THE JOURNEY OF THE MIND INTO GOD-BONAVENTURE 201
1. But since concerning the mirror of sensibles not only does it happen that God is contemplated through these as through vestiges, but also in these, inasmuch as He is in them through His Essence, Power, and Presence; and this is to consider Him higher10 than before (praecedens); for that reason a consideration of this kind holds second place as the second step of contemplation, by which we ought . . .
1 Cf. Sent., Bk. I, the text of Master (Peter), d. 3, ch. 1, and (St. Bonaventure’s) Commentary, p. I, dubium 1. — In place of being (entem) A has existing (existentem).
2 See Breviloquium, p. II, chs. 1 and 2.
3 Cf. above p. 214, footnote 3. — In place of things (rebus) the editions have creatures (creatures).
4 The definition of pulchritude is given in the following chapter, n. 5.
5 See Sent., Bk. II, d. 7, p. II, a. 2, q. 1, and d. 18, a. 1, q. 2 ff. In a similar manner there is said in the Liber de Causis, proposition 10: Every intelligence is full of forms. — In place of according to which (secundum quod) D F G M have according to which (secundum quam), and below this in place of efficiency (efficientiam) A C D E I K L M N have efficacy (efficaciam).
6 According to (St.) Augustine, De civ. Dei, Bk. VIII, ch. 4, alluded to above on p. 19, footnote 7. Cf. also above p. 12, footnote 7.
7 See above p. 179, footnote 9, for the definition of order taken from (St.) Augustine. Cf. also Aristotle, On the Predicaments, ch. On the first. — Concerning the Book of Creatures see Breviloquium, p. II, ch. 3 ff. and ch. 11; concerning the other books see ibid., Prologue 1 ff. and p. VI, ch. 1. — The words that is by prior . . . and more ignoble are omitted (and this is sufficiently probable) by most of the codices, among which are B P, but not A. Below this the Vatican edition omits sublimity and dignity (sublimitatem et dignitatem); at the words the immensity of His wisdom (immensitatem sapientiae) G K L M N insert show (ostendit).
8 Prov. 22:17: Incline Thy ear and hear the words of the wise; rouse (your) heart to My doctrine. — Below this in place of the whole (totus) the editions and very many codices have the universal (universus), and in place of rise together (consurgat) C and editions 1, 2, have rise up (insurgat).
9 Wis. 5:21. — The following citation is Ps. 91:5, the third is Ps. 103:24.
10 H O have and this consideration is higher (et haec consideration est altior).
to be lead by hand to contemplate God in all other creatures, which enter our minds through bodily senses.
2. Therefore it must be noted, that this world of ours, which is called a macrocosm, enters our soul, which is called a microcosm (minor mundus),1 through the gates of the five senses, according to their apprehension, enjoyment (oblectationem) and dijudication of these sensible (images). — Which is thus clear: because in it certain things are generating, certain things generated, certain thing governing the former and the latter (haec et illa). — The things generating are the simple bodies, that is, the celestial bodies and the four elements. For from the elements by virtue of a light unifying (conciliantis) the contrariety of elements in mixtures there have been generated and produced, whatever are generated and produced by the activity of natural virtue. — But the things generated are the bodies composed from the elements, as minerals, vegetables, sensibles and human bodies.2 — The things ruling the former and the latter are the spiritual substances whether entirely conjoined, as are the brute animals, or conjoined in a separable manner (separabiliter), as are the rational spirits, or conjoined in an inseparable manner (inseparabiliter), as are the celestial spirits, whom the philosophers name Intelligences, we the Angels. To whom according to philosophers it pertains (competit) to move the celestial bodies, and for this reason to them there is attributed the administration of the universe, taking up (suscipiendo) from the First Cause, that is from God, the influence of virtue, which they pour back according to the work of governing, which respects (respicit) the natural consistency of things. Moreover according to theologians there is attributed to these same the control (regimen) of the universe according to the Empire of the Most High God as much as regards the works of reparation, according to what is called the spirits of administration, sent on account of those who are seizing the inheritance of salvation.3
3. Man therefore, who is called the microcosm, has five senses like five gates, through which acquaintance with (cognitio) all things, which are in the sensible world, enters into his soul. For through vision there enters bodies sublime and luminous and all the other colored things, but through touch bodies solid and terrestrial, indeed through the three intermediary senses there enters intermediary things, as through taste liquids (aquea), through hearing gases (aërea), through smell vapors (vaporabilia), which have something of the humid nature, something of the gaseous (aërea), something of the fiery (ignea) or hot (nature), as is clear in the smoke released from aromatics (aromatibus).4
Therefore there enters through these gates both simple bodies and also composite ones, from these (which are) mixed. But because in sensing (sensu) we perceive not only these particular sensibles, which are light, sound, odor, taste and the four primary qualities, which apprehend (our) touch; but also the common sensibles, which are number, magnitude, figure, rest and movement (motus); both « all, which is moved is moved by another »,5 and certain things are moved by themselves and rest, as are the animals: while through those five senses we apprehend the movements of bodies, we are lead by hand towards acquaintance with spiritual movers as through an effect towards acquaintance with its causes.
4. Therefore there enters, as much as regards three genera of things, into the human soul through apprehension, that whole sensible world. Moreover these exterior sensibles are those which at first step into the soul through the gates of the five senses; they enter, I say, not through substances, but through their similitudes at first generated in the midst and from the midst, in the organ and from the exterior organ, in the interior, and from this into the apprehensive power;6 and thus the generation of the species in the midst and from the midst in the organ and the conversion of the apprehensive power over it causes (facit) the apprehension of all these which the soul apprehends exteriorly.
5. To this apprehension, if it belongs to something agreeable (rei convenientis), there follows enjoyment (oblectatio).7 Moreover the sense takes delight (delectatur) in the object perceived through the abstract similitude and/or (vel) by reason of its beauty (speciositatis), as in sight, and/or by reason of its savor, as in smell and hearing, and/or by reason of its wholesomeness (salubritatis), as in taste and touch, respectively (appropriate loquendo). Moreover, every delectation is by reason of its proportionality. But since the species holds the reason for the form, virtue and activity, according to which it has a looking-back (respectum) to the beginning, from which it flows (manat), to the middle, through which it passes-over, and to the end, in which it acts; for that reason proportionality either is tended towards in similitude, according to which it accounts (habet rationem) for the species or form, and so is called beauty (speciositas), because « beauty (pulchritudo) is nothing other than numeric (numerosa) equality », or « a certain placement (situs) of parts . . .
1 In this proposition to this world of ours (iste mundus) the editions add sensible (sensibilis), and after macrocosm the Vatican edition together with the more recent editions has that is the wide world (id est longus mundus), and before microcosm (minor mundus) again the editions have microcosm, that is (microcosmos, id est). Below this in place of governing (gubernatia) the editions have ruling (regentia).
2 Cf. Breviloquium, p. II, chs. 3 and 4. — Immediately after this in place of the things ruling (Regentia) A has the things governing (gubernantia), and in place of rational spirits (spiritus rationales) the editions read rational souls (animae rationales).
3 Heb. 1:14. The Vulgate after spirits (spiritus) adds to minister (in ministerium) and substitutes will seize (capient) for are seizing (capiunt). Cf. Sent., Bk. II, d. 10 and 11. Ibid., d. 14, p. I, a. 3. deals with the Intelligences.
4 See above p. 227, footnote 5. — Of sensibles, proper or particular, and those common (that is, to more than one sense) Aristotle deals in De anima, Bk. II, text 63 ff. (ch. 6). Concerning the four primary qualities (that is, hot, cold, wet, dry) cf. above p. 221, footnote 1. — Above this in place of all the other colored things (cetera colorata) P has colored bodies (corpora colorata).
5 According to Aristotle, Physics, Bk. VII, text 1 ff.. Ibid., Bk. VIII, text 27 ff. (ch. 4) deals with the movement of living things. — Then in place of by themselves (a se ipsis) the editions and very many codices have according to themselves (se ipsis); but in Aristotle there is read: Moreover of those, which through themselves (are moved), some indeed by themselves (????????), but others by another.
6 For, the sensible apprehensive power is divided into the exterior and the interior; the former comprehends the five exterior senses, but the latter the common sense, imagination (fantasy), the estimative and the memory. — The Vatican edition faultily reads in the apprehensive power (in potential apprehensiva). Cf. (St.) Augustine, De Trinitate, Bk. XI, ch. 9, n. 16, and Aristotle, De anima, Bk. II, text 121 ff. and 136 ff. (ch. 7 ff.) and De sensu et sens., ch. 7 (ch. 6). — Above this to in the organ (in organo) the editions add exterior (exeriori)
7 For indeed delectation is defined as: the conjunction of the convenient with the convenient. Cf. tome I, p. 38, footnote 4, and tome IV, p. 391, footnote 3, where there will be taught, that delectation properly consists in the action consequent to this conjunction.
together with the savor of color ».1 Or proportionality is tended towards, inasmuch as it accounts (habet rationem) for power or virtue, and so is called savor, when the acting virtue does not improportionately exceed the recipient; because sense is saddened in extremes and takes delight in means.2 Or it is tended towards, inasmuch as it accounts for efficacy and impression, which is then proportional, when the agent in impressing fills full the indigence of the one being impressed (patientis), and this is to save and feed itself, which most appears in taste and touch. And in this manner, through enjoyment, exterior delectables, according to the threefold reason for taking delight, enter into the soul through similitude.
6. After this apprehension and enjoyment there is caused (fit) dijudication, by which not only is it distinguished (diiudicatur), whether this be white, and/or black, because this pertains (pertinet) to the particular3 sense; not only, whether it be wholesome, and or noxious (nocivum), because this pertains to interior sense; but also, because there is distinguished and an account (rationem) is rendered, why it takes delight in this; and in this act one inquires for (inquiritur de) a reason for the delectation, which in the sense is perceived from the object. This is moreover, when the reason for the beautiful (pulcri), savory and wholesome is sought: and one finds (invenitur) that this is the proportion of equality. Moreover, the reason for equality is the same in great things and in small, and it neither is extended in dimensions nor succeeds or passes-over with those things passing-over nor is it altered by movements. Therefore it abstracts (abstrahit) from place, time and movement, and for this reason it is thoroughly unchangeable (incommutabilis), uncircumscribable and entirely spiritual.4 Dijudication, therefore, is an action, which causes (facit) the sensible species, accepted sensibly through sense, to go into the intellective power by purifying (depurando) and abstracting (it). And in this manner this whole world of ours has to go into (introire habet) the human soul through the gates of the senses according to the three aforesaid activities.
7. Moreover all these are vestiges, in which we gaze upon (speculari) Our God. — For since the species apprehended be a similitude born in the midst and then impressed upon the organ itself and through that impression leads into its beginning, that is into the object with which one is to become acquainted; it manifestly intimates, that that One who is the invisible image of God and the splendor of His glory and the figure of His substance,6 who is everywhere by His first generation , as an object in the center (toto medio) generates its own similitude, is united by the grace of union, as a species to the bodily organ, to an individual of rational nature, to lead us back through that union to the Father as to the fontal Beginning and Object. Therefore as all things with which one can become acquainted have to generate (habet generare) their own species, they manifestly proclaim, that in them as in mirrors can be seen the eternal generation of the Word, the Image and Son eternally emanating from God the Father.
8. According to this manner (of speaking) the species giving delight (delectans) as one beautiful (speciosa), savory and wholesome, intimates, that in that first Species there is prime Beauty (speciositas), Savor and Wholesomeness, in which there is most high proportionality and equality to the One generating; in which there is unstaining (illabens) Virtue, not through phantasm, but through the truth of apprehension: in which there is saving impression, both expelling substitutes (sufficientes) and every indigence of apprehension. If therefore « delectation is a conjunction of agreeable (convenientis) to agreeable »;7 and solely the similitude of God accounts most highly for the beautiful (speciosi), savory and the wholesome; and it is united according to truth and interiority (intimitatem) and a fullness filling full every capacity: it can manifestly be seen, that in God alone there is fontal and true Delectation, and that we are lead by hand to require that from (ex) all delectations.
9. Moreover, by a more excellent and immediate manner dijudication leads us to gaze upon (in speculandam) Eternal Truth with more certainty (certius). For if dijudication has occurred (fieri) through reason abstracting from place, time and mutability and for this reason from dimension, succession and transmutation, through immutable and uncircumscribable and interminable reason;8 nothing however is entirely immutable, uncircumscribable and interminable, except what is eternal; everything however which is eternal, . . .
1 This twofold definition of beauty is taken from (St.) Augustine, De musica, Bk. VI, ch. 13, n. 38 (cf. tome I, p. 544, footnote 8), and De civ. Dei, Bk. XXII, ch. 19, n. 2, where in place of a certain placement of parts (quidam partium situs) there is substituted a congruence of parts (partium congruentia) (cf. tome IV, p. 1025, footnote 3).
2 See Aristotle, De anima, Bk. II, texts 123 and 143, and Bk. III, text 7 (Bk. II, ch. 12, and Bk. III, chs, 2 and 4). — Then at is attended to (attenditur) the editions repeat proportionality as the subject, and below this after And in this manner (Et sic) they add it appears, how (apparet, quomodo).
3 The editions, excepting 1, have exterior (exteriorem). According to the manner of speaking of the Scholastics this twofold reading is acceptable; cf. John of Rupella, Summa de Anima, p. II, ch. 18 and 23; Centiloquium (among the works of St. Bonaventure), p. III, section 21: The apprehensive (sensible power) is divided into the particular sense and the common sense, or into the exterior and interior sense.
4 O P read and for that reason spiritual (et ideo spiritualis). — (St.) Augustine explains this in De Vera Religione, ch. 30, n. 56 ff., from which certain passages have been taken above on p. 17, footnote 3. — Below this the Vatican edition and the more recent editions faultily have by pruning (deputando) in place of by purifying (depurando); before senses (sensum) the editions add five (quinque).
5 The editions have leads forth (deducat).
6 Col. 1:15 and Heb. 1:3. With the Vulgate and the better codices we have omitted and the similitude (et similitudo) after the image (imago). — The phrase cited below is united to an individual of rational nature (unitur individuo rationalis naturae) is explained in Sent., Bk. III, d. 10, a. 1, q. 3. — In place of a species upon a corporal organ (species corporali organo) A has as a species of a body (species corporis), H K L M P as a corporal species (species corporalis), upon an organ. Cf. Sent., Bk. I, d. 27, p. II, q. 4.
7 Cf. above p. 300, footnote 7. — (St.) Augustine, De Vera Religione, ch. 18, n. 35 ff. and ch. 43, n. 81, and 83 Questions, q. 23, speaking of the Similitude of the Father, i.e. of the Son of God, says: For It is the first Species, according to which they have been, as I will thus explain, speciated, and the Form, according to which all things have been formed. See also above p. 12, footnote 7, and p. 33, footnote 5. — Below this after true Delectation C adds certain things, a summary of which is as follows: if the sweetness in a creature is so great, how great shall it be in the Creator Himself, which, since we do not yet see it, we are lead by hand to require from all delectations.
8 The codices almost as one substitute this with and incorruptible (et incorruptibilem), and then the majority of them omit uncircumscribable and interminable (inscircumscriptibile et interminabile), and a little further (below on p. 302) indistinguishably (indiiudicabiliter), incommutably, unconfinably (incoartabiliter), interminably.
is God, and/or in God: if therefore all things, however more certainly we distinguish (diiudicamus) them, we distinguish through reason of this kind; it is clear, that He Himself is the Reason for all things and the infallible Rule and the Light of truth, in which all other things glitter infallibly, indelibly, undoubtedly, unbreakably, indistinguishably (indiiudic-abiliter), thoroughly unchangeably, unconfinably, interminably, indivisibly, and intellectually. And for that reason those laws, through which we judge with certainty (certitudinaliter) concerning all sensibles, coming into our consideration; although they are infallible and indubitable by the intellect of the one apprehending (them), indelible from the memory of the one recalling (them) as things always present, unbreakable and indistinguishable by the intellect of the one judging (them), because, as (St.) Augustine says « no one judges from them, but through them »: it is necessary, that they be thoroughly unchangeable and incorruptible as necessaries, unconfinable as uncircumscribed, interminable as eternals, and for this reason indivisible as intellectual and incorporeal (beings), not made, but uncreated, eternally existing in the Eternal Art, from which, through which and according to which all shapely (formosa) things are formed; and for that reason they cannot be with certainty judged except through That which was not only producing all other forms, but also conserving and distinguishing (distinguens) all others, as the Being (ens) holding the form in all things and the Rule directing (them), and That through which our mind distinguishes (diiudicat) all others, which enter into itself through the senses.2
10. Moreover this speculation broadens according to the consideration of seven differences of numbers, by which as by seven steps one climbs thoroughly into God, according to that which (St.) Augustine (says) in his book De Vera Religione and in its sixth (chapter) Musicae,3 where he assigns differences of numbers climbing step-by-step (gradatim) thoroughly from these sensibles unto the Artisan of all, so that God is seen in all (of them).
For he says, that numbers are in bodies and most in sounds and voices, and these he names notes (sonantes); that numbers (have been) abstracted from these and received in our senses, and these he names messages (occursores); numbers (are) proceeding from the soul into the body, as is clear in gesticulations and gestured-movements (saltationibus), and these he names instructions (progressors); that (there are) numbers in the delectations of the sense from the conversion of intention over the species received, and these he names sensations (sensuales); that numbers (have been) retained in the memory, and these he calls memories (memoriales); that (there are) even numbers, through which we judge concerning all these things, and these he names judgments (iudiciales), which as has been said are necessarily above the mind as infallibles and indistinguishables. By these, moreover, there are impressed upon our minds artificial numbers, which nevertheless (St.) Augustine does not enumerate among those steps, because they have been connected with judgments; and from these flow the number-instructions, from which are created numerous forms of crafts (artificiatorum), so that from most high things through middle things towards the lowest things an ordered descent comes into being (fiat). Towards these we also ascend step-by-step by numbers (that are) notes, intervening (mediantibus) messages, sensations, and memories.
Therefore since all things are beautiful (pulcra) and in a certain manner delectable; and beauty and delectation are not apart from proportion; and proportion is first in numbers: it is necessary, that all things be numerous; and for this reason « number is the foremost (praecipuum) exemplar in the mind (animo) of the Founder »5 and in things the foremost vestige leading to Wisdom. Because when (this vestige) is most evident to all and closest to God, it most closely as through seven differences leads into God and causes (facit) Him to be cognized in all other corporal and sensible things, while we apprehend (things) numerous, we take delight in numerous proportions and judge most securely (irrefragabiliter) by means of (per) laws of numerous proportions.
11. From these two first steps, by which we are lead by hand to gaze upon God in (His) vestiges as after the manner of the two wings descending about the feet (of the Seraphim),6 we can gather, that all creatures of this sensible world lead the spirit (animum) of the one contemplating and tasting (sapientis) (them) into the eternal God, for the reason (pro eo) that of that First Principle most powerful, most wise and best, of that eternal Origin, Light, and Fullness, of that, I say, Art efficient, exemplary (exemplantis) and ordering (ordinantis) there are shadows, resonances (resonantia) and pictures, there are vestiges, likenesses (simulacra) and spectacles divinely given to us as first premises of a syllogism (proposita) and signs to survey God (ad contuendum Deum)7; which, I say, are exemplary and/or rather exemplified (exemplata), proposed to minds still rough and sensible, to be transferred through the sensibles, which they see, to the intelligibles, which they do not see, as through signs to things signified (signata).
12. Moreover, these manner of creatures of this sensible world signify the invisible things of God,8 partly because God . . .
1 De Libero Arbitrio, Bk. II, ch. 14, n. 38 (cf. above p. 17, footnote 4.) and De Vera Religione, ch. 31, n. 58 (cf. tome I, p. 69, note 12). — Below this very many codices omit the words eternally existing (aeternaliter existens) . . . and for that reason (et ideo) inclusive. The Vatican edition together with edition 3 and 4 in place of all shapely things (formosa omnia) substitutes all beautiful and/or shapely things (speciosa omnia vel formosa)
2 These are shown at greater length above in the Questions concerning the Knowledge of Christ, q. 4. — After the Rule directing (regula dirigens) not a few codices omit and (et). 3 Throughout. In De Vera Religione this is touched upon in chs. 40-44, nn. 74-82. Cf. De Libero Arbitrio, Bk. II, ch. 8, nn. 20-25 and ch. 16, n. 41 ff. — Above this after Moreover this (Haec autem) very many codices proceed as follows: consideration broadens according to the seven differences of spiritual numbers, by which (as) through steps one ascends completely into God (consideratio dilatatur secundum septem differentias spiritualium numerorum, quibus per gradus conscenditur in Deum).
4 E I Q I read they are caused (causantur), A has procreated and/or caused (procreantur vel causantur). Below this in place of we ascend (ascendimus) the Vatican edition, and 3 and 4, have let us ascend (ascendamus), and before the word sensations (sensuales) put instructions (progressores). 5 As Boethius says, cited above on p. 41, footnote 6. Cf. also p. 221, footnote 3. — Below this a majority of the codices omit most closely (propinquissime), and then substitute to be acknowledged (agnosci) in place of to be cognized (cognosci). Before the word numerous (numerosis) we have placed in (in) following B D I P, the other more numerous codices have and . . . in (et in); both are lacking in the editions.
6 A reference to Isaiah 6:2, where of the Seraphim it is said, that by « with two » wings « they veiled his feet ». After of the two wings (duarum alarum) I adds of the Cherubim (Cherubim). 7 D F K L M have to contemplate God (ad contemplandum Deum). Then in place of examples (exempla) we have from C substituted exemplified (exemplata), and in place of be transferred (transferantur) A has pass-over (transeant) (very many codices badly have instead be transformed (transformetur)). 8 A reference to Rom. 1:20. See a little further below n. 13. — On the following matters cf. Breviloquium, p. I, ch. 5 ; p. II., ch. 1, and p. VI, ch. 1 ff. On the ministry of the Angels in the apparition see Sent., Bk. I, d. 16, q. 1 in corp., and Sent. Bk. II, d. 10, a. 3, q. 2 ad 6.
is the Origin, Exemplar and End, of every creature, and (because) every effect is a sign of a cause, and an example (exemplatum) of an exemplar, and a way for the end, towards which it leads: partly from its own representation; partly from a prophetic prefiguration; partly from angelic activity; partly from a superadded institution. For every creature by its nature (ex natura) is a certain likeness and similitude of that eternal Wisdom, but especially that which has been employed (assumpta est) in the book of Scripture through the spirit of prophecy for the prefiguration of spiritual things; moreover, more especially those creatures, in the likeness of which God has willed to appear by angelic ministry; but most especially that which1 He willed to institute for signification (ad significandum), which not only has a reckoning of ‘sign’ in the common sense of the word (secundum nomen commune), but also that of ‘Sacrament’.
13. From all of which is gathered, that the invisible things of God from the creatures of the world, through those which have been made, are perceived as things understood (intellecta); so that those who do not want to advert to these and to acquaint themselves with, bless and love God in all these are inexcusable,2 so long as (dum) they do not want to be transferred from darkness into the admirable light of God. But thanks to God through Jesus Christ, Our Lord, who has transferred us from darkness into His own admirable light, while through these lights given exteriorly to the mirror (speculum) of our mind in which divine things glitter, we dispose (ourselves) to reenter (it).
CHAPTER III: ON THE SIGHT OF GOD THROUGH HIS IMAGE MARKED UPON NATURAL POWERS
1. Moreover, since the two aforesaid steps, by leading us into God through His vestiges, though which He glitters in all other creatures, has lead us by hand even unto this, to reenter ourselves, that is our mind, in which the Divine Image glitters; hence it is that already in the third place, entering our very selves and as if relinquishing the outer entrance hall (atrium forinsecus), in the Holies,3 that is in the anterior part of the Tabernacle, we ought to begin to see God as through a mirror (per speculum); where after the manner of a candlestick the Light of Truth glitters upon the face of our mind, in which, that is, the Image of the Most Blessed Trinity is reflected (resplendet).
Enter therefore into yourself and see, that your mind most fervently loves (amat) itself; nor would it be able to love itself, unless it knew itself (nosset); nor would it know itself, unless it remembered itself, because we seize nothing through our understanding (intelligentiam), that is not present among (apud) our memory; and from this you advert, that your soul has a threefold power, not in the eye of the flesh, but in the eye of the reason.4 Consider, therefore, the activities and characteristics (habitudines) of these three powers, and you will already be able (poteris) to see God through yourself as through an image, which is to see (Him) through a mirror in mystery (per speculum in aenigmate).
2. Moreover the activity of the memory is the retention and representation not only of things present, corporal and temporal, but also of things successive (succendentium), simple and sempiternal. For the memory retains things past (praeterita) through remembrance, things present through capture (susceptionem), things future through foresight (praevisionem). It also retains simple things, like the principles of continuous and discrete quantities,5 such as (ut) point, presence (instans) and unity, without which it is impossible to remember or think of those things which are derived (principiantur) by means of them. Nevertheless it retains the principles and axioms (dignitates) of the sciences, as sempiternal things and in a sempiternal manner, because it can never so forget them, while it uses reason, it on the contrary (quin) approves those things heard and assents to them, perceives (them) not as from something new, but recognizes (recognoscat) them as things innate and familiar to itself; as is clear, if one propose to anyone (a statement of this kind): « The affirmation and/or negation of anything »; and/or « Every whole is greater than its part », and/or whatever other axiom, of which there is no contradiction (contradicere) « according to its internal reckoning ».6
Therefore from the first, actual retention of all temporal things, that is of all things past, present, and future, it has a likeness to eternity, whose indivisible presence extends itself to all times. From the second it appears, that it not only has to be itself formed from the exterior through phantasms, but also from the superior by taking up simple forms, which cannot not enter through the gates of the senses and the fantasies of sensibles.7 From the third is had, . . .
1 Codices A B H L M N have the plural which (quae).
2 Rom. 1:29. — The following text is 1 Cor. 15:57; the third is 1 Pt. 2:9, where in place of He has transferred (transtulit) the Vulgate has He has called (vocavit). — In place of to acquaint themselves with (cognoscere) very many codices have acknowledge (agnoscere).
3 Cf. Ex. ch. 26, where the Tabernacle Moses constructed is described; in vv. 34 and 35 mention is made of the Holy of Holies and of the candlesticks. — Ps. 4:7 : Signed upon us is the Light of Thy Face, O Lord. (Pope St.) Gregory (the Great), Moralia, Bk. X, ch. 15, n. 27: Indeed, the internal face of a man is his mind, in which undoubtedly we recognize, that we are loved by our Author.
4 Cf. (St.) Augustine, De Trinitate, Bks. IX and X (see Sent., Bk. I, d. 3, p. II). — On the eye of the flesh and that of the reason, cf. above Breviloquium, p. II, ch. 12 at the end. — Below there is quote from 1 Cor. 13:12. — Above in place of into yourself (ad te) very many codices have into yourself (in te), 1 and 2 have toward yourself and into yourself (ad te et in te). Then in place of that (quoniam) A has how much (quantum), D G in what manner (quo modo), and in place of understanding (intellegentiam) G M have intellect (intellectum).
5 See Aristotle, De Praedicamenta, ch. On Quantity, where under continuous quantity there is enumerated line, surface, body, place and time; under discrete number and discourse (oratio). — In what manner the memory is a foreseeing of future things, (St.) Augustine expounds in De Trinitate, Bk. XV, ch. 7, n. 13: And we do not conjecture past things from future ones, but future ones from ones past, not however by a firm cognition . . .. That we may foresee, it is not foresight (providentia) that instructs us, but memory etc.. — Below this in place of while we use reason (dum ratione utamur) the editions and some of the codices read so long as we use reason (dummodo ratione utamur).
6 As Aristotle says in Posterior Analytics, Bk. I, ch. 8 (ch. 10), opposing another term to this saying, scil. « according to its exterior discourse ?????? ???? ???? ?????? », against which it is always licit to bring another instance (cf. tome I, p. 155, footnote 10). The Vatican edition, 3 and 4, together with very many codices add is admitted by reason (admittitur ratione). — The first proposition: the affirmation and/ or negation etc., is cited by Aristotle, Metaphysics, Bk. IV, text. 15, (Bk. III, ch. 4); the second is gathered from Metaphysics, Bk. V, text 30 ff. (Bk. IV, ch. 25 ff.). — For the words placed before this: « on the contrary it approves those things », etc. refer to the definition cited from Boethius and cited above on p. 79, in footnote 6, of a concept common to the mind, of which according to Euclid, Geometry, Bk. I, (one such) is: Every whole is greater than its part (n. 9).
7 Cf. Sent., Bk. II, d. 39, a. 1, q. 2 at the end, and Bk. IV, d. 49, p. I, q. 2, ad 1-3. — Concerning the following proposition see above Questions regarding the Knowledge of Christ, q. 4.
that it has itself a thoroughly unchangeable light present to itself, in which it remembers the truth of invariables. And thus through the activities of memory it appears, that the soul itself is an image and similitude of God, to this extent, that present to itself and having Him present, it seizes Him by act and through power « it is capable of Him and can be a participant » (in Him).1
3. Moreover the activity of intellective virtue belongs to the intellect in the perception of terms, propositions, and illations. Moreover the intellect seizes the things signified by terms, when it comprehends, what each thing (unumquodque) is by definition. But definition has to occur through things superior, and these latter have to be defined by things superior, until one comes to things supreme and most general, which when ignored (ignoratis), inferiors cannot be definitively understood.2 Therefore unless one become acquainted with what being (ens) is per se, there cannot be fully a definition of anything of a special substance. Nor can one become acquainted with being per se, unless one become acquainted with it together with (cum) its conditions, which are: the one, the true, the good. Moreover being, when it can be thought of (cogitari) as diminished and complete, as imperfect and as perfect, as being in potency and as being in act, as being secundum quid and as being simply-speaking, as partly being (ens in parte) and wholly being (ens totaliter), as transient being and as stable being (ens manens), as being through another and as being through itself (per se), as being commingled with a non-being (permixtum non-enti) and as pure being, as dependent being and as absolute being, as posterior being and as prior being, as mutable being and as immutable being, as simple being and as composite being: since « its privations and defects can be in nowise be cognized except through its positions »,3 our intellect does not come to resolve (venit ut resolvens) fully the understanding of any of the created beings, unless it be aided by the understanding of the most pure, most actual, most complete and absolute Being; which is Being simply and eternal, in which there are reasons for all things in its purity. Moreover, in what manner does the intellect know (sciret), that this being is defective and incomplete, if it has no acquaintance with the Being apart from any fault? And thus concerning the other things already touched upon (praelibatis).
Moreover the intellect is said next to truly comprehend the understanding of propositions, when it knows (scit) with certitude, that they are true; and to know this is to know, since it cannot fail in its comprehension. For it knows, that that truth cannot otherwise be regarded (se habere); therefore it knows, that that truth is not thoroughly changeable. But since our mind itself is thoroughly changeable, it cannot see that (truth) glittering in so thoroughly an unchangeable manner unless through another light radiating entirely in a thoroughly unchangeable manner, which cannot possibly be (impossible est esse) a mutable creature. Therefore it knows it in that Light, which illumines every man coming into this world, which is the True Light and the Word in the beginning with God.4
But our intellect next truly perceives the understanding of an illation, when it sees, that the conclusion follows necessarily from the premises; because not only does it see in necessary terms, but also in contingents, as, if a man run, a man is moved. Moreover it perceives this necessary characteristic not only in things existing (rebus entibus), but also in non-existing ones. For as, with man existing, it follows: if man runs, man is moved; so also, (when) non-existing. Therefore the necessity of an illation of this manner does not come from the existence of a thing in matter, because this is contingent, nor from existence of a thing in the soul, because this then would be a fiction, if did not exist (esset) in the thing: therefore it comes from the exemplarity in the Eternal Art, according to which the thing has an aptitude and characteristic alternatively (ad invicem) according to the Eternal Art's representation of it. Therefore, as (St.) Augustine says in De Vera Religione,5 the light of everyone who reasons truly is enkindled by that Truth and exerts itself (nititur) to arrive at It. — From which it manifestly appears, that our intellect has been conjoined to Eternal Truth itself, while it cannot with certitude seize a truth except by means of that One teaching it. Therefore you can see through yourself the Truth, which teaches you, if concupiscences and fantasies do not impede you and do not interpose themselves as clouds between you and the ray of Truth.
4. Moreover the activity of elective virtue is tended towards in counsel, judgment and desire. — Moreover counsel is in inquiring, what be better, this or that. But it is not called better unless through access to the best; however access is according to the greater assimilation:6 therefore no one knows whether this be better than that, unless he knows, that it is more assimilated to the best. However, no one . . .
1 (St.) Augustine, De Trinitate, Bk. XIV, ch. 8, n. 11.
2 According to Aristotle, Topics, Bk. VI, ch. 3 (ch. 4). Cf. also Porphyry’s, De Praedicabilibus, ch. de Specie, from which above on p. 71, in footnote 3, certain things have been cited. — On the conditions of being see above p. 215, footnote 1.
3 Averroes, in De Anima, Bk. III, text 25, says: And universally all privations are not cognized except through their contraries, scil. through the cognition of the habit and through the cognition of the defect of the habit. Cf. tome III, p. 802, footnote 8, and above p. 19, footnote 8. — The reckonings of things in God are dealt with above in the Questions concerning the Knowledge of Christ, q. 2 ff.. — Many codices, and editions 1 and 2, have position (positionem).
4 Jn 1:1,9. See above Questions concerning the Knowledge of Christ, q. 4. — In place of in that Light (in illa luce) D G H K L M N have that Light (illam lucem).
5 Chapter 39, n 72: Don’t go outside, return into yourself, in the interior man does truth dwell; and if you find that your nature is mutable, transcend even your very self. But remember, when you transcend yourself, to transcend your reasoning soul. Therefore tend there, where the light of reason itself is kindled. For where does every good reasoner arrive except at the truth? since to reason itself truth does not indeed arrive by reasoning, but where those reasoning hunger for it, it is there. In place of Every (omnis) D F G H K L M have the neuter form every (omne: which would render the passage, every light of one reasoning truly),and in place of reasoning truly (vere ratiocinantis) D F G M true reason (verae rationis). — This doctrine concerning to the threefold activity of intellective virtue is quoted nearly word for word by Fr. Matthew of Aquasparta, Disputed Questions, q. 1, in corp., edited by us in the short work: de Humanae cognitios ratione (p. 98 ff.); where it must be noted that in the same work there is a preface against Ontologism. — Above this in place of because this is (quia est) and because this then (quia tunc) not a few codices have which is (quae est) and which then (quae tunc).
6 Aristotle, Metaphysics, Bk. IV, text 18 (Bk. III, ch. 4): The (notion of) more and less itself is in the nature of beings . . . If therefore what is more is closer (to perfection), indeed there will be some truth, for which ‘what is closer is that which is more true’.
knows, that anything is assimilated more to another, unless he becomes acquainted with it; for not I do not know (scio), that this is like Peter, unless I know (sciam) or become acquainted with Peter; therefore upon everyone giving (true) counsel there is necessarily impressed the notion of the Most High Good.1
Moreover certain judgment (iudicium certum) concerning those things able to be counseled (de consiliabilibus) is through some law. However no one judges with certainty through law, unless he be certain that that law is upright (recta), and that one ought not judge it; but our mind judges about (de) its very self: therefore since it cannot judge about the law, through which it judges; that law is superior to our mind, and it judges through this, according to that which is impressed upon itself. However nothing is superior to the human mind, except the One alone who made it:2 therefore in judging our deliberative (power) extends itself to divine laws, if it would give a full explanation (plena resolutione dissolvat).
Moreover desire is principally for that which most moves it. However that moves most which loves most; however to be blessed is loved most; however to be blessed is not had except through the best and last end: therefore human desire seeks after (appetit) nothing except because (it is) the Most High Good, and/or because it is for That, and/or because it has come likeness to It. So great is the force of the Most High Good, that nothing can be loved by a creature except through a desire for It, which (creature) thereby (tunc) fails and errs, since it accepts a likeness and imitation (simulacrum) in place of the Truth (pro veritate).3
Therefore see, in what manner the soul is nigh to God, and in what manner the memory leads into eternity, the intelligence into Truth, the elective power into the Most High Goodness according to their activities.
5. Moreover according to the order and origin and characteristic of these powers (the soul) leads into the Most Blessed Trinity Itself. For from memory there arises intelligence as its offspring (proles), because we next understand, when the similitude, which is in the memory, resounds in the keenness (resultat in acies) of the intellect, which (similitude) is nothing other than a word; from memory and intelligence is spirated love (amor) as the connection (nexus) of both. These three, that is the generating mind, the word, and love, are in the soul in regard to the memory, intelligence and the will, which are consubstantial, coeternal and coeval, marching round-about (circumincedentes) one another.4 Therefore if the perfect god is a spirit, he has memory, intelligence and will, he has also a begotten word and a spirated love, which are necessarily distinguished, since one is produced from the other, not essentially, not accidentally, therefore personally.
Therefore while the mind considers its very self, through itself as through a mirror it rises together to gaze upon the Blessed Trinity of the Father, the Word and the Love, of the three coeternal, coequal and consubstantial Persons, so that Whoever in Whomever belongs to the Others, One is nevertheless not the Other, but the Three are Themselves the One God.
6. Towards this speculation which the soul has concerning its own beginning, triune and one through the trinity of its powers, through which it is an image of God, one is assisted through the lights of the sciences (scientiarum), which perfect it and inform it and represent the Most Blessed Trinity in a threefold manner. For every philosophy either is natural, or rational, or moral. The first deals with (agit de) the cause of existing, and for that reason leads unto the power of the Father; the second with the reason for understanding, and for that reason leads unto the wisdom of the Word; the third with the order of living, and for that reason leads unto the goodness of the Holy Spirit.5
Again, the first is divided into metaphysics, mathematics and physics. And the first concerns the essences of things, the second numbers and figures, the third natures, virtues and diffuse activities. And for that reason the first leads unto the First Principle, the Father, the second unto His Image, the Son, the third unto the gift of the Holy Spirit.
The second is divided into grammar, which makes us able (potentes) to express; into logic, which makes us perspicacious to argue; into rhetoric, which makes us skillful (habiles) to persuade or move. And this similarly intimates the Mystery (mysterium) of the Most Blessed Trinity Itself.
The third is divided into the monastic, the domestic (oeconomicam) and the political. And for that reason the first intimates the unbegottenness of the First Principle, the second the Son's being-in-a-family (familiaritas), the third the liberality of the Holy Spirit.
7. Moreover all these sciences have certain and infallible rules as lights and rays descending from the eternal law in our mind. And for that reason our mind irradiated and super-fused by so great splendors, unless it be blind, can be lead by hand through its very self to contemplate that Eternal Light. Moreover the irradiation and consideration of this Light suspends wise men into admiration and conversely it leads the foolish, who do not . . .
1 (St.) Augustine, De Trinitate, Bk. VIII, ch. 3, n. 4: This good and that good: take away this and that and see the good itself, if you can; thus you shall see that God is good, not by another good, but as the Good of every good. For neither among all these goods . . . would we say that one is better than the other, when we judge truly, unless there had been impressed upon us the notion of the Good itself, according to which we would even prove something and prefer another to it. — In place of notion (notio) the Vatican edition, and editions 3 and 4, have knowledge (notitia)
2 According to Augustine, locc. citt. above on p. 302, footnote 1. — In place of deliberative (power) (deliberativa) H K L have mind in a deliberate manner (deliberate mens).
3 This reckoning is explained by Boethius, On the Consolation of Philosophy, Bk. III throughout. Cf. (St.) Augustine, Ethics, Bk. I, ch. 1 ff. — Above this in place of therefore (igitur), which D G M omit, A has for (enim), the editions moreover (autem); then after unless (nisi) we have supplied from A B C E P because (it is) (quia), in place of which B F G H L M N have for the sake of (propter).
4 See Sent., Bk. I, text of Master (Peter), d. III, ch. 2, where the passages taken from (St.) Augustine have been cited; cf. ibid., in the Commentaria, p. II, and above in the Breviloquium, p. II, ch. 12. — D F G L M N have not exceeding one another (se invicem non excedentes); concerning circumincession cf. Sent., Bk. I, d. 19, p. I, q. 4). Then in place of spirit, he (spiritus) D H N have spirit, who (spiritus qui), L spirit, because (quia).
5 See the words of (St.) Augustine above on p. 19, footnote 7. — On the division of philosophy cf. below the little work De Reductione artium ad theologiam. — Above this in place of through which it is an image of God (per quas est imago Dei) F G H K L M N have through which the Image of God is expressed (per quas imago Dei exprimitur), then very many codices, among which are B P, omit leads (ducit) the second and third occurrences.
believe, so as to understand, into confusion (perturbationem), to fulfill that prophetic (word):1 Thou illuminating from eternal mountains, have unsettled (turbati sunt) all the foolish of heart.
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