1. But since not only when passing-over through ourselves, but also in ourselves, does it happen that the First Principle is contemplated; and this is greater than the preceding: for that reason this fourth manner of considering reaches (obtinet) the step of contemplation.  Moreover it is wonderful to see, when it is shown,2 that God is so close to our minds, because to so few does it belong to gaze upon (speculari) the First Principle in their very selves.  But the reason (for this) is easy (in promptu), because the human mind, distracted by cares (sollicitudinibus), does not enter into itself through memory; beclouded (obnubilata) by phantasms, it does not go back towards itself through intelligence; enticed by concupiscences, it turns back not at all towards itself through a desire for internal savor and spiritual gladness.  For that reason lying down (iacet) totally in these senses, it cannot reenter into itself as into an image of God.

2. And since, where one has fallen, there he will inevitably fall down again, unless someone places himself nearby and lies by his side, to raise him;3 our soul could not be perfectly revealed by these senses to survey itself and the eternal Truth in its very self, unless the Truth, having assumed a human form in Christ, became by Its own power (fieret sibi) the stairway repairing the prior stairway, which had been broken in Adam.

For that reason, however so much one be illuminated by the light of nature and acquired knowledge, one cannot enter into himself, to delight in the Lord in his very self, unless by means (mediante) of Christ, who says:4  I am the door.  He who goes within through Me, shall be saved and he will step in and out and find pasture.  Moreover we do not approach towards this door, unless we believe, hope and love.  It is therefore necessary, if we want to reenter to the enjoyment (fruitionem) of Truth as to Paradise, that we step in through faith, hope and love of the Mediator of God and men, Jesus Christ, who is as the Tree of life in the midst of Paradise.

3. Therefore the image of our mind must be clothed-over (superviestienda) by the three theological virtues, by which the soul is purified, illumined, and perfected, and thus the image is reformed and is made conform to the supernal Jerusalem and (made) a part of the Church militant, which is, according to the Apostle, the offspring of the heavenly Jerusalem.  For he said:5 That one which is on high is that free Jerusalem which is our mother.  —  Therefore the soul, believing, hoping and loving Jesus Christ, who is the incarnate, uncreated and inspired Word, that is the Way, the Truth and the Life: while through faith it believes in Christ as in the uncreated Word, which is the Word and splendor of the Father,6 it recovers (recuperat) its spiritual hearing and sight, hearing to perceive (ad suscipiendum) the sermons of Christ, sight to consider the splendors of His Light.  While, moreover, by hope it longs to undertake the inspired Word, through desire and affection (affection) it recovers its spiritual smell (olfactum).  While by charity it holds fast (complectitur) the incarnate Word, as one taking (suscipiens) delight from Him and as one passing-over into Him though ecstatic love (amorem), it recovers taste and touch. With which senses having been recovered, while it sees and listens to its Spouse, it smells, tastes and embraces (amplexatur) Him, as a bride can sing repeatedly (decantare) the Canticle of Canticles, which had been written for the exercise of contemplation according to this fourth step, which no one lays hold of, except he who accepts it,7 because there is more in affective experience than in rational consideration.  For on this step, with its interior senses repaired8 to sense the Most High Beauty (pulcrum), to hear the Most High Harmony, to smell the Most High Fragrance (odoriferum), to take a taste of the Most High Savor, to apprehend the Most High Delectable, the soul is disposed towards mental excesses, that is through devotion, admiration and exultation, accord to those three exclamations, which are made in the Canticle of Canticles.  Of which the first occurs through an abundance of devotion, through which the soul becomes as a stream of smoke (virgula fumi) (rising) from aromatics of myrrh and incense:9  the second through excellence of admiration, through . . .

1  Psalm 75:5 ff..  —  Above this in place of so as to understand (ut intellegant) A has and/or do not understand (vel non intelligent); cf. (St.) Augustine, In Ioannis Evangelium, tr. 36, n. 7, where it is show, that it must be believed, to be understood, because by believing man is made fit (idoneus) for understanding (Isaiah 7:9 according to the Septuagint text:  Unless you believe, you shall not understand.).
2  In the preceding chapter.  —  On the fundamental concepts of this chapter cf. Breviloquium, p. II, chs. 10 and 12, where it concerns the soul, inasmuch as it is the image of God; p. V, ch. 4, where it concerns the three theological virtues; ibid., ch. 6, where it concerns the spiritual senses;  p. II, ch. 8, where it concerns the threefold, hierarchical act and the nine orders of Angels;  the Prologue, § 4, where it concerns the threefold understanding of Scripture.  —  Then in place of because to so few does it belong to (quod tam paucorum est) not a few of the more recent codices have that so few (tam paucos).
3  Isaiah 24:20 :  And falls to the ground and will not rise etc..  The majority and better part of the codices have to lie down in the same place, so as to raise him (ibidem incumbere, ut resurgat) not so aptly, though (St.) Augustine uses these words in De Vera Religione, ch. 42, n. 79.
4  Jn 10:9.  —  Ps. 36:4 : To delight in the Lord etc..  —  Below this there is a reference to 1 Tim. 2:5 : The Number One Mediator of God and Men, Christ Jesus.  Gen. 2:9, which (St.) Augustine explains in De Gen. ad lit., Bk. VIII, ch. 5, n. 9, where he says:  In the same manner even as Wisdom (Prov. 3:18), likewise Christ Himself, is the Tree of Life in the spiritual Paradise etc..  Cf. De civ. Dei, Bk. XIII, ch. 20, and Bk. XX, ch. 26, n. 2.  —  Below after we do not approach (non appropinquamus) very many codices proceed thus:  unless we believe in Christ, hope in Him and love Him (nisi in Christum credamus, in ipso speremus et eum amemus).
5  Gal. 4:26 :  But that one, which etc..  —  Then there is a reference to Jn 14:6.  —  On the threefold state of the Word, see Breviloquium, p. IV, ch. 1 at the end.  —  Above this in place of  is purified (purificatur) A has is purged (purgatur) (cf. above p. 226, footnote 6), and after reformed (reformatur) the Vatican edition with not a few of the editions adds remade (reficitur).
6  Cf. Jn. 1:1 and Heb. 1:3.  —  Below this in place of  hearing to perceive (auditum ad suscipiendum) a majority of the codices have hearing for perceiving (auditum suscipiendi).
7  Apoc. 2:7 :  No know knows, except etc..
8  Thus A B C D I P, the editions have recovered (recuperatis); then in place of see (videndum) we have substituted from many codices sense (sentiendum), A has sense and/or see (sentiendum vel videndum), C survey (contuendum).
9  Chapter 3:6.  —  The second quote is ibid., 6:9 :  Who is this, who steps forth like the rising dawn, beautiful as the moon, brilliant as the sun.  The third ibid., 8:5.  —  Below this (on p. 307) in place of admire (admirandum) very many codices, among which is even B, have enter (intrandum).  —  Then in place of considered (consideratum) B has desired (desideratum).



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which the soul becomes as dawn, moon and sun, according to the process of illuminations suspending the soul to admire the Spouse (thus) considered; the third through a superabundance of exultation, through which the soul becomes affluent (affluens) with the most savory delights of delectation, leaning totally upon its Beloved (delectum).

4. Which when attained (adeptis), our spirit is made a hierarch (hierarchicus) to climb thoroughly on high according to its conformity to that supernal Jerusalem, in which no one enters, unless it descends first into the heart by grace, as (St.) John saw in his Apocalypse.1  Moreover it descends next into the heart, when through reformation of the image, through the theological virtues and through the enjoyments of the spiritual senses and the suspensions of excesses our spirit is made a hierarch, that is purged, illuminated and perfected.  — So also by nine steps of orders is (the soul) marked, while in it, in an orderly manner, there is arranged announcing, dictation, leadership, ordering, strengthening (roboratio), commanding (imperatio), undertaking, revealing (revelatio), anointing (unction),2 which step-by-step corresponds to the nine orders of Angels, so that the first three of the aforesaid steps look back in the human mind to nature, the three following to skill (industriam), and the last three to grace.  Which when had, the soul by entering into its very self, enters into the supernal Jerusalem, where considering the orders of the Angels, it sees in them the God, who dwelling in them works (operatur) all their activities.  Whence says (St.) Bernard ad Eugenium,3 that « God in the Seraphim loves as Charity, in the Cherubim knows (novit) as Truth, in the Thrones sits as Equity, in the Dominations dominates as Majesty, in the Principalities rules as Principle, in the Powers guards as Salvation, in the Virtues works as Virtue, in the Archangels reveals as Light, in the Angels assists as Piety ».  From all of which it is seen that God is all in all4 through contemplation of Him in minds, in which He dwells by the gifts of the most affluent charity.

5. Moreover upon the speculations of (these) steps the consideration of Sacred Scripture, divinely sent forth (immissae), is especially and chiefly supported (adminiculatur), just as philosophy was on the preceding.  For Sacred Scripture principally concerns the works of reparation.  Whence it also chiefly deals with faith, hope and charity, though which virtues the soul has to be reformed, and most especially with charity.  Of which the Apostle says,5 that it is the end of the precept, according to that which is from a pure heart and a good conscience and in an unfeigned faith. It is the fullness (plenitudo) of the Law, as says the same (author).  And Our Savior asserts that the whole Law and the Prophets hang upon these two precepts, that is upon the love (dilectione) of God and of neighbor; which two bow their heads (innuuntur) to the one Spouse of the Church, Jesus Christ, who is at the same time neighbor and God, at the same time brother and Lord, at the same time also King and friend, at the same time uncreated and incarnate Word, our Former and Reformer, as the Alpha and the Omega;6 who is also the Most High Hierarch, purging and illuminating and perfecting the Bride, that is the whole Church and every (quamlibet) holy soul.

6. Therefore the hierarch of this and the hierarch of the Church is the whole Sacred Scripture, through which we are taught how to be purged, illuminated and perfected, and this according to the threefold law handed down (traditam) in it, that is of nature, of Scripture and of grace; and/or rather according to its threefold principle part, that is the Mosaic law purging, the prophetic revelation brightening and the evangelic teaching (eruditionem) perfecting;7 or more rather according to its threefold spiritual intelligence: the tropological which purges for honesty of life; the allegorical, which illumines for clarity of intelligence; the anagogical, which perfects through mental excesses and the most savory perceptions of wisdom, according to the aforesaid three theological virtues and reformed spiritual senses and the three above-said excesses and the hierarchic acts of the mind, by which our mind steps back to interior things, to gaze upon God there in the splendors of the Saints8 and in them as in beds (cubilibus) to sleep in peace and rest, with the Spouse having promised on oath (adiurante), that she (i.e. the mind) will not be roused (excitetur), until she comes forth by His will.

7. Moreover from these two middle steps, through which we step in to contemplate God within us as in the reflections (speculis) of the images (imaginum) of creatures, and this as if according to the manner of wings outstretched (expansarum) to fly, which hold a middle place,9 we can understand, that we are lead by hand unto divine things through the powers of the rational soul itself, naturally engrafted (insitas) as much as regards their activities, characteristics and habits of knowledge (habitus scientiales); according to what appears from the third step. We are also lead by hand through the reformed powers of the soul itself, and this by gratuitous virtues, by the spiritual senses and mental excesses; as is clear from . . .

1  Apoc. 21:2 : And I, John, saw the holy city, the New Jerusalem, descending down from Heaven, from God, etc..
2  The Vatican text, and editions 3 and 4, with a few codices has uniting (unitio), M union (unio); but cf. Dionysius, De Eccles. Hierarch., ch. 4, § 10 and Collation 22 in the Hexaëmeron.
3  Or De Considerat., Bk. V., ch. 5, n. 12 (Just above this the words dwelling in them (habitans in eis) more probably are a reference to the words of St. Francis in his Expositio in Pater Noster, where of God in respect to the Angels and Saints, he says, indwelling in them (inhabitans in eis), which would be most fitting, since this whole tract concerns the sight of the Poor Man in the desert).
4  1 Cor. 15 :28.
5  1 Tim. 1 :5.  —  The following citation is Rom. 13:10.  Then there is a reference to Mt. 22:40 :  In these two commandments the whole Law and Prophets depend.
6  Apoc. 1:8, 21:6, and 22:13.  —  With very many and the better codices before alpha (alpha) we have placed as (ut).
7  Cf. Breviloquium, Prologue,  § 1 ff.  —  In place of brightening (illustrantem) very many codices have illuminating (illuminantem).
8  Psalm 109:3.  —  Then there is a reference to Ps. 4:9 :  In peace unto its very self, I shall sleep and rest: and Cant. 2:7 :  I swear to you, daughters of Jerusalem, do not rouse nor cause to awake the beloved, until she wants to.
9  Isaiah 6:2 :  With two (wings) they veiled his face and with two they veiled his feet and with two they flew.  —  Then in place of unto divine things (in divina) a majority of the codices, editions 1 and 2, have in divine things (in divinis), B M N have according to divine things (divinis), H K L to divine things (ad divina).



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the fourth (step).  Nevertheless we are lead by hand through hierarchical activities, that is of the purgation, illumination and perfection of human minds, through the hierarchical revelations of the Sacred Scriptures given to us through the Angels, according to that (saying) of the Apostle, that the Law has been given through the Angels into the hand of the Mediator.1  And last in order (tandem) we are lead by hand through hierarchies and hierarchical orders, which have to be arranged in our mind after the likeness of the supernal Jerusalem.

8. Having been filled full by all these intellectual lights, our mind is inhabited by Divine Wisdom as a house of God, made a daughter, bride and friend of God; made a member, sister and coheir with Christ the Head; made nevertheless the temple of the Holy Spirit, founded through faith, elevated through hope and dedicated to God through holiness of mind and body.  Which together (totum) causes the most sincere charity for Christ, which is diffused in our hearts through the Holy Spirit, who has been given to us,2 without which Spirit we cannot know the secrets of God.  For as what are of a man no one can know except the spirit of the man, which is in him; so also what are of God no one can know except the Spirit of God.  —  In charity therefore we are rooted and founded, to be able to comprehend with all the Saints, what is the length of the eternity, what is breadth of the liberality, what is the sublimity of the majesty and what is the depth of the wisdom of the Judge (judicantis).


1. Moreover since it happens that God is contemplated not only outside of us and within us, but also above us: outside through vestige, within through image (imaginem) and above through the light, which has been marked upon our mind,3 which is the light of Eternal Truth, since  « our very mind is formed immediately by Truth Itself »; those who have been exercised in the first manner, have entered already into the entrance-hall before the Tabernacle; but they who in the second, have entered into the Holies; moreover they who in the third, enter with the supreme Pontiff into the Holy of Holies; where above the Ark are the Cherubim of glory overshadowing the Propitiatory; through which we understand two manners or steps of contemplating the invisible and eternal things of God, of which one hovers around the things essential to God, but the other around the things proper to the persons.

2. The first manner at first and principally fixes (defigit) its power of sight upon ‘being’ itself (ipsum esse), saying, that He who is4 is the first Name of God.  The second manner fixes its gaze upon the good itself, saying, that this is the first Name of God.  First it looks (spectat) most powerfully towards the Old Testament, which preaches most the unity of the Divine Essence; whence it is said by Moses:5 I am who am; according to the New, which determines the plurality of persons, by baptizing in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.  For that reason Christ Our Teacher, wanting to raise the youth, who observed the Law, towards evangelical perfection, attributed the name of goodness to God principally and precisely.  No one he said, is good except God alone. Therefore (St. John) Damascene6 following Moses says, that He who is is the first Name of God; (St.) Dionysius (the Areopagite) following Christ says, that ‘the Good’ is the first Name of God.

3. Wanting therefore to contemplate the invisible things of God in regard to His unity of essence, let (the mind) first fix its power of sight upon ‘being’ itself (ipsum esse)7 and see, that ‘being’ itself to this extent is in itself most certain, because it cannot be thought not to be, because most pure ‘being’ itself does not occur (occurrit) except in full flight from ‘non-being’ (non-esse), just as nothing is also in full flight from ‘being’.  Therefore as it has entirely nothing from ‘being’ or from its conditions; so conversely ‘being’ itself has nothing from ‘non-being’, neither in act nor in power, nor according to the truth of a thing nor according to our estimation. Moreover since ‘non-being’ is a privation of the act of being (privatio essendi), it does not fall in the intellect except through ‘being’;8 moreover ‘being’ does not fall through another, because everything, which is understood, either is understood as a non-being (non ens), or as a being in potency (ens in potentia), or as a being in act. If therefore ‘non-being’ cannot be understood except through a being, and a being in potency not except through a being in act; and ‘being’ names the pure act itself of a being: therefore ‘being’ is what first falls in the intellect, and ‘being’ is that which is a pure act.9  But this is not particular ‘being’, which . . .

1  Gal. 3:19.  —  Below this in place of having been filled full . . ., our mind  (mens nostra repleta), A, 1 and 2, have our soul (anima), a majority of the codices have having been filled full . . ., our spirit (spiritus noster repletus), which also adds after is inhabited as a house of God by Divine Wisdom (a divina Sapientia tanquam domus Dei inhabitatur) and thus our soul (sicque anima nostra), but scarcely congruously.
2  Rom. 5:5.  (After our hearts (cordibus nostris) very many codices add and bodies (et corporibus)).  —  The following citation is 1 Cor. 2:11; the third is Eph. 3:17 ff.
3  Psalm 4:7 :  Marked upon us is the light of Thy Face, O Lord.  —  The following sentence is (St.) Augustine’s;  cf. above p. 180, footnote 10.  —  Then there is a reference to Exod. chs. 25-28, where the tabernacle is described.
4  Exod. 3:14.
5  Exod. 3:14.  —  The following passage is Mt. 28:19; the third is Lk. 18:19.
6  In De Fide orthod., Bk. I, ch. 9.  —  Dionysius (the Areopagite), De Divinis Nominibus, ch. 3, § 1, and ch. 4, §1.  Cf. Sent., Bk. I, d. 22, q. 3, in corp.
7  Not in any ‘being’, scil. non in created or constrained ‘being’, nor in that ‘being’, which is represented by the most common concept of a being, or in analogous ‘being’, but in that which is expressed by the words:  I am who am, and which, as (St. John) Damascene says in the work cited, is « ‘being’ entire in itself, as if comprehending a certain infinite and unending, open sea of substance ».  Only such ‘being’ opposes nothing as an adversary.  Cf. Sent., Bk. I, d. 8, p. I, a. 1. q. 2.
8  Cf. above p. 304, footnote 3.  —  Avicenna, in his Metaphysics, tr. 1, ch. 6, says:  We will, therefore, say, that being (ens) and thing and  the necessary are such, that immediately they are impressed in the soul by a first impression, which is not acquired from others more known than itself etc..  (It must be noted, that Avicenna says being (ens), not ‘being’ (esse), which is what is being discussed here).
9  One ought to observe well that there is a difference between the intellect apprehending and resolving, between the intellect simply reflecting and the fifth step of contemplation (concerning which matters, v. infra Scholium).  Since a creature is a being, through it there can indeed be cognized a non being; since a certain creature in some genus is a being in act, through it there can be cognized a being in potency; but then one does not deal with the perfect cognition of a creature in itself, of which the discussion in this chapter deals.  For a creature, inasmuch as it is a non being and a being in potency, is not cognized fully except through ‘being’, which is the pure act.  The soul is capable of this perfect cognition only on this fifth step; in which God is also the first cognized, by Whom all other cognized things are illustrated, so that in the order of execution He is first, while in respect to the preceding steps He is the first cognized in the order only of intention, inasmuch as imperfect cognition tends naturally to the perfect.  —  Below this (at the very top of p. 309) to the words commingled with potency (permixtum est cum potentia) very many codices prefix ‘being’ (esse).



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is constrained ‘being’ (esse arctatum), because it is commingled with potency, nor « analogous ‘being’, because it has the least actuality (minime de actu), for the reason that it scarcely is (minime est).  It follows (restat) therefore, that that ‘being’ is the Divine ‘Being’.

4. Wonderful therefore is the blindness of the intellect, which does not consider that which it sees first and without which it can become acquainted with nothing.  But as the eye intent upon various1 differences of colors does not see the light, through which it sees other things, and if it sees it, it does not advert to it; so the eye of our mind, intent upon particular and universal beings (entia), though ‘being’ itself outside of every genus first occurs (occurrat) to the mind and through it other (beings), it does not however advert to it.  Whence it most truly appears, that « as the eye of the evening holds itself towards the light, so the eye of our mind holds itself towards the most manifest things of nature »;2 because accustomed (assuefactus) to the shadows of beings and to the phantasms of sensibles, when it looks upon (intuetur) the light itself of Most High ‘Being’, it seems to it that it sees nothing; not understanding, that that darkness is the Most High Illumination of our mind,3 just as, when the eye sees pure light, it seems to it that is sees nothing.

5. Therefore see that most pure ‘Being’, if you can, and it occurs to you, that It cannot be thought of as accepted from an other; and through this (per hoc) It is necessarily thought of as first in every manner (omnimode), because It can be neither from nothing nor from something.4  For what is It per se, if ‘Being’ itself is not through itself nor from itself (per se nec a se)?  —  It occurs also to you as lacking entirely in ‘non-being’ and through this as never beginning, never stopping, but eternal.  —  It occurs to you also as having in no manner (anything) in itself, except that which is ‘being’ itself, and through this as composed with nothing, but most simple.  —   It occurs to you as having nothing of possibility, because every possible has in some manner something from ‘non-being’, and through this as most actual.  —  It occurs as having nothing of defectibility, and through this as most perfect.  It occurs lastly as having nothing of diversification, and through this as most highly one.

‘Being’ therefore, which is pure ‘being’ and simply ‘being’ and absolute ‘being’, is the primary, the eternal, the most simple, the most actual, the most perfect and the most highly one ‘being’.

6. And these are so certain, that the opposite of these cannot be thought by one understanding ‘being’ itself, and5 one necessarily infers the other.  For because It is simply ‘being’, for that reason It is simply first; because It is simply first, for that reason It has not been made from another, nor by itself could It, therefore It is eternal.  Likewise, because it is first and eternal; for that reason it is not from others, therefore it is most simple.  Likewise, because It is first, eternal, most simple; for that reason there is nothing in It of possibility mixed with act, for that reason it is most actual.  Likewise, because It is first, eternal, most simple, most actual; therefore It is most perfect; to such nothing is lacking (deficit), nor can there be any addition to it.  Because It is first, eternal, most simple, most actual, most perfect; for that reason most highly one.  For what is through an omnimodal (omnimodam) superabundance is said in respect to all things.  « It is impossible that what is said (to be) simply through superabundance, convene except with one alone ».6 Whence if ‘God’ names the primary, eternal, most simple, most actual, most perfect ‘being’; it is impossible that It is thought to not to be, nor to be but the Only One.  Listen therefore, O Israel, God thy God is one.7  —  If you see this in the pure simplicity of (your) mind, you will in some wise (aliqualiter) be filled with the brightening of eternal light.

7. But you have that from which you will be lifted into admiration.  For ‘Being’ itself is first and last (novissimum), is eternal and most present, is most simple and greatest, is most actual and most immutable, is most perfect and immense, is most highly one and nevertheless omnimodal (omnimodum).  —  If you wonder at these things with a pure mind, you shall be filled with a greater light, while you see further, that It is for that reason last, because it is first.  For because It is first, It works all things on account of Its very self; and for that reason it is necessary, that It be the last end, the start (initium) and the consummation, the Alpha and Omega.8  —  For that reason It is the most present, because It is eternal.  For because It is eternal, It does not flow from an other nor fails by itself nor runs down (decurrit) from . . .

1  K L have distended through various (distentus per varias); B H M N also have through various (per varias).
2  Aristotle, Metaphysics, Bk. II, text 1 (shorter version, Bk. I, ch. 1).  The original text after the light (lucem) adds of day (diei), and in place of the eye of our mind (oculus mentis nostrae) it substitutes the intellect of our soul (intellectus animae nostrae) (A has our intellect (intellectus noster), B H K L M N P our eye (oculus noster), and also with the original text after so (ita) omit holds itself (se habet);  cf. above p. 109, footnote 5).
3  Psalm 138:11 :  And the night (is) my illumination among my delights.  Cf. ch. 7 and Breviloquium, p. V, ch. 6 at the end.  —  Which if anyone wanted that the aforesaid be understood of analogous ‘being’ (esse analogo) or of the ‘being’ (esse), which is represented by the most common concept of being (entis); then the context and most constant and indubitable doctrine of the Seraphic Doctor permit it to be accepted only in this sense, that  most common ‘being’ (esse communissimum) can be considered under any respect as a shadow of the Divine ‘Being’, by which implicitly and not properly there is cognized the first ‘Being’ (primum esse) (see the Scholium below).  —  In place of looks upon (intuetur) very many codices have surveys (contuetur).  Below this in place of that it sees nothing (nihil videre), or in H K L M N that it does not see (non videre), B has that it prevails to see nothing (nihil valet videre).
4  The Vatican text, editions 3 and 4, have from an other (ab alio), faultily, because this has already be said; 1 and 2 have from an other (de alio).  Above this after that It (quod ipsum) D H K L M N add ‘being’ (esse).  The codices, which we follow, most commonly and constantly substitute it occurs (occurrit) in place of it will occur (occurret), which the editions have.
5  In place of and (et) H K L have because (quia).  Below after could It (potuit) supply be made (fieri) .
6  Aristotle, Topics, Bk. V, ch. 3 (ch. 5).  Cf. ibid., Bk. VII, ch. 1.  —  Then in place of names (nominat) D H K L M N have is named (nominatur).
7  Deut. 6:4 :  Hear O Israel, the Lord, our God, the Lord is One.
8  See above p. 307, footnote 6.  —  Prov. 16:4 :  The universe for Thine own sake has been wrought, O Lord.  —  After a few words in place of does not flow (non fluit), which B F I O, editions 1 and 2, exhibit, very many of the other codices have was not (non fuit), the Vatican text, editions 3 and 4, have is not finished (non finitur):  cf. Boethius De Consolatione Philosophiae, Bk. V, prose 6).



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one into another: therefore it has neither a past nor a future, but only a present ‘being’.  For that reason (It is) the greatest, because (It is) the most simple.  For because (It is) the most simple in essence, for that reason (It is) the greatest in virtue, because virtue, as much as it is more united, so much is it more infinite.1  —  For that reason (It is) the most immutable, because (It is) the most actual.  For because It is the most actual, for that reason it is the Pure Act; and because It is such it acquires nothing new, looses nothing had, and through this cannot be changed.    For that reason (It is) immense, because (It is) most perfect.  For because (It is) most perfect, one can think of nothing beyond it better, more noble, or more worthy, and through this nothing greater; and everything that is such is immense.  —  For that reason (It is) omnimodal, because (It is) most highly one.  For what is most highly one, is the universal principle of every multitude; and through this It is the universal efficient, exemplary (exemplans) and final (terminans) cause of all things, as « the cause of existing, the reason of understanding and the order of living ».  Therefore It is omnimodal not as the Essence of all things, but as the most superexcellent and most universal and most sufficient Cause of all other essences; whose virtue, because (it is) most highly united in an Essence, (is) for that reason most-highly most infinite and most manifold (multiplicissima) in efficacy.

8. Returning again (to this) let us say: that therefore the most pure and absolute ‘being’, which is simply ‘being’, is primary and last, is for that reason the Origin and consummating End of all things.  —   Because It is eternal and most present, It for that reason comprises (ambit) and enters all durations, as if existing at the same time as their center and circumference.  —  Because It is most simple and the greatest, for that reason wholly within all and wholly outside, and through this « it is an intelligible sphere, whose center is everywhere and circumference nowhere ».3  —  Because It is most actual and most immutable, for that reason « remaining stable It grants that all (universa) be moved ».  —  Because it is most perfect and immense, for that reason it is within all things, not as included, outside of all things, not as excluded, above all things, not as lifted up, below all things, not as prostrated.  —  On the other hand, because It is most highly one and in every measure, for that reason It is all in all (omnia in omnibus),4 although all things be many and It itself is not but one; and this, because through the most simple unity, the most serene truth, (and) the most sincere goodness there is in Him every virtuosity, every exemplarity and every communicability; and through this, from Him and through Him and in Him all things are,5 and this, because (He is) the omnipotent, omniscient and in every measure Good, which to see perfectly is to be blessed, as is said by Moses: I shall show thee every good.