Wednesday, 3 March 1965
Dear School Children of the United States of America,
This is the Holy Father speaking to you from Rome.
How very good that your Father in Christ can again share a few thoughts with you, His children in the United States.
You know that We visited your well-blessed land on two occasions, the last being only a few short years ago. We saw your great cities, steaming factories, fertile farm-lands, lovely homes, confortable schools and beautiful churches. We rejoice that your country and your parents, in particular, have been able to provide you with so many good things.
However, dear boys and girls, your Holy Father has also visited other places which are not nearly so rich and fortunate. Only recently We returned from an unforgettable visit to India, and We saw many children who had very few of the things which you possess. At one orphanage, We shared a very simple breakfast with the poor children, and even though they had very little and few comforts, they did seem happy because someone was looking after them. These are but a few of the thousands and millions of boys and girls who are cold, sick and hungry. Can you imagine how worried your mothers and fathers would be if you went to bed hungry every night, if you did not have warm clothing during the bitter cold of winter, if you were seriously sick and there was no doctor or medicine to cure you?
Dear children, these are some of the worries of your Father in Christ who is now talking to you. Because all children in the world, in the United States and in every corner of the earth, are Our children, and millions of them are very poor and have nothing - no parents, no homes, and sometimes not even a country of their own, We are saddened.
When one of your brothers or sisters is sick or in trouble, your parents want to give some special attention and care, and, We are sure, so do you. As Our children in Christ, We ask you once again to come to Our help in caring for your needy brothers and sisters of the whole human family. You know that Our Lord Jesus Christ also asks the same of you.
How can you help Us? This you can do again this year through Catholic Relief Services, the excellent organization which your good Bishops have set up to help the poor throughout the world. This is a big task, and so your Bishops depend upon the generous assistance of you and your families.
Your little sacrifices during this Lenten season can accomplish much spiritual good for you, and at the same time they will assure bodily good to Our needy children in other lands. Therefore make these sacrifices generously. Then offer the cost of this sacrifice by contributing to the joint offering being gathered by your classroom and school between now and Easter Sunday.
Lent is also a time for special prayers, and We ask you to remember your poor brothers and sisters in your prayers. Beg, Almighty God to bless them and to give all of them His richest graces.
Grateful for whatever you will do, great or small, for your less fortunate brothers and sisters, We ask for you, your parents, priests, religious and teachers the best blessing of Our Father in Heaven, and, in pledge thereof, We lovingly impart Our paternal Apostolic Benediction.
Dear Friends of Air India,
We call you friends because We feel that the recent trip to India has given us a special relationship of friendship.
This audience provides Us with the precious opportunity of thanking Air India through the management and personnel in Rome for the magnificent work of preparation and for the thoroughly comfortable flight to India. We are well aware that all of you laboured arduously to insure that Our flight would be most enjoyable and effective. We congratulate you and We thank you, each one of you because in your own way all of you contributed your share in this successful flight. You prepared Us very well for the warm reception which We received on arrival in Bombay.
This visit with you recalls to mind the very pleasant days spent in India, a land which We came to know first-hand, and Our most satisfactory encounter with a marvelous people who did not stint in extending to Us their exquisite hospitality with affection and admiration. It is for Us an unforgettable experience, a most precious memory, an episode in Our life which We treasure highly.
In your work, you come in constant contact with peoples of different nations, races and creeds. Let them taste also the graciousness and kindness which We witnessed in that grand land of India. Remember too that we are all members of one family, the family of God. We encourage you to treat all with that love and respect that is worthy of a child of God. By so doing, you will be creating good will among peoples which will make it possible for all to work in mutual harmony for peace, which will permit everyone to enjoy the creation of Our Father Who is in heaven. In your own small way, you will be making a precious contribution to understanding between peoples.
Once again, We thank Air India, its directors and its personnel, for the pleasant efficient service rendered to Us, and in so doing We lovingly invoke upon all of you and your loved ones an abundance of heavenly blessings.
We are very happy to receive from you the Letters of Credence with which His Excellency, the President of the Republic of India, has designated you as the First Ambassador of India to the Holy See.
Official diplomatic relations have existed between India and the Holy See for some time, but this is the first time that India has been represented by an Ambassador, and in this We see a sign that relations will continue to the mutual benefit of your noble nation and of the Holy See. We are grateful that His Excellency Dr. Radhakrishnan has raised your representation to the rank of Ambassador.
We welcome Your Excellency today to Our home with special affection, because We had the pleasure of your presence as Special Envoy while We visited your beautiful country late last year, even though that visit was regrettably very brief. We experienced on that memorable occasion your gracious hospitality, and it has remained for Us a priceless experience and a precious episode of Our life.
While in Bombay, We were able to witness personally the vitality of the Church in India, and We were consoled to see the rich contribution which Our children have made to India. All this was possible because India, faithful to its religious heritage and in keeping with its native respect for religion, has granted to the Church freedom of activity and initiative. The educational system of the Catholic Church is indeed widespread, and it has for its purpose to prepare God-fearing, exemplary and loyal citizens for India, citizens who will make their generous contribution to the general development of their motherland. We are confident that Catholics will do their share in helping India take its rightful place among the family of nations, and We are happy that have been such devoted sons and daughters of India.
We pray that India will never lose its religious sentiments and that she would ever remain aware of her relationship to God. We are all children of one human family, sons and daughters of the one God, and in that spirit we shall labour together to make of the world an acceptable place where all children can rightfully enjoy the creation of God.
We feel that in Your Excellency We have an understanding and experienced representative who will dedicate himself to the mutual benefit of India and the Holy See. We wish you well in your new responsibility and We are confident that you will fulfil1 your task creditably. In asking Your Excellency to convey Our affectionate greetings to your President, to your Government and to all of your people in India, We invoke upon all an abundance of heavenly blessings and graces.
*AAS 57 (1965), p.386-387.
Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, vol. III, p.190-191.
L’Osservatore Romano, 26.3.1965, p.1.
Dear Brothers of Saint Francis Xavier,
We welcome you and your new Superior General, and We thank you for this visit at the conclusion of your General Chapter.
God has chosen you for a wonderful vocation, that of the training and education of youth. Our Lord and Master, Who called Himself the Truth and the Life, and insisted that the little ones be allowed to come to Him, is your Model in drawing the minds of the young towards Truth, their hearts, towards Goodness and Beauty. Saint Francis Xavier, that great missionary, who, after Saint Paul, deserves to be called the second Teacher of the Peoples, is your Patron and heavenly intercessor.
We invoke upon your admirable labors the grace of Eternal Wisdom, Who came forth from the mouth of the Most High, that like Him you too may «reach from end to end firmly, but gently disposing all things» in the formation of your young pupils; so that He may come to teach you and them the way of prudence (Vesper Antiphon, December 17).
Under new direction and guidance, may your work continue in the praise of His Name, and for the salvation of your own souls and those of your students. In pledge of that grace, We lovingly impart to you, to all your confreres, your institutions, those entrusted to your care, your benefactors and loved ones, Our special paternal Apostolic Blessing.
With a heart full of joy do We welcome all of you into Our home today, and We are sincerely grateful that you interrupted your trip to offer to Our humble self your heartfelt greetings.
This visit offers to Us the happy opportunity of recalling with great satisfaction Our own pilgrimage to the Holy Land, where We were able to experience personally the rich souvenirs of Our Lord’s presence among men. That land abounds with precious relics of Our Lord’s time, and these serve to impress upon all the ever timely message of charity which Christ wished to teach to men of all time. We earnestly pray that your experience in that sacred land will be as satisfactory as Ours, and that it will urge you to a greater dedication to put into daily practice the lessons which the Divine Teacher taught so unceasingly. We cannot but recommend that you give yourselves wholeheartedly to your mission, and that in prayerful meditation you gather rich souvenirs which will strengthen you in the future.
We are particularly consoled and strengthened by the lofty purpose of your pilgrimage, prayer for Christian unity. We bless you, all of you, from a heart filled with love and affection, and We assure you that We shall follow you with Our prayers as you visit those numerous shrines hallowed by the presence of Christ, Who prayed that all would be one as He and the Father were one. May the vivid memory of Our Lord’s presence guide your footsteps and fill your hearts with the same joy as that of St. Peter on Tabor, when he declared in the name of his companions - O Lord, how good it is for us to be here. May Almighty God bless you with His choicest graces and favours.
Sunday, 2 May 1965
Venerable Brothers, beloved sons and daughters,
In Spirit, We are present among you now, as you celebrate the four hundredth anniversary of the evangelization of the Philippines. Those first valiant missionaries undertook a long and perilous voyage to bring you the Faith, for they were driven by the love of Christ, Who said: «Go into the whole world and preach the Gospel» (Marc. 16, 15).
Those intrepid pioneers realized the primordial importance of the Faith. You, their spiritual sons, will ever keep that Faith in its integrity, particularly by providing for the solid religious instruction of your children and all your people.
As a great Catholic nation in South-East Asia, you are truly «a city set on a mountain (which) cannot be hidden... A lamp put upon a lampstand, so as to give light to all» (Math. 14-15). Consider how great is your responsibility to give good example to those of other faiths, and thus sweetly draw men to the Heart of Jesus, king and center of all hearts. Manifest your gratitude for four centuries of grace by striving to give the best example of Faith, Hope and Love, of all the other Christian virtues, to the entire world, especially the nations nearest to you.
In this, you have been encouraged and instructed by the recent Congress of Catholic Action, which trains new apostles for the religious and social assistance of the people.
The very first act of your religious history was the celebration of Holy Mass on your beloved soil. Conserve and deepen your belief in the Blessed Eucharist, especially during these days of the National Eucharistic Congress with its manifestation of sincere and solemn devotion.
We have raised the Cathedral Church of Cebù to the dignity of Minor Basilica, thus recognizing the four centuries of evangelization preached in this temple, the symbol of the birth and growth of Christianity in the Philippines. You are noted for your love of the Child Jesus, «el Santo Niño». Carry Him always in your hearts, «glorify Him and bear Him in your bodies» (1Co 6,20); so that His virtues may shine forth in your lives, and give light to all men, «that they may see your good works, and give glory to your Father in Heaven» (Matth. V. 16). Love and honor His Immaculate Mother, Mary, Mother of the Church and our Mother. Thus, indeed, will you make the motto of your centenary come true: The Philippines for Christ!
From a heart filled with paternal affection, We invoke upon you all, the protection, guidance and love of the Holy Child Jesus and of Mary, ever a Virgin. And We lovingly impart to His Excellency the President of the Republic, who has honored these ceremonies by his presence; to the Members of the Government; to the Most Reverend Hierarchy, and in the first place to Our distinguished Cardinal Legate, and to Cardinal Santos, Archbishop of Manila; to the great Catholic Universities, their professors and students; to all the priests, religious, and beloved people of the Philippines, Our special Apostolic Blessing.
Y ahora vamos a expresarnos en la lengua con la que los Misioneros españoles anunciaron por vez primera el evangeho en vuestras Islas.
La posición geográfica y el destino histórico de vuestro País en el Extremo Oriente, el esplendor de vida religiosa de vuestros hogares, estos y tantos otros títulos que podríamos enumerar, constituyen otras tantas llamadas e invitaciones a dar a vuestra sincera profesión católica una creciente expansión misionera. Conocemos el proyecto de Seminario para Misiones Extranjeras con cuya realización el celoso Episcopado Filipino pone broche de oro a este centenario, y Nos con alegría lo bendecimos.
Os hemos enviado, para representarnos en las solemnidades que terminan, como Legado Nuestro, un dignísimo y querido Cardenal. Mas con cuánto gusto hubiéramos querido visitar en esta ocasión vuestro hermoso País, estar personalmente presentes entre vosotros, para alentar vuestros buenos propósitos de fidelidad a Cristo y a su evangelio, para dar con Nuestra presencia un nuevo testimonio del afecto que el Vicario de Cristo profesa a ese gran pueblo lleno de méritos y de promesas. Tened todos la certeza del gran amor con que invocamos sobre cada uno de vosotros las más ricas gracias del Cielo y os otorgamos una amplia y efusiva Bendición Apostólica.
Dear people of the United States,
We are very happy to greet you today by means of this startling new communications satellite.
This modern world and its inventive genius continue to amaze Us with its striking discoveries. Who would have dreamt that such means of communication would be at Our disposal in Our time? The tremendous power of man’s intellect is reflected in these astounding inventions and scientific advances. Would that all of these were dedicated exclusively to the benefit of men everywhere!
We pray to Almighty God that these marvelous discoveries will serve the cause of peace, and will make it possible for men to cooperate with each other in making this a better world and a happier place, where men grow and develop into the likeness of their Creator, and find fulfillment of their desires in so far as this is possible on this earth.
We invoke upon all of you an abundance of heavenly blessings and graces; may your grand nation prosper in peace and happiness.
We thank you from Our heart for your kind address, and We welcome you as the first Ambassador of the Republic of Zambia to this Holy See.
You undertake your important mission as the first diplomatic representative of your newly-independent Nation here, and We wish you God’s richest blessings and graces in the performance of your duties. On Our part, Your Excellency may rest assured that We shall ever strive to facilitate the fulfilment of that office, and shall always be available to you when the circumstances require it.
Through your good offices, We send heartfelt greetings to His Excellency the President of the Republic, who recently honoured Us with his visit; to the members of the Government; and to all the dearly beloved people of Zambia, whom We came to know, to respect, and to cherish during Our personal visit to their land.
We take this occasion to express once again Our best wishes for Africa as that great continent enters into liberty and independence; and to repeat Our assurance that the Catholic Church, as she has in the past, will ever continue to favour the progress and development of Africa, with no other purpose than to serve.
We assure Your Excellency and your people that the Catholic Church will never falter in her efforts to further the moral, social and material progress of the Republic of Zambia; and We willingly invoke upon you, upon the President and his family, the Government and people of Zambia, the choice blessings of Almighty God.
*AAS 57 (1965), p.600.
Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, vol. III, p.314.
L'Osservatore Romano 1.6.1965, p.2.
We bid you a warm welcome, We thank you for the kind words of your address, and We assure you at once of Our confidence, benevolence and trust, in the fulfilment of your high Mission.
Your Excellency has referred to the goals and purposes which associate Great Britain and this Holy See, and We feel sure that your activities as Her Britannic Majesty’s Minister will bring closer the realization of these high aims.
We request your kind offices to convey to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth and to the Duke of Edinburgh the assurance of Our prayerful good wishes for themselves, for the Royal Family, and for the beloved people of Great Britain. We are grateful for Her Majesty’s greetings of goodwill, and her kind remembrance of her visit to Our Predecessor of happy memory, Pope John.
We are, moreover, highly appreciative of the mention made by Your Excellency of the Vatican Ecumenical Council still in session. We note with immense pleasure the positive evaluation given. by such an authoritative interpreter as the Representative of Great Britain, to the Council’s intentions in regard to the promotion of the re-union of all Christians. Indeed, this is one of the great aspirations which orientate Our apostolic programme.
We should be pleased and honoured if Your Excellency, in the course of your Mission, would bear witness to the solicitude with which We seek to serve so important a cause, and would convey to your Government and the British people something of the care, both discreet and respectful, with which the Holy See favours, in God’s good time, perfect reconciliation between the Catholic Church and the Church of England, being always and exclusively guided by a twofold love: love for the teaching of Christ; love for true brotherhood among all Christians.
Particularly are We touched by Your Excellency’s reference to international disarmament; and We recall the appeal We made, during Our visit to India, that the huge sums spent on arms be diverted, at least in part, to the relief of hunger and poverty throughout the world, We welcome your noble Nation’s determination to work also for this lofty purpose and, in general, for the vital cause of world peace.
As you begin your Mission, We wish Your Excellency every success and happiness; and upon your august Sovereign and the people of Great Britain, We invoke richest graces and blessings from Almighty God.
*AAS 57 (1965), p.601-602.
Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, vol. III, p.319-320.
L' Osservatore Romano 2.6.1965, p.1.
We bid you a heartfelt welcome; and We assure you of Our sincere gratitude for the vibrant words of prayerful good wishes, addressed to Us in your name by your distinguished Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Oslo.
It is indeed a consolation and a comfort to know that you, and many others who are not Catholics, are praying for the Council and for Us-may God reward you abundantly!
In all our meetings and conversations, in all our dealings with one another, let us be «careful to preserve the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace», so that we may truly be «one body and one Spirit, even as (we) were called in one hope of (our) calling: one Lord, one faith, one Baptism; one God and Father of all» (Ep 4,3-6).
In His name, We gladly bestow Our blessing upon you, your families and all your dear ones.
Monday, 2 August 1965
We extend to you a most cordial welcome to Our summer residence, because your presence here recalls many happy memories -of Our visit to Ghana not too many years ago.
The Ashanti people, whose leader you are, possess a rich tradition of culture and art as well as a proud history - both of which will certainly contribute much to the progress of your country. The world has become increasingly small because of modern communications, and it has become all the more necessary that peoples of this earth collaborate with one another in a spirit of understanding, cooperation and mutual respect. Only in this way can advances be made for the obtaining of conditions which will lead to peace and happiness.
Our children in your land are loyal and devoted children of the Church, ,and, as such, they are true citizens of your nation, ready and willing to make their contribution of talent and effort for the progress of their country. We trust that in them Your Excellency finds generous collaborators. Respect for religious beliefs and practice creates an atmosphere of understanding and friendship, and We are confident that such a spirit does exist in your country. The Eucharistic Congress held in your capital city of Kumasi provided concrete proof of its existence, and We are pleased to learn that Your Excellency gave demonstration of this spirit by contributing towards the purchase of the ostensorium used on that grand occasion.
Through Your Excellency We send greetings to your President and to the noble people of Ghana. We wish you good health and many years in the service of your people, and We pray that Almighty God may grant to your people the rich blessings of peace, prosperity and happiness.
*Insegnamenti di Paolo VI, vol. III, p.410-411.
My dear seminarians from the United States,
We sincerely thank your rector for having invited Us to visit with you here in this beautiful summer residence nestled in the Alban Hills near Our home.
Yours is a magnificent seminary and We are confident that it reflects the quality of the students who call it their home in Rome. You are indeed privileged to be here during these historic days of the Ecumenical Council. In the serene atmosphere of the seminary, you can witness the workings of the Council and strive to enter into its spirit. Your future ministry offers you a challenge now, a challenge to prepare yourselves as well- as you can for the demanding tasks before you. We urge you to prepare yourselves intellectually very well because the community looks to the priest for guidance and leadership more than ever before. Here in the seminary you have order and discipline, a guarantee for your good preparation. We know that. your young spirit rebels, at times, at what seemingly is a brake on your initiative and desire to confront the vast problems of the world. Remember that obedience is most necessary in any well ordered society, and that it is a most basic virtue upon which constructive and effective activity is solidly founded. Without it, chaos would result. This spirit creates continuity and unity of action so necessary if apostolic initiatives are to be brought to their successful conclusion.
In the seminary you must perfect an ascetical life which will give true meaning to your activity. This spiritual life motivates and urges you to give yourselves wholeheartedly to the task of formation and to listen with open mind and heart to the wise counsels and directives which your dedicated professors and counsellors give, so that you will become true and worthy ministers of the Gospel.
These are challenging and changing times. Old methods will have to be transformed but always in the light of past lessons. Sometimes new solutions are proposed but these are not always in keeping with Catholic teachings and principles.
A profound love of the Church and its mission should motivate these precious years of formation as well as your effective years in the apostolate. This will make you loyal sons and faithful ministers in the service of your people.
The seminary years should be happy years. Here there are no undue preoccupations. and you are free to dedicate yourselves to the task of preparation. Christ is your model. Fashion yourselves on Him. In the world, you will represent Him to all. For this you will need a deep interior life upon which you can rely for strength and courage. Youth is generous and gives unselfishly. We are confident that you will give yourselves to your task with heroic effort, and, in so doing, you will find joy and happiness now. Love the Church, love her representatives; give yourselves wholeheartedly to the magnificent task of service. We shall pray that you become true, loyal stewards of the Gospel, and that you will willingly join with those already in the vineyard to bring the lessons of Christ to all men. In pledge of Our prayer, We impart to you and to your brother seminarians in the United States and in every part of the world Our special Apostolic Blessing.
We reply without delay to the greetings presented to Us by the distinguished Representatives of the United Nations, and We express Our sincere thanks for the invitation extended to Us to address that great Assembly. We are thus given the honour and the good fortune of meeting that greatest of all international organizations. It gives Us particular pleasure to mark in this way the twentieth anniversary of the founding of the United Nations, and to express Our best wishes for its permanency and its development .
Our encouragement and support have, We believe, a special meaning. This is because We come from Rome, that city which, first of all in the history of our civilization, promoted and represented the political union of peoples under the rule of law, and consequently in liberty, in culture and in peace.
We come from Rome, where there is located the central seat of that religious society, not founded on temporal power, which is the Catholic Church. We are happy to note the natural sympathy existing between these two universalities, and to bear to your terrestrial city of peace the greetings and good wishes of our spiritual city of peace. One is a peace which rises from the earth, the other a peace which descends from heaven; and their meeting is most marvelous: Justice and peace have kissed one another. May God grant that this be for mankind’s greater good.
We also wish to reply without delay to the greetings offered Us by this great country in the person of the President’s representative, a country so free, so strong, so industrious, so full of wonders, this country of America, the America of the States, where We have so very many brothers, sons and friends in the faith, and where a populous nation founds its very modern civilization upon the brotherhood of its citizens.
Greetings to you, America! The first Pope to set foot upon your land blesses you with all His heart. He renews, as it were, the gesture of your discoverer, Christopher Columbus, when he planted the Cross of Christ in this blessed soil. May the cross of blessing which We now trace over your skies and your land preserve those gifts which Christ gave you and guarantees to you: Peace, concord, freedom, justice - and above all the vision of life in the hope of immortality. God bless this land of yours!
We thank Our beloved Son, Cardinal Spellman, your esteemed Archbishop, for this warm welcome. We come to you from Rome with the blessings of those great Saints Peter and Paul, whose blood sanctified it, and the blessings of Christ Whose Vicar on earth We are.
To you, dear Brother, pastor of this magnificent and glorious edifice, to the Bishops, clergy, religious and faithful gathered around you, We extend a word of special greeting. Today We feel a common citizenship with you because We are here in your city and your country and because you are citizens of the Church of Rome. We truly are one in sentiment! The patron of this great cathedral, St. Patrick, once said, « As you are Christians, so be you Romans ». This We feel in a special manner because we are all citizens of Rome.
Asking you for your prayerful support of Our message for peace, We extend to all of you and to your dear ones at home, the aged, the sick and the children in a special manner, Our paternal Apostolic Blessing.
It is indeed a distinct pleasure for Us to have this opportunity, however brief, during Our visit to the United Nations, to greet you, one and all, representatives of the various Organizations maintaining relations with the United Nations.
We express Our cordial good wishes to the members of the many Catholic organizations who collaborate with the United Nations to bring the benefits of this international Organization to all parts of the world. We derive satisfaction also from the fact that Our own observers, at least some, are among you, and We wish to make specific mention of Monsignor Alberto Giovannetti, who has the responsible position of Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations.
In a way, We have left Our purely spiritual sphere of activity in order to know your work for peace, to which you are dedicating yourselves so earnestly, and to collaborate with you in so far as it is possible for Us, and to associate Ourself, in a certain measure, with your efforts.
We have said in Our discourse that peace is the work not only, of political wisdom; it is not a result brought about only by pacts or treaties. Rather it is necessary to favour, encourage,. establish and assure peace continually with concrete and specialized organs of peace - and these you are.
We, therefore, have great admiration for you and for your dedicated labours. You are worthy of honour and your efforts merit the grateful prayers of all mankind. We urge you with all Our heart to work even more strenuously for the cause of-peace - a peace based on the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of all men. This the message of Our Divine Saviour, the Prince of Peace; this is the message We wish to leave you today.
This message We intend not only for the Catholic Organizations represented at the United Nations; but We likewise extend it to all of you here present, representing various Protestant and Jewish organizations accredited with the various organizations of the United Nations. The work of peace is not restricted to one religious belief, it is the work and duty of every human person, regardless of his religious conviction. Men are brothers, God is their Father, and their Father wills that they live in peace with one another as brothers should. For Our part, We thank you for the cordial friendship which you have accorded Our Observers, and We promise Our collaboration in so far as We can join in your studies, your programs and your activities, and to this We join Our prayers for the success of your efforts and for God’s choicest blessings on your noble endeavours.
We have come to see the beautiful setting for the masterpiece of Michelangelo, the Pietà. It is easy to understand how so many millions of visitors have been attracted by this precious sculpture intended to honour the Blessed Lady and her crucified Son. We are confident that it has moved countless souls and has given inspiration to artists to imitate the genius of this great artist.