arose again from the dead

6. a. He ascended into heaven

b. sits at the right hand of the Father

7. whence He is coming to judge the living and the dead

8. and in the Holy Spirit

9. a. the holy [Church]


10. a.

b. the forgiveness of sins

11. the resurrection of the body. Amen.


B. £[ The following] show a fixed form of the Creed.

3 PSALTER OF AETHELSTANE (in Greek), in the third part, written in the ninth century (at the beginning perhaps) [H. sect. 18; L. 10; CspQ. III 5].The Creed is of uncertain date, very old,* was in liturgical use.

CODEX LAUDIANUS , (E. Actium, lat.) [H. sect. 20; CspQ. III 162].-The Creed is of uncertain date, written in the seventh century.*

CODEX SWAINSON (Latin) [Swainson, The Nicene and Apostles' Creeds, London: 1875, 161; H. sect. 23]--The Creed is of uncertain date, written in the eighth century.

MARCELLUS ANCYRANUS , fourth century, bishop of Angora in Galatia of Asia Minor--Epist. ad Iulium Papam written in the year 337* (In Epiphanius, Haer. 72) [MG 42, 385 D; H. sect. 17].

PRISCILLIAN, died 385,* lived at Avila in Spain.-Lib. ad Damasum tract. 11 [ed. Schepss (CSEL XVIII [1889] 34). Cf. also KAnt. 20 ff.; H. Sect. 53; L 13].

PHOEBADIUS , died after 392, bishop of Agen in Aquitania secunda [Guyenna]. - -De fide orthodoxa contra Arianos at the end [H. sect. 59; ML 20, 49 B. "Libellus fidei"]; the book is genuine* (some ascribe it to Gregorius Baeticus, died after 392, bishop of Illiberi [Elivira-Granada].

RUFINUS , died 410, presbyter of Aquileia--Expositio in Symbolum (other wise Commentarius in Symbolum apostolorum) [H. sect. 19; ML 21, 3.35 B]. --The form of the creed of both the Church at Rome and of the Church at Aquileia is gathered from this.

NICETAS OF ROMATIANA,* wrote 380*-420,* Romatiana [Remesiana] in Dacia.*--Explanatio Symboli habita ad competentes [H. sect. 40; ML 52, 865 D].

ST. AUGUSTINE, died 430, bishop of Hippo.--Chief sources: De Fide et Symbolo; serm. 212-214 in traditione Symboli; serm. 215 in redditione Symboli [ML 40, 181; 38, 1058, 1072; H sect. 47; L 13. Serni. 2I5 is genuine*; many believe with Caspari that the creed of Hippo is given in Serm. 215, and that the Creed of Milan is handed down in the rest].

ST. PETER CHRYSOLOGUS, died before 458, bishop of Ravenna.--Serm. 57-62 [H sect. 35; L. 12; ML 52, 357 A].

ST. MAXIMUS, middle of the fifth century, bishop of Turin,-- Hom. 83 de expositione Symboli [H. sect. 34; L. 13; ML 57, 433 A].

ST. FULGENTIUS OF RUSPE, died 533 (Ruspe in Africa) Liber 10. contra Fabianum Arianum [H. sect. 49; L 14; ML 65, 822].

ST. MARTIN, died 580, bishop of Braga [Braga in Spain, now Portugal]. De correctione rusticorum [H. sect. 54; ed. Caspari, Christiania 1883.-Cf. K I 153].

TRACTATUS SYMBOLI in a Missal and Sacramentarium for the use of a certain Florentine church furnishes a Florentine* Creed of the seventh * century; manuscript is of the twelfth century. [H. sect. 39; Csp ANQ 290].

ST. ILDEFONSE,* died 669, bishop of Toledo.- Liber de cognitione baptismi C. 35 [H. sect. 55; L 13 f.; ML 96, 127 B].

ETHERIUS, Eighth century bishop of Osmo and Beatus (Biaco), eighth century, presbyter of Astorga in Spain.-Etherii episcopi Uxamensis et Beati presbyteri adv. Elpiandum archiep. Toletanum libri duo, written in the year 785 [H. sect. 56 f.; L 13 f.; ML 96, 906 D].

LITURGIA MOZARABICA: Seventh century Liber Ordinum [ed. Ferotin, p. 185; H. sect. 58; L 14; ML 85, 395 A].

The More Recent Western Form of the Apostolic Creed

[The received western text called (T)]


FAUSTUS OF REI, died after 485, in Riez in France. Duae homiliae de Symbolo; Tractatus de Symbolo* [H. sect. 61, L 14; CspQ. II 200].

5 ST. CAESARIUS OF ARLES, died 543, Primate of Gaul [Arles].-Sermo 10 [G. Morin, S. Caesarii Arel. Sermones I, 1, Maretioli 1937, P. 51 ff.; ML 39, 2149]. The elements of the Creed are possessed, an exact formula cannot be worked out; seems to be the same as the two following:

SACRAMENTARIUM GALLICANUM [Mabillon, Museum Italicum I, Paris 1687, 312, H. sect. 66; L 15], 7/8th century, composed in Gaul,* (others, Missale Vesontiense [Besancon], Missale Bobbiense [Bobbio]); contains two formulae and a Creed in the manner of questions-(The first form is regarded).

MISSALE GALLICANUM VETUS, Of the beginning of the eighth century [Mabillon, De liturgia Gallicana III, Paris: 1685, 339. H. sect. 67; L 15].

ST. PIRMINIUS, born in Gallia merid.*; died 753, bishop of the Meld! (?), afterwards abbot of the monastery of Reichenau [Reichenau in Germany]. Words of the Abbot Pirminius on the individual canonical books scarapsus; written between 718 and 724.* [G. Jecker, Die Heimat des III. Pirmin, Munster: 1927, 34 ff.; the creed itself in the customary form IL lo and 28 a, in the form of questions IL 12. H. Sect. 92; ML 89, 1034 C].

CODEX AUGIENSIS CXCV, perhaps of the eighth century [CspQ III 512]. Creed written by a certain Irish monk(?).


ORDO ROMANUS, ancient of the year 950 [H. Sect. 25; Hittorp, De divinis catholicae ecclesiae officiis, Cologne 1568].-Shows the usual form.


[According to "the Roman Order"]

4 1 a. I believe in God the Father almighty

b. creator of heaven and earth

2. and in Jesus Christ, His only son, our Lord

3. who was conceived of the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary

4. a. suffered under Pontius Pilate, crucified, died, and was buried

b. descended into hell

5. on the third day he arose from the dead

6. a. He ascended to heaven

b. sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty

7. thence He shall come to judge the living and the dead

8. I believe in the Holy Spirit

9. a. the holy Catholic Church

b. the communion of saints

10. the remission of sins

11. the resurrection of the body

12. and life everlasting.

The Eastern Form of the Apostolic Creed


8 ST. JUSTIN MARTYR. See above [n. I] COPTIC APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS (Constitutiones Apostolicae Copticae) orthe Constitutions of the Egyptian Church in Funk, Didasc. et Const. Apost. II (1905) 97 ff., show the Apostolic Tradition (Paradosis) of Hippolytus (on which see above n. 2-3) in the Orient also changed as a creed. Therefore, it seems to be a witness also for the eastern form of the Apostolic Creed.


[of Saint Cyril of Jerusalem] *

9 1. a. We believe in one God the Father Almighty

b. The creator of heaven and earth

c. and of all things visible and invisible

2. a. and in one Lord Jesus Christ the only begotten Son of God

b. who was begotten of the Father

c. true God

d. before all ages

e. by whom all things were made

3. a. (who for our salvation)

b. was made flesh (of the Holy Spirit and Mary the virgin)

and was made man

4. a. was crucified (under Pontius Pilate) and was buried


5. a. arose on the third day

b. (according to the Scriptures

6. a. and ascended into heaven

b. and sits at the right hand of the Father

7. a. and comes in glory to judge the living and the dead

b. of whose kingdom there will be no end

8. a. and in one Holy Spirit the Paraclete




e. who spoke among the prophets

9 * . and one holy [Catholic] church

10. a. and in one baptism of repentance

b. in the dismissal of sins

11. and in the resurrection of the flesh

12. and in life everlasting

12 EUSEBIUS , died about 340, bishop of Caesarea, Ep. ad suam dioec. [Socrates, Hist. eccl. I,8, 38; MG 67, 69; H. sect. 123; L 18]. Eusebius offered his creed. to the Nicene council in 325, which used it to establish its own form.

ST. CYRIL, bishop of Jerusalem-Catecheses 6-18,held before 350 (351) [H sect. 124; L. 19; MG 33, 535 ff.]. He gives out a Creed used before 325; its text is construed otherwise by some [Macarius of Jerusalem, predecessor of St. Cyril, seems to have had the same creed, at least according to the: headings].

ST. EPIPHANIUS, died in 403, bishop of Salamis in Cyprus.-Ancoratus, written about the year 374; contains at the end two formulae, of which the shorter (Greek text deleted) is here considered; [cf. the longer, n. 13 LI ; the Creed is believed to be older than the Ancoratus [H. sect. 125; L 19 f.; ed. K. Holl. 1915, 148; MG 43, 232 C].

CONSTITUTIONES APOSTOLORUM VII 41, of the beginning* of the fifth century [otherwise, of middle of fourth century; it contains certainly more ancient materials (MG 1, 1041 C. Funk, Didascalia et Constitutiones ApostolorumI, Paderborn: 1905, 445)]. The Creed, as far as many parts are concerned, belongs to Lucian Martyr* (died 312); it shows a Syro-Palestinian* form.


Longer Form

(Exposition of Nicene Creed proposed to certain catechumens in the Orient)

Dz 13 We believe in one God, the father almighty, the creator of all things invisible and visible; and in one lord Jesus Christ, the son of God, the only begotten born of God the father, that is of the substance of the Father, God of God, light of light, true God of true God, begotten not made, consubstantial to the father, by whom all things were made, both those in heaven and those on earth, both visible and invisible, who for us melt and for our salvation came down and became man, that is was completely born of holy Mary ever-virgin by the Holy Spirit, was made man, that is, assumed perfect human nature, soul and body and mind, and all whatever is man except sin, not from the seed of man nor by means of man, but having fashioned unto himself a body into one holy unity; not as he lived in the prophets and talked and worked in them, but became man completely ("for the word was made flesh," he did not submit to an alteration, nor did he change his own divine nature into human nature); he combined both the divine nature and the human into the only holy perfection of himself; (for there is one Lord Jesus Christ, and not two; the same God, the same Lord, the same King); but the same suffered in the flesh and arose again and ascended into heaven with the very body and sits in glory at the right hand of the Father, in that very body he is coming in glory to judge the living and the dead; of whose kingdom there shall be no end:-and we believe in the Holy Spirit who spoke in the law, and taught by the prophets, and descended to the Jordan, spoke by the Apostles, and lives in the saints; thus we believe in him: that he is the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of God, the perfect Spirit, the Spirit Paraclete, uncreated, proceeding from the Father and receiving of the Son, in whom we believe.

45 Dz 14 We believe in one catholic and apostolic Church, and in one baptism of repentance, and in the resurrection of the dead, and the just judgment of souls and bodies, and in the kingdom of heaven, and in life eternal.

But those who say that there was a time when the Son or the Holy Spirit was not, that he was made from nothing or is of another substance or essence, alleging that the Son of God or the Holy Spirit was changed or altered, these the catholic and apostolic Church, your mother and our mother, anathematizes. We also anathematize those who do not confess the resurrection of the dead, and besides all the heresies which are not consistent with this true faith.


71 [Of uncertain author and time; from Gaul about 500 (?)]

We believe in one God the Father almighty and in our one Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God and in (one) Holy Spirit God. Not three Gods, but Father and Son and Holy Spirit one God do we worship and confess: not one God in such a way as to be solitary, nor the same in such wise that he himself is Father to himself and he himself is Son to himself; but the Father is he who begot, and the Son is he who is begotten; the Holy Spirit in truth is neither begotten nor unbegotten, neither created nor made, but proceeding from the Father and the Son, coeternal and coequal and the cooperator with the Father and the Son, because it is written: "By the word of the Lord the heavens were established" (that is, by the Son of God), "and all the power of them by the spirit of his mouth" (
Ps 32,6), and elsewhere: "Send forth thy spirit and they shall be created and thou shalt renew the face of the earth" (Ps 103,30). And therefore we confess one God in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, because god is the name of power, not of peculiarity. The proper name for the Father is Father, and the proper name for the Son is Son, and the proper name for the Holy Spirit is Holy Spirit. And in this Trinity we believe in one God, because what is of one nature and of one substance and of one power with the Father is from one Father. The Father begot the Son, not by will, nor by necessity, but by nature.

72 Dz 16 The Son in the fullness of time came down from the Father to save us and to fulfill the Scriptures, though he never ceased to be with the Father, and was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary; he took a body, soul, and sense, that is, he assumed perfect human nature; nor did he lose, what he was, but he began to be, what he was not; in such a way, however, that he is perfect in his own nature and true in our nature.

For he who was God, was born a man, and he who was born a man, operates as God; and he who operates as God, dies as a man; and he who dies as a man, arises as God. He having conquered the power of death with that body, with which he was born, and suffered, and had died, arose on the third day, ascended to the Father, and sits at his right hand in glory, which he always has had and always has. We believe that cleansed in his death and in his blood we are to be raised up by him on the last day in this body with which we now live; and we have hope that we shall obtain from him either life eternal, the reward of good merit or the penalty of eternal punishment for sins. Read these words, keep them, subject your soul to this faith. From Christ the Lord you will receive both life and reward.


73 [Of uncertain author and time; from Gaul about 500(?)]

The merciful Trinity is one divine Godhead. Consequently the Father 17 and the Son and the Holy Spirit are one source, one substance, one virtue, and one power. We say that God the Father and God the Son and God the Holy Spirit are not three gods, but we very piously confess one God. For although we name three persons, we publicly declare with the catholic and apostolic voice that they are one substance. Therefore the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, these three are one (cf.
1Jn 5,7). Three, neither confused, nor separated, but both distinctly joined, and, though joined, distinct; united in substance, but differentiated in name, joined in nature, distinct in person, equal in divinity, entirely similar in majesty, united in trinity, sharers in splendor. They are one in such a way, that we do not doubt that they are also three; and they are three in such a way that we acknowledge that they cannot be disjoined from one another. Therefore there is no doubt, that an insult to one is an affront to all, because the praise of one pertains to the glory of all.

74 Dz 18 'For this is the principal point of our faith according to the Gospel and the apostolic doctrine, that our Lord Jesus Christ and the Son of God are not separated from the Father either in the acknowledgment of honor, or in the power of virtue, or in the divine nature of substance, or by an interval of time.'* And therefore if anyone says that the Son of God, who just as he is truly God, so also is true man except in sin alone, ,did not possess something belonging to human nature or did not possess something belonging to the Godhead, he should be judged wicked and hostile to the Catholic and apostolic Church.


188 [Formula, "A little book like a Creed"]

The rule of the Catholic faith against all heresies [(Here) begin the rules of the Catholic faith against all heresies, and especially indeed against the Priscillianists, which the bishops of Tarraco, Carthage, Lusitania, and Baetica have composed and with a command of Pope Leo of the City transmitted to Balconius, bishop of Gallicia. .. .. .. ].

Dz 19 We believe in one true God, Father, and Son and Holy Spirit, maker of the visible and the invisible, by whom were created all things in heaven and on earth. This God alone and this Trinity alone is of divine name [divine substance]. The Father is not [himself] the Son, but has the Son, who is not the Father. The Son is not the Father, but the Son is of God by nature [is of the Father's nature]. The Spirit is also the Paraclete, who is himself neither the Father, nor the Son, but proceeds from the Father [proceeding from the Father and the Son]. Therefore the Father is unbegotten, the Son is begotten, the Paraclete is not begotten, but proceeding from the Father [and the Son]. The Father is he whose words were heard from the heavens: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased, hear ye him. (
Mt 17,5 2P 1,17 2P 1, Matt Mt 3,17). The Son is he who says: I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world (cf. Jn 16,28). The Paraclete himself [the Spirit] is he, concerning whom the Son says: Unless I go to the Father, the Paraclete will not come toyou (Jn 16,17). This Trinity, though distinct in persons, is one substance [united], virtue, power, majesty [in virtue and in power and in majesty] indivisible, not different. [We believe] there is no divine nature except that [this], either of angel or of spirit or of any virtue, which is believed to be God.

189 Dz 20 Therefore this Son of God, God, born of the Father entirely before every beginning, has sanctified in the womb [the womb] of the Blessed Mary Virgin, and from her has assumed true man, human nature having been begotten without the [virile] seed of man; [of not more or not less than two natures, namely, of God and of flesh, meeting completely in one person], that is, [our] Lord Jesus Christ. Not [And not] an imaginary body or one constituted of form alone [ in place of this:or that it belong to some phantasm in him]; but a firm [and true] one. And this man hungered and thirsted and grieved and wept and felt all the pains of a body [in place of this: suffered all the injuries of a body]. Finally he was crucified [by the Jews], died and was buried, [and] on the third day he arose again; afterwards he conversed with [his] disciples; the fortieth day [ after the resurrection ] he ascended to the heavens [ heaven ]. This son of man is called [named] also the Son of God; but the Son of God, God, is not (likewise) called the Son of man [calls the Son of man (thus)].

190 We believe that there [will] assuredly [be] a resurrection of the human flesh [for the body]. However, the soul of man is not a divine substance, or a part of God, but a creature [we say] which did not fall by the divine will [created].

191 Dz 21 1. If therefore [however] anyone says and [or] believes, that this world and all its furnishings were not made by God almighty, let him be anathema.

192 Dz 22 2. If anyone says and [or] believes, that God the Father is the same person as the Son or the Paraclete, let him be anathema.

193 Dz 23 3. If anyone says and [or] believes that God the Son [of God] is the same person as the Father or the Paraclete, let him be anathema.

194 Dz 24 4. If anyone says and [or] believes that the Paraclete the Spirit is either the Father or the Son, let him be anathema.

195 Dz 25 5. If anyone say and [or] believes that the man Jesus Christ was not assumed by the Son of God [ in place of this:that a body only without a soul was assumed by the Son of God], let him be anathema.

196 Dz 26 6. If anyone says and [or] believes, that the Son of God, as God, suffered [ in place of this: that Christ cannot be born], let him be anathema.

197 Dz 27 7. If anyone says and [or] believes that the man Jesus Christ was a man incapable of suffering [in place of this:the divine nature of Christ was changeable or capable of suffering], let him be anathema.

198 Dz 28 8. If anyone says and [or] believes, that there is one God of the old Law, another of the Gospels, let him be anathema.

199 Dz 29 9. If anyone says and [or] believes, that the world was made by another God than [and not] by him, concerning whom it is written:In the beginning God created hea ven and earth (cf. Gn 1,1), let him be anathema.

200 Dz 30 10. If anyone says and [or] believes that the human bodies will not rise again [do not rise] after death, let him be anathema.

201 Dz 31 11. If anyone says and for] believes that the human soul is a part of God or is God's substance, let him be anathema.

202 Dz 32 12. If anyone either believes that any scriptures, except those which the Catholic Church has received, ought to be held in authority or venerates them [If anyone says or believes other scriptures, besides those which the Catholic Church receives, ought to be held in authority or ought to be venerated], let him be anathema.

203 Dz 33 [13. If anyone says or believes that there is in Christ one nature of the Godhead of humanity, let him be anathema.]

204 Dz 34 [14. If anyone says or believes that there is anything that can extend itself beyond the divine Trinity, let him be anathema.]

205 Dz 35 [15. If anyone holds that astrology and the interpretation of stars (sic) ought to be believed, let him be anathema.]

206 Dz 36 [16. If anyone says or believes, that the marriages of men, which are considered licit according to divine law, are accursed, let him be anathema.]

207 Dz 37 [17. If anyone says or believes that the flesh of birds or of animals, which has been given for food, not only ought to be abstained from for the chastising of the body, but ought to be abhorred, let him be anathema.]

208 Dz 38 [18. If anyone follows the sect of Priscillian in these errors or publicly professes it) so that he makes a change in the saving act of baptism contrary to the chair of Holy Peter, let him be anathema.]


75 [Which is called "Athanasian"] *

Dz 39 Whoever wishes to be saved, needs above all to hold the Catholic faith; unless each one preserves this whole and inviolate, he will without a doubt perish in eternity. -But the Catholic faith is this, that we venerate one God in the Trinity, and the Trinity in oneness; neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance; for there is one person of the Father, another of the Son, (and) another of the Holy Spirit; but the divine nature of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit is one, their glory is equal, their majesty is coeternal. Of such a nature as the Father is, so is the Son, so (also) is the Holy Spirit; the Father is uncreated, the Son is uncreated, (and) the Holy Spirit is uncreated; the Father is immense, the Son is immense, (and) the Holy Spirit is immense; the Father is eternal, the Son is eternal, (and) the Holy Spirit is eternal: and nevertheless there are not three eternals, but one eternal; just as there are not three uncreated beings, nor three infinite beings, but one uncreated, and one infinite; similarly the Father is omnipotent, the Son is omnipotent, (and) the Holy Spirit is omnipotent: and yet there are not three omnipotents, but one omnipotent; thus the Father is God, the Son is God, (and) the Holy Spirit is God; and nevertheless there are not three gods, but there is one God; so the Father is Lord, the Son is Lord, (and) the Holy Spirit is Lord: and yet there are not three lords, but there is one Lord; because just as we are compelled by Christian truth to confess singly each one person as God and [and also] Lord, so we are forbidden by the Catholic religion to say there are three gods or lords. The Father was not made nor created nor begotten by anyone. The Son is from the Father alone, not made nor created, but begotten. The Holy Spirit is from the Father and the Son, not made nor created nor begotten, but proceeding. There is therefore one Father, not three Fathers; one Son, not three Sons; one Holy Spirit, not three Holy Spirits; and in this Trinity there is nothing first or later, nothing greater or less, but all three persons are coeternal and coequal with one another, so that in every respect, as has already been said above, both unity in Trinity, and Trinity in unity must be venerated. Therefore let him who wishes to be saved, think thus concerning the Trinity.

76 Dz 40 But it is necessary for eternal salvation that he faithfully believe also the incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ. Accordingly it is the right faith, that we believe and confess, that our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God is God and man. He is God begotten of the substance of the Father before time, and he is man born of the substance of his mother in time: perfect God, perfect man, consisting of a rational soul and a human body, equal to the Father according to his Godhead, less than the Father according to humanity. Although he is God and man, yet he is not two, but he is one Christ; one, however, not by the conversion of the Divinity into a human body, but by the assumption of humanity in the Godhead; one absolutely not by confusion of substance, but by unity of person. For just as the rational soul and body are one man, so God and man are one Christ. He suffered for our salvation, descended into hell, on the third day arose again from the dead, ascended to heaven, sits at the right hand of God the Father almighty; thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead; .at his coming all men have to arise again with their bodies and will render an account of their own deeds: and those who have done good, will go into life everlasting, but those who have done evil, into eternal fire.-This is the Catholic faith; unless every one believes this faithfully and firmly, he cannot be saved.


under whose name two canonical epistles are extant.

ST. LINUS 67(?) - 79(?) ST. (ANA) CLETUS 79(?) - 90(?)

ST. CLEMENT I 90(?)- 99(?)

The Primacy of the Roman Pontiff *

[From the letter "(Greek text deleted)" to the Corinthians]

102 Dz 41 (1) BECAUSE of the sudden calamities that have followed one another in turn and because of the adverse circumstances which have befallen us, we think, brethren, that we have returned too late to those matters which are being inquired into among you, beloved, and to the impious and detestable sedition . . . which a few rash and presumptuous men have aroused to such a degree of insolence that your honorable and illustrious name . . . is very much reviled. . . . In order to remind you of your duty, we write. . . . (57) You, therefore, who have laid the foundations of this insurrection, be subject in obedience to the priests and receive correction unto repentance. . . . (59) But if some will not submit to them, let them learn what He [Christ] has spoken through us, that they will involve themselves in great sin and danger; we, however, shall be innocent of this transgression. . . . (63) Indeed you will give joy and gladness to us, if having become obedient to what we have written through the Holy Spirit, you will cut out the unlawful application of your zeal according to the exhortation which we have made in this epistle concerning peace and union.

Denzinger EN