St. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio


Translated from the Quarrachi Edition of the Opera Omnia S. Bonaventurae Vol. V, 1891, pp. 295-316 with original notes and Scholium.


1. In the beginning the First Principle, from whom all other (cunctae) illuminations descend as from the Father of lights, by whom is every best gift and every perfect gift,1 that is the Eternal Father, I do invoke through His Son, Our Lord Jesus Christ, with the intercession of the Most Holy Virgin Mary, the Mother (genetricis) of Our same God and Lord Jesus Christ, and (the intercession) of blessed Francis, our leader and father, to grant that the eyes2 of our mind (be) illumined to direct our feet in the way of His peace, which exceeds (exuperat) every sense; which peace Our Lord Jesus Christ has proclaimed (evangelizavit) and has given; the repeater (repetitor) of whose preaching was our Father Francis, announcing at the beginning and end of all his preaching peace, in every salutation choosing peace,3 in every contemplation longing towards ecstatic peace, as a citizen of that Jerusalem, concerning which that man of peace speaks, who with those who hate peace, was peaceable: Ask for those things which are for the peace of Jerusalem.4 For he knew, that the throne of Solomon was not but in peace, since it was written: In peace is made His place, and His dwelling in Sion.

2. When therefore by the example of most blessed Father Francis I sought with a panting spirit this peace — I a sinner, who, unworthy in all things (per omnia) ascend to the place of the most blessed father himself as seventh in the Minister generalship after his transitus; it happened that with the divine permission (nutu) about the (time of) the Transitus of the Blessed himself, in the thirty-third year5 (of its celebration), I turned aside with the love (amore) of seeking peace of spirit towards mount Alverna as towards a quiet place, and staying (existens) there, while I considered in mind some mental ascensions into God, among others there occurred (to me) that miracle, which in the aforesaid place happened to blessed Francis himself, that is, of the vision of the Seraph winged after the likeness (ad instar) of the Crucified.6 In the consideration of which it suddenly seemed to me, that that vision showed the suspension of our father himself in contemplating Him and the way, through which one arrives at that (suspension).

3. For through those six wings there can be rightly understood six suspensions of illumination, by which the soul as if to certain steps or journeys is disposed, to pass over to (ad) peace through ecstatic excesses of Christian wisdom.  The way is, however, naught but through the most ardent love (amore) of the Crucified, who to this extent (adeo) transformed Paul rapt7 to the third heaven into Christ, that he said: to Christ I have been crucified, now not I; but Christ lives in me; who also to this extent absorbed the mind of Francis, since (his) mind lay in the flesh, while he bore about the most sacred stigmata of the Passion in his own flesh for two years before his death. The likenesses (effigies) of the six seraphic wings intimates (insinuat) six stair-like (scalares) illuminations, which begin from creatures and lead through even unto God, to Whom no one rightly enters except through the Crucified. For he who does not enter through the gate, but ascends by another way, that one is a thief and mercenary (latro).8 If anyone indeed goes inside through the gate, he will step in and out and find pasture.  On which account John says in the Apocalypse: Blessed are they who wash their vestments . . .

1  James 4:17.  — Above this in place of illuminations (illuminationes) C D E F have brightenings (illustrationes).  
2  Eph. 1:17 ff. — The next citation is Lk. 1:19; the third is Phil. 4:7.  — Then there is reference to Jn 14:27: Peace I leave you, My peace I give you etc..  
3  Cf. The First Life of St. Francis, part 1, by (Bl.) Thomas of Celano, ch. 19; The Legend of the Three companions, ch. 8, and The Life of St. Francis, written by St. Bonaventure, ch. 3.  
4  Psalm 119:7 and Ps. 121:6.  — The following citation is Ps. 75:3. 
5  That is, A. D. 1259.  —  Edition 1 has in the 32nd year (anno 32).  The editions read After the transit of the Blessed himself (Post Beati ipsius transitum), the codices disagree (the words:  about (the time of) . . the Blessed himself (circa  . . transitum), which was Oct. 4, 1226, determine that the season  was autumn).  Below this in place of a quiet place (locum quietum) - D G K L have a place of quiet (quietis) -  A substituted quiet mountain (montem quietum).  
6  Cf. The First life of St. Francis, part II, ch. 3; The Legend of the Three Companions, ch. 17, and The Life of St. Francis, written by St. Bonaventure, ch. 13, where there is also hinted at, that this vision and stigmatization of (St.) Francis took place two years before his death, namely, in the year 1224.  — Concerning the winged Seraph, cf. Isaiah 6:2.  — Then after In the consideration of which (In cuius) A and C add matter (rei), which manuscripts also below this together with 1 and 2 read one comes (venitur) in place of one arrives (pervenitur).  
7   2 Cor. 12:2.  (A B D E F M omit the third (tertium)).
8  Jn. 10:1.  The editions after gate add in the sheep pen (in ovile), to which the Vulgate subjoins of the sheep (ovium).  — The citation following is from the same chapter, v. 9; the third is Apoc. 22:14.  In place of step into the city (ingredantur civitatem) the Vulgate has enters into the city (intrent in civitatem).

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in the Blood of the Lamb, to have power in the Tree of life, and to step into the city through the gates; as if he said, that through contemplation one cannot step into the supernal Jerusalem, unless he enter through the Blood of the Lamb as through a gate.  For one has not been disposed in any manner (modo) to divine contemplations, which lead towards mental excesses (excessus), except with Daniel one be a man of desires.1 Moreover desires are inflamed in us in a two-fold manner, that is through the clamor of praying, which makes one roar from a groan of the heart, and though the lightning of speculation, by which the mind thoroughly turns itself (se convertit) most directly and most intensely towards the rays of light.

4. Therefore to the groan of praying through Christ crucified, through whose Blood we are purged from the filth of vices,2 I indeed first invite the reader, lest perhaps he believes that reading without unction, speculation without devotion, investigation without admiration, circumspection without exultation, industry without piety, knowledge (scientia) without charity, understanding without humility, study apart from divine grace, gaze (speculum) apart from divinely inspired wisdom is sufficient for him. — Anticipated, therefore, by divine grace, for the humble and pious, the compunct and devout, for those anointed with the oil of gladness3 both for the lovers of divine wisdom and for those inflamed with desire for it, I propose the following speculations to be free for those willing to magnify, admire and even take a taste of God, intimating, that too little or nothing is the proposed, exterior gaze (speculum), unless the mirror (speculum) of our mind has been wiped and polished.  Exert yourself, therefore, man of God, before (prius ad) the sting of conscience bites again, and before you raise your eyes towards the rays of wisdom glittering in His reflections (speculis), lest by chance from the sight (speculatione) itself of His rays you fall into the graver pit of shadows.

5. Moreover it is pleasing to divide (distinguendum) the tract4 into seven chapters, by previewing (praemittendo) their titles for (ad) an easier understanding of the things to be said.  I ask therefore, that the intention of the one writing be thought of more, than the work, more the sense of the things said than the uncultured speech, more its truth than its charm, more the exercise of affection than the erudition of the intellect.  Because as it is, one must not run perfunctorily through the course of these speculations, but ruminate (on them) with the greatest of lingering (morosissime).



The First Chapter, on the steps of the ascension into God and on the sight of Him through His vestiges in the universe.
The Second Chapter, on the sight of God in His vestiges in this sensible world.
The Third Chapter, on the sight of God through His image marked (insignitam) upon the natural powers.
The Fourth Chapter, on the sight of God in His image reformed by gratuitous gifts.
The Fifth Chapter, on the sight of the Divine Unity through Its primary name, which is ‘Being’.
The Sixth Chapter, on the sight of the Most Blessed Trinity in Its Name, which is ‘the Good’.
The Seventh Chapter, on the mental and mystical excess, in which rest is given to the intellect, by an affection passing-over into God totally through excess.







1. Blessed the man, whose assistance is from Thee, he has arranged ascensions in his own heart in the vale of tears, in the place, which he put (them).6 Since beatitude is nothing other, than the enjoyment of the Most High Good; and the Most High Good is above us: no one can become (effici) blessed, unless he ascends above his very self, not by an ascent with the body (corporali), but with the heart (cordiali).  But we are not able to be raised above ourselves unless by means of a superior virtue raising us.  For however much as interior steps are arranged, nothing is done, unless . . .

1    Dan. 9:23.  — Below this is a reference to Ps. 37:9 : I roared from the groaning my heart.  —  Above this in place of For one has not been disposed (Non enim dispositus est) - K L N have is not disposed (disponitur) - H has For no one can be disposed (Nullus enim potest disponi).
2    In Heb. 4:3 there is said, « working a purgation of sins » (purgationem peccatorum faciens).  Cf. 1 Jn. 2:20, 27, where there is insinuated, that the divine unction teaches concerning all (things).
3    Psalm 44:8.  —  The editions read of divine gladness (divinae laetitiae), which also after a few words in place of admire (admirandum) substitute love (amandum).  Below this in place of nothing is (nihil est) 1 has nothing profits, and in place of of conscience bites again (conscientiae remordentem) G K L M N have of the conscience biting again (conoscientiae remordentis).
4    E and P read the little tract (tractatulum).  Below this in stead of its charm (venustas) the editions have the charm of sermons (sermonum venustas). 
5     These chapter titles with certain variant readings of no moment are placed in this position by the codices and editions 1, 2, 3, and 4; manuscript B and the other codices place them not here, but in the text itself before chapters 3, 4 and 5, after the word Chapter (capitulum) they add and the third (fourth . . . fifth) step (et tertius (quartus . . . quintus) gradus);  The words Here begins the sight of the poor man in the desert (Incipit speculatio pauperis in deserto) are had in manuscripts B E F K P Q and editions 1, 2, 3, 4.
6   Psalm 83:6 ff. 



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the Divine Assistance accompanies.  However the Divine Assistance accompanies those who seek it from their heart humbly and devoutly; and this is to long for it in this vale of tears, which is done through fervent praying. Therefore prayer is the mother and origin of upwards-action.  For that reason Dionysius (the Areopagite) in his book On Mystical Theology1 wanting to instruct us regarding mental excesses, first prefaces a prayer.  Let us pray therefore and say to the Lord Our God: Lead me forth, Lord, in Thy way, and let me step in Thy truth; let my heart be glad, that it fears Thy Name.

2. In praying this prayer one is illumined so as to become acquainted with (ad cognoscendum) the steps of the divine ascension.  For since according to the state of our condition that university of things is the stairway to ascend into God; and among things there are a certain vestige, a certain image (imago),2 certain corporal things, certain spiritual things, certain temporal things, certain aeviternal things, and for this reason (per hoc) certain ones outside of us, certain ones inside us: for this purpose (ad hoc), that we arrive at considering the First Principle, which is most spiritual and eternal and above us, it is opportune, that we pass-over through the vestige, which is corporal, temporal and outside of us, and this is to be lead in the way of God;  it is opportune, that we enter into our mind, which is an aeviternal image (imago) of God, spiritual and within us, and this is to step in the truth3 of God; it is opportune, that we transcend to the eternal, most spiritual, and above us by looking towards the First Principle, and this is to be glad in the knowledge (notitia) of God and the reverence of His Majesty.

3. This is therefore the way of three days in the solitude;4 this is the threefold illumination of one day, and the first is as Vespers, the second as morning, the third as midday; this looks back to (respicit) the threefold existence (existentiam) of things, that is in matter, in understanding and in the Eternal Art, according to what is said: Let it be, He has made and it has been made;5 this also looks back to the threefold substance in Christ, who is our Stairway, that is the corporal, the spiritual, and the Divine.

4. According to this threefold progress our mind has three principle powers of sight (aspectus).  One is towards exterior corporals, according to that which is named the animal (animalitas) or the sensory (sensualitas): the other within the self and in the self, according to that which is called the spirit; the third above the self, according to that which is called the mind.  —  From all of which it ought to arrange (disponere) itself to climb thoroughly (conscendendum) into God, to love (diligat) Him with a whole mind, and with a whole heart, and with a whole soul,6 in which consists the perfect observance of the Law and, at the same time with this, Christian wisdom.

5. Moreover since whatever of the aforesaid manners is joined together, according to which one happens (contingit) to consider God as the Alpha and the Omega,7 or inasmuch as one happens to see God in any one of the aforesaid manners (modorum) as through a mirror (per speculum) and as in a mirror (in speculo), or because one of these considerations has to be mixed up (habet commisceri) with the other conjoined with itself, and has to be considered (habet considerari) in its purity; hence it is, that it is necessary, that these three principle steps ascend towards a group of six, so that, as God in six days perfected the entire world (universum mundum) and on the seventh rested; so the microcosm (minor mundum) is itself lead forth in six steps of illumination proceeding upwards (succedentium) in a most ordered manner (ordinatissime) towards the quiet of contemplation.  —  In the figure of which one ascended in six steps towards the throne of Solomon;8 the Seraphim, which Isaiah saw, had six wings; after six days the Lord called Moses from the midst of gloom (caliginis), and Christ after six days, as is said in Matthew, led the disciples unto the mountain and was transfigured before them.

6. Therefore alongside (iuxta) the six steps of ascension into God, there are six steps of the soul's powers (potentiarum) through which we climb thoroughly from the depths towards the heights, from exterior things towards things most interior, from temporal things we ascend together towards eternal, that is the sense, the imagination, the reason, the intellect, the intelligence, and the apex of the mind or the spark of synderesis.9 These steps we have planted (habemus plantatos) in us by nature, deformed by fault, reformed by grace; are to be purged by justice, exercised by knowledge (scientia), perfected by wisdom.

7. For according to the first institution of nature there was created a man fit (homo habilis) for the quiet of contemplation, and for that reason God placed him in the paradise of delights.10 But turning himself away from the true Light towards . . .

1  Chapter 1, § 1.  See below ch. 7, n. 5.  —  The following citation is Ps. 85:11.  Cf. Breviloquium, p. V, chs. 1 and 10.  —  Above this in place of upward-action (sursum-actionis) A D G M have upward-ascension (sursum-ascensionis); the editions read upward-action into God (sursum-actionis in Deum); H K L have of action tending upward into God (sursum tendentis actionis).  Our reading is from B C I K L N P.  Below A D G M and 1, 2 omit  praying (orando).
2  Cf. above Breviloquium, p. II, ch. 12.  —  Below this (twice occurring) in place of aeviternal (aeviterna) not a few codices faultily read eternal (aeterna) (in addition to the Scholium, cf. also Sent., Bk. II, d. 2, p. I, a. 1, q. 1), and in place of we arrive (perveniamus) very many codices have one arrives (perveniatur).
3  Thus A C G L M N; which reading corresponds to the words of the Psalm alluded to above;  the editions have into the truth (in veritatem);  a little above and below this after it is opportune (oportet) trusting the very many and better codices we have twice omitted also (etiam).
4  Ex. 3:18 :  We shall go three days into the solitude (thus do K L even have it), to immolate (a sacrifice) for the Lord Our God.  —  Very many codices omit therefore (igitur).
5  Gen. 1:3 ff.  Cf. above p. 230, footnote 5.
6  Mk. 12:30.  Cf. Mt. 22:37; Lk. 10:27.  —  Above this after the other (alius) A adds according to spiritual (things) (ad spiritualia), and after the third (tertius) together with 1 and 2 it has according to eternal (things) (ad aeterna).  In place of climb thoroughly (conscendendum) very many codices have ascend (ascendenum).
7  Apoc. 1:8.  —  On the difference, which there is between the cognition of God through the mirror of creatures and in the mirror, cf. Sent., Bk. I, d. 3, p. I, q. 3.  —  On the six days of creation see above Breviloquium, Prologue § 2, and part II, ch. 2.  —  Below this in place of one (una) the editions have anyone . . . whatsoever (unaquaque), and in place of ascend (ascendere) very many codices read poorly climb thoroughly (conscendere).
8  3 Kings 10:19.  —  The next refers to Isaiah 6:2; Ex. 26:16, and Mt. 17:1 ff.  After upon the mountain (in montem) the Vulgate adds high above.
9  Cf. De Spiritu et anima (among the works of St. Augustine), ch. 10-14 and 38.  —  Below this in place of exercised (exercendos) L has illumined (illuminandos).
10  Gen. 2:15 according to the Septuagint; the Vulgate has of pleasure (voluptatis) in place of of delights (deliciarum).  —  Concerning Original Sin, cf. Breviloquium, p. III, ch. 5 ff.  The next refers to Tob. 5:12 :  And Tobias said:  What kid of joy shall be mine, who sit in shadows and see not the light of heaven?  —  Above this in place of for (enim) the Vatican text has also (etiam).  Next after but turning itself away (Sed avertens se) K L add from the most high Good (a summo bono).


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the completely changeable good (commutabile bonum), he was himself stooped down through his own fault, and his whole race by Original Sin, which infects human nature in a twofold manner, that is the mind by ignorance, the flesh by concupiscence; so that man thoroughly blinded and stooped down sits in the shadows and does not see the light of Heaven unless grace succors him with justice against his concupiscence, and knowledge with wisdom against his ignorance. Which is entirely (totum) done through Jesus Christ, who has been made for us by God our wisdom and justice and sanctification and redemption.1 Who though He be the Virtue of God and the Wisdom of God, (and though) He be the Incarnate Word full of grace and truth, has wrought grace and truth, that is has infused the grace of charity, which, since it is from a pure heart and a good conscience and an unfeigned faith, rectifies the whole soul according to its own threefold, above-said power of sight (aspectum); He has thoroughly taught the knowledge of the truth according to the threefold manner of theology, that is, the symbolic, the proper, and the mystical, so that through the symbolic we rightly use the sensible, through the proper we rightly use the intelligible, through the mystical we be rapt to super-mental excesses.

8. Therefore it is necessary that he who will to ascend into God, as a nature having avoided the deforming fault, exercise his above-said, natural powers in accord with (ad) reforming grace, and this by praying; in accord with justifying purification and this in comportment (conversatione); in accord with illuminating knowledge and this in meditation; in accord with perfecting wisdom and this in contemplation. Therefore as no one comes to wisdom except through grace, justice, and knowledge; so one does not come2 to contemplation except through perspicacious mediation, holy comportment and devout prayer.  Therefore as grace is the foundation of the rectitude of the will and of the perspicacious brightening of the reason; so at first we must pray, then live holily, third understand by the spectacles of truth and by understanding ascend step-by-step, and come at last to the exalted mountain, where there is seen the God of Gods in Sion.3

9. Since therefore first one is to ascend rather than descend upon Jacob's stair,4 let us situate the first step of ascension at the bottom, by considering (ponendo) this whole world sensible to us as a mirror, through which we pass-over to God, the Most High Artisan, so that we may be true Hebrews passing-over from Egypt to the land promised again-and-again to our Fathers, that we may be also Christians passing-over with Christ from this world to the Father,5 that we may be also lovers (amatores) of wisdom, who calls and says: Pass-over to me all you, who desire (concupiscitis) me, and be filled full by my generations. For from the magnitude of beauty (speciei) and creature the Creator of these things could be familiarly (cognoscibiliter) seen.

10. Moreover the highest power and wisdom and benevolence of the Creator glitters in created things according to that which the sense of the flesh announces in this threefold manner to the interior sense.  For the sense of the flesh either devoutly serves (deservit) the intellect rationally investigating, or faithfully believing, or intellectually contemplating. Contemplating (the intellect) considers the actual existence of things, believing the habitual descent (decursus) of things,6 reasoning (ratiocinans) the potential excellence (praecellentiam) of things.

11. In the first manner the power of sight (aspectus) of the one contemplating, considering the things in themselves (res in se ipsis), sees in them (their) weight, number and measure (mensuram):7  the weight in regard to the position (quoad situm), where they are inclining, the number, by which they are distinguished, and the measure, by which they are limited.  And for this reason it sees in them a standard of measure (modum), a beauty (species), and an order, and also (their) substance, virtue, and activity (operationem). From which it can rise together, as from a vestige, to understand the power, wisdom and immense goodness of the Creator.

12. In the second manner the power of sight of the believer (fidelis), considering this world tends toward (its) origin, descent and end.  For by faith we believe, that the ages have been made ready for the Word of life;8 by faith we believe, that the seasons of the three laws, that is of nature, of Scripture and of grace succeed one another (sibi) and have descended (decurrisse) in a most orderly manner; by faith we believe, that the world must be terminated by a final judgment; adverting in the first to power, in the second to providence, in the third to justice of the Most High Principle.

13. In the third manner the power of sight of the one investigating by reasoning (ratiocinabiliter)9 sees, that certain things only are, moreover that certain things are and live, but that certain things are, live, and discern; and indeed that the first things are the lesser, the second ones the middle, the third the best. — Again it sees, that certain things are only corporal, certain things partly corporal, partly spiritual; from which it adverts, that some are merely spiritual as the better and more worthy of both.  Nevertheless it sees, that certain things are mutable and corruptible, as (are) terrestrial things, certain things are mutable and . . .

1  1 Cor. 1:30.  Ibid., v. 24.  The Apostle calls « Christ the Virtue of God and the Wisdom of God ».  —  Then there is a reference to Jn 1:14.  Ibid., v. 17:  Grace and truth has been wrought through Jesus Christ.  The third citation is 1 Tim. 1:15.
2  The editions with some of the codices have no one comes (nemo venit).
3  Psalm 83:8 :  They shall come from virtue unto virtue, God shall be seen etc..  —  Cf. above p. 297, footnote 1.  —  In place of by the spectacles (spectaculis) 1, 2 have by the mirror (speculo).
4  Gen. 28:12.  Cf. above p. 205, footnote 2.  — Concerning the Hebrews departing Egypt, cf. Exod. 13:3 ff..
5  Jn. 13:1.  —  The following citation is Eccli. 24:26; the Vulgate reads be filled (implemini).  The third citation is Wis. 13:5; the Vulgate has for (enim) in place of for (namque).
6  Cf. above, Breviloquium, Prologue. § 2.
7  A reference to Wis. 11:21; cf. above p. 54, footnote 7.  — On the following, which are explained in Sent., Bk. I, d. 3, p. I, dubium 3, cf. above p. 82, footnote 5; p. 219, footnote 1 and p. 242, footnote 5. — Below this, at can rise together (consurgere potest), G H K L M N preface the spirit (spirit).
8  Heb. 11:3:  by faith we understand that the ages . . . for the Word of God ( E also has of God, C of the God of life ).  Cf. Breviloquium, Prologue  2.  — Above this, in place of of the believer, considering (fidelis, considerans), H has of the one considering faithfully (fideliter considerantis), L has of the believer faithfully, considering (fideliter credentis, considerantis).  Then in place of of the three laws (trium legum) D G M have of the three laws together (trinae legis), and in place of succeed D G K M N have have succeeded, and contrariwise HP have do descend (decurrere) in place of have descended (decurrisse).
9  The editions read investigating of the one reasoning (ratiocinantis investigans);  nearly all the codices have of the man investigating (viri investigantis), K reads of the man reasonably investigating (rationabiliter viri investigantis); which confirms our reading taken from H L.  Below this in place of the middle (media), D G M have mediocre (mediocria); then Q has it gathers, that certain ones (colligit, quaedam) in place of it adverts, that some (advertit, aliqua).



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incorruptible, as (are) celestial things; from which it adverts, that certain things are immutable and incorruptible, as (are) super-celestial things.

From these visible things, therefore, it rises up together to consider the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, as the being (entem), living, understanding, merely spiritual and incorruptible and intransmutable One.1

14. Moreover this consideration broadens according to the septiform condition of creatures, which is the septiform testimony of the divine power and goodness, if the origin, the magnitude, the multitude, the beauty (pulchritude), the plentitude, the operation and the order of all other things would be considered.  —  For the origin of things according to their creation, distinction and embellishment (ornatum), as much as it regards (quantum ad) the works of the six days, foretells the Divine Power, producing all other things from nothing, (the Divine) Wisdom distinguishing all other things lucidly and (the Divine) Goodness adorning all other things with largess.2  —  Moreover the magnitude of things according to the quantity (molem) of their length, breadth and depth; according to the excellence of their virtue extending far, wide, and deeply, as is clear in the diffusion of light; according to the efficacy of their most interior, continual and diffuse activity, as is clear in the activity of fire, manifestly indicates the immensity of the power, wisdom and goodness of the Triune God who in all other things by power, presence (praesentiam) and essence3 exists as One uncircumscribed.  —  Indeed the multitude of things according to their general, special and individual diversity in substance, in form or figure and efficacious beyond every human estimation, manifestly intimates and shows the immensity of the aforesaid three conditions in God.  —  Moreover the exterior beauty4 (pulcritudo) of things according to the variety of their lights, figures and colors in bodies simple, mixed and even connected (complexionatis), as in celestial and mineral bodies, as stones and metals, plants and animals, proclaims in an evident manner the aforesaid three things.  —  Moreover the fullness of things, according to which (secundum quod) matter is full of forms according to seminal reasons;5 form is full of virtue according to active power; virtue is full of effects according to efficiency, manifestly declares the very thing.  —  The manifold (multiplex) activity (of things), according to that which is natural, according to that which is artificial, according to that which is moral, by its most manifold variety shows the immensity of His virtue, art, and goodness, which is for all things « the cause of existing (causa essendi), the reason for understanding and the order of living ».6  —  Moreover their order according to the reckoning (rationem) of duration, situation and influence, that is by prior and posterior, superior and inferior,7 more noble and more ignoble, manifestly intimates in the Book of Creatures the primacy, sublimity and dignity of the First Principle, as much as it regards the infinity of His power; indeed the order of divine laws, precepts, and judgments in the Book of Scripture (intimates) the immensity of His Wisdom; moreover the order of divine Sacraments, benefactions and retributions in the Body of the Church (intimates) the immensity of His Goodness, so that the order itself most evidently leads us by hand (manuducit) to the First and Most High, the Most Powerful, the Most Wise and the Best.

15. Therefore he who is not brightened (illustratur) by such splendors of created things is blind; he who does not awake at such clamors is deaf; he who does not praise God on account of (ex) all these effects is mute; he who does not turn towards (advertit) the First Principle on account of such indications (indiciis) is stupid.  —  Open therefore your eyes, employ your spiritual ears, loose your lips and rouse (appone) your heart,8 to see, hear, praise, love (diligas) and worship (colas), magnify and honor your God in all creatures, lest perhaps the whole circle of the earth rise together against you.  For on this account the circle of the earth will fight against the insensate,9 and against the sensate there will be the matter of glory, who according to the Prophet can say: Thou has loved (delectasti) me, Lord, in what you are to do (factura) and in the works of Thy hands shall I exult. How magnified are Thy works, Lord!  you have made all things in wisdom, the earth is filled with Thy possession.