Summa Th. I-II EN
Benziger Bros. edition, 1947.
Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province

  • Benziger Bros. edition, 1947 - CCEL.ORG
  • Public domain

  • Headings

    I-II

    20Q1: OF MAN'S LAST END (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    21Whether it belongs to man to act for an end?
    22Whether it is proper to the rational nature to act for an end?
    23Whether human acts are specified by their end?
    24Whether there is one last end of human life?
    25Whether one man can have several last ends?
    26Whether man will all, whatsoever he wills, for the last end?
    27Whether all men have the same last end?
    28Whether other creatures concur in that last end?
    40Q2: OF THOSE THINGS IN WHICH MAN'S HAPPINESS CONSISTS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    41Whether man's happiness consists in wealth?
    42Whether man's happiness consists in honors?
    43Whether man's happiness consists in fame or glory?
    44Whether man's happiness consists in power?
    45Whether man's happiness consists in any bodily good?
    46Whether man's happiness consists in pleasure?
    47Whether some good of the soul constitutes man's happiness?
    48Whether any created good constitutes man's happiness?
    60Q3: WHAT IS HAPPINESS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    61Whether happiness is something uncreated?
    62Whether happiness is an operation?
    63Whether happiness is an operation of the sensitive part, or of the intellective part only?
    64Whether, if happiness is in the intellective part, it is an operation of the intellect or of the will?
    65Whether happiness is an operation of the speculative, or of the practical intellect?
    66Whether happiness consists in the consideration of speculative sciences?
    67Whether happiness consists in the knowledge of separate substances, namely, angels?
    68Whether man's happiness consists in the vision of the divine essence?
    80Q4: OF THOSE THINGS THAT ARE REQUIRED FOR HAPPINESS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    81Whether delight is required for happiness?
    82Whether in happiness vision ranks before delight?
    83Whether comprehension is necessary for happiness?
    84Whether rectitude of the will is necessary for happiness?
    85Whether the body is necessary for man's happiness?
    86Whether perfection of the body is necessary for happiness?
    87Whether any external goods are necessary for happiness?
    88Whether the fellowship of friend is necessary for happiness?
    100Q5: OF THE ATTAINMENT OF HAPPINESS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    101Whether man can attain happiness?
    102Whether one man can be happier than another?
    103Whether one can be happy in this life?
    104Whether happiness once had can be lost?
    105Whether man can attain happiness by his natural powers?
    106Whether man attains happiness through the action of some higher creature?
    107Whether any good works are necessary that man may receive happiness from God?
    108Whether every man desires happiness?
    120Q6: OF THE VOLUNTARY AND THE INVOLUNTARY (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    121Whether there is anything voluntary in human acts?
    122Whether there is anything voluntary in irrational animals?
    123Whether there can be voluntariness without any act?
    124Whether violence can be done to the will?
    125Whether violence causes involuntariness?
    126Whether fear causes involuntariness simply?
    127Whether concupiscence causes involuntariness?
    128Whether ignorance causes involuntariness?
    140Q7: OF THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF HUMAN ACTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    141Whether a circumstance is an accident of a human act?
    142Whether theologians should take note of the circumstances of human acts?
    143Whether the circumstances are properly set forth in the third book of Ethics?
    144Whether the most important circumstances are "why" and "in what the act consists"?
    160Q8: OF THE WILL, IN REGARD TO WHAT IT WILLS (THREE ARTICLES)
    161Whether the will is of good only?
    162Whether volition is of the end only, or also of the means?
    163Whether the will is moved by the same act to the end and to the means?
    180Q9: OF THAT WHICH MOVES THE WILL (SIX ARTICLES)
    181Whether the will is moved by the intellect?
    182Whether the will is moved by the sensitive appetite?
    183Whether the will moves itself?
    184Whether the will is moved by an exterior principle?
    185Whether the will is moved by a heavenly body?
    186Whether the will is moved by God alone, as exterior principle?
    200Q10: OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE WILL IS MOVED (FOUR ARTICLES)
    202Whether the will is moved, of necessity, by its object?
    203Whether the will is moved, of necessity, by the lower appetite?
    204Whether the will is moved of necessity by the exterior mover which is God?
    220Q11: OF ENJOYMENT [*Or, Fruition], WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    221Whether to enjoy is an act of the appetitive power?
    222Whether to enjoy belongs to the rational creature alone, or also to irrational animals?
    223Whether enjoyment is only of the last end?
    224Whether enjoyment is only of the end possessed?
    240Q12: OF INTENTION (FIVE ARTICLES)
    241Whether intention is an act of the intellect or of the will?
    242Whether intention is only of the last end?
    243Whether one can intend two things at the same time?
    244Whether intention of the end is the same act as the volition of the means?
    245Whether intention is within the competency of irrational animals?
    260Q13: OF CHOICE, WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL WITH REGARD TO THE MEANS (SIX ARTICLES)
    261Whether choice is an act of will or of reason?
    262Whether choice is to be found in irrational animals?
    263Whether choice is only of the means, or sometimes also of the end?
    264Whether choice is of those things only that are done by us?
    265Whether choice is only of possible things?
    266Whether man chooses of necessity or freely?
    280Q14: OF COUNSEL, WHICH PRECEDES CHOICE (SIX ARTICLES)
    281Whether counsel is an inquiry?
    282Whether counsel is of the end, or only of the means?
    283Whether counsel is only of things that we do?
    284Whether counsel is about all things that we do?
    285Whether the process of counsel is one of analysis?
    286Whether the process of counsel is indefinite?
    300Q15: OF CONSENT, WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL IN REGARD TO THE MEANS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    301Whether consent is an act of the appetitive or of the apprehensive power?
    302Whether consent is to be found in irrational animals?
    304Whether consent to the act belongs only to the higher part of the soul?
    320Q16: OF USE, WHICH IS AN ACT OF THE WILL IN REGARD TO THE MEANS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    321Whether use is an act of the will?
    322Whether use is to be found in irrational animals?
    323Whether use regards also the last end?
    324Whether use precedes choice?
    340Q17: OF THE ACTS COMMANDED BY THE WILL (NINE ARTICLES)
    341Whether command is an act of the reason or of the will?
    342Whether command belongs to irrational animals?
    343Whether use precedes command?
    344Whether command and the commanded act are one act, or distinct?
    346Whether the act of the reason is commanded?
    347Whether the act of the sensitive appetite is commanded?
    348Whether the act of the vegetal soul is commanded?
    349Whether the acts of the external members are commanded?
    360Q18: OF THE GOOD AND EVIL OF HUMAN ACTS, IN GENERAL (ELEVEN ARTICLES)
    361Whether every human action is good, or are there evil actions?
    362Whether the good or evil of a man's action is derived from its object?
    363Whether man's action is good or evil from a circumstance?
    364Whether a human action is good or evil from its end?
    365Whether a human action is good or evil in its species?
    366Whether an action has the species of good or evil from its end?
    367Whether the species derived from the end is contained under the species derived from the object, as under its genus, or conversely?
    368Whether any action is indifferent in its species?
    369Whether an individual action can be indifferent?
    370Whether a circumstance places a moral action in the species of good or evil?
    Whether every circumstance that makes an action better or worse, places a moral action in a species of good or evil?
    380Q19: OF THE GOODNESS AND MALICE OF THE INTERIOR ACT OF THE WILL (TEN ARTICLES)
    381Whether the goodness of the will depends on the object?
    382Whether the goodness of the will depends on the object alone?
    383Whether the goodness of the will depends on reason?
    384Whether the goodness of the will depends on the eternal law?
    385Whether the will is evil when it is at variance with erring reason?
    386Whether the will is good when it abides by erring reason?
    387Whether the goodness of the will, as regards the means, depends on the intention of the end?
    388Whether the degree of goodness or malice in the will depends on the degree of good or evil in the intention?
    389Whether the goodness of the will depends on its conformity to the Divine will?
    390Whether it is necessary for the human will, in order to be good, to be conformed to the Divine will, as regards the thing willed?
    400Q20: OF GOODNESS AND MALICE IN EXTERNAL HUMAN AFFAIRS (SIX ARTICLES)
    401Whether goodness or malice is first in the action of the will, or in the external action?
    402Whether the whole goodness and malice of the external action depends on the goodness of the will?
    403Whether the goodness and malice of the external action are the same as those of the interior act?
    404Whether the external action adds any goodness or malice to that of the interior act?
    405Whether the consequences of the external action increase its goodness or malice?
    406Whether one and the same external action can be both good and evil?
    420Q21: OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN ACTIONS BY REASON OF THEIR GOODNESS AND MALICE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    421Whether a human action is right or sinful, in so far as it is good or evil?
    422Whether a human action deserves praise or blame, by reason of its being good or evil?
    423Whether a human action is meritorious or demeritorious in so far as it is good or evil?
    424Whether a human action is meritorious or demeritorious before God, according as it is good or evil?
    440Q22: OF THE SUBJECT OF THE SOUL'S PASSIONS (THREE ARTICLES)
    441Whether any passion is in the soul?
    442Whether passion is in the appetitive rather than in the apprehensive part?
    443Whether passion is in the sensitive appetite rather than in the intellectual appetite, which is called the will?
    460Q23: HOW THE PASSIONS DIFFER FROM ONE ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    461Whether the passions of the concupiscible part are different from those of the irascible part?
    462Whether the contrariety of the irascible passions is based on the contrariety of good and evil?
    463Whether any passion of the soul has no contrariety?
    464Whether in the same power, there are any passions, specifically different, but not contrary to one another?
    480Q24: OF GOOD AND EVIL IN THE PASSIONS OF THE SOUL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    481Whether moral good and evil can be found in the passions of the soul?
    482Whether every passion of the soul is evil morally?
    483Whether passion increases or decreases the goodness or malice of an act?
    484Whether any passion is good or evil in its species?
    500Q25: OF THE ORDER OF THE PASSIONS TO ONE ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    501Whether the irascible passions precede the concupiscible passions, or vice versa?
    502Whether love is the first of the concupiscible passions?
    503Whether hope is the first of the irascible passions?
    504Whether these are the four principal passions: joy, sadness, hope and fear?
    520Q26: OF THE PASSIONS OF THE SOUL IN PARTICULAR: AND FIRST, OF LOVE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    521Whether love is in the concupiscible power?
    522Whether love is a passion?
    523Whether love is the same as dilection?
    524Whether love is properly divided into love of friendship and love of concupiscence?
    540Q27: OF THE CAUSE OF LOVE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    541Whether good is the only cause of love?
    542Whether knowledge is a cause of love?
    543Whether likeness is a cause of love?
    544Whether any other passion of the soul is a cause of love?
    560Q28: OF THE EFFECTS OF LOVE (SIX ARTICLES)
    561Whether union is an effect of love?
    562Whether mutual indwelling is an effect of love?
    563Whether ecstasy is an effect of love?
    564Whether zeal is an effect of love?
    565Whether love is a passion that wounds the lover?
    566Whether love is cause of all that the lover does?
    580Q29: OF HATRED (SIX ARTICLES)
    581Whether evil is the cause and object of hatred?
    582Whether love is a cause of hatred?
    583Whether hatred is stronger than love?
    584Whether a man can hate himself?
    585Whether a man can hate the truth?
    586Whether anything can be an object of universal hatred?
    600Q30: OF CONCUPISCENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    601Whether concupiscence is in the sensitive appetite only?
    602Whether concupiscence is a specific passion?
    603Whether some concupiscences are natural, and some not natural?
    604Whether concupiscence is infinite?
    620Q31: OF DELIGHT CONSIDERED IN ITSELF [*Or, Pleasure] (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    621Whether delight is a passion?
    622Whether delight is in time?
    623Whether delight differs from joy?
    624Whether delight is in the intellectual appetite?
    625Whether bodily and sensible pleasures are greater than spiritual and intellectual pleasures?
    626Whether the pleasures of touch are greater than the pleasures afforded by the other senses?
    627Whether any pleasure is not natural?
    628Whether one pleasure can be contrary to another?
    640Q32: OF THE CAUSE OF PLEASURE (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    641Whether operation is the proper cause of pleasure?
    642Whether movement is a cause of pleasure?
    643Whether hope and memory causes pleasure?
    644Whether sadness causes pleasure?
    645Whether the actions of others are a cause of pleasure to us?
    646Whether doing good to another is a cause of pleasure?
    647Whether likeness is a cause of pleasure?
    648Whether wonder is a cause of pleasure?
    660Q33: OF THE EFFECTS OF PLEASURE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    661Whether expansion is an effect of pleasure?
    662Whether pleasure causes thirst or desire for itself?
    663Whether pleasure hinders the use of reason?
    664Whether pleasure perfects operation?
    680Q34: OF THE GOODNESS AND MALICE OF PLEASURES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    681Whether every pleasure is evil?
    682Whether every pleasure is good?
    683Whether any pleasure is the greatest good?
    684Whether pleasure is the measure or rule by which to judge of moral good or evil?
    700Q35: OF PAIN OR SORROW, IN ITSELF (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    701Whether pain is a passion of the soul?
    702Whether sorrow is the same as pain?
    703Whether sorrow or pain is contrary to pleasure?
    704Whether all sorrow is contrary to all pleasure?
    705Whether there is any sorrow contrary to the pleasure of contemplation?
    706Whether sorrow is to be shunned more than pleasure is to be sought?
    707Whether outward pain is greater than interior sorrow?
    708Whether there are only four species of sorrow?
    720Q36: OF THE CAUSES OF SORROW OR PAIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    721Whether sorrow is caused by the loss of good or by the presence of evil?
    722Whether desire is a cause of sorrow?
    723Whether the craving for unity is a cause of sorrow?
    724Whether an irresistible power is a cause of sorrow?
    740Q37: OF THE EFFECTS OF PAIN OR SORROW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    741Whether pain deprives one of the power to learn?
    742Whether the effect of sorrow or pain is to burden the soul?
    743Whether sorrow or pain weakens all activity?
    744Whether sorrow is more harmful to the body than the other passions of the soul?
    760Q38: OF THE REMEDIES OF SORROW OR PAIN (FIVE ARTICLES)
    761Whether pain or sorrow is assuaged by every pleasure?
    762Whether pain or sorrow is assuaged by tears?
    763Whether pain or sorrow are assuaged by the sympathy of friends?
    764Whether pain and sorrow are assuaged by the contemplation of truth?
    765Whether pain and sorrow are assuaged by sleep and baths?
    780Q39: OF THE GOODNESS AND MALICE OF SORROW OR PAIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    781Whether all sorrow is evil?
    782Whether sorrow can be a virtuous good?
    783Whether sorrow can be a useful good?
    784Whether bodily pain is the greatest evil?
    800Q40: OF THE IRASCIBLE PASSIONS, AND FIRST, OF HOPE AND DESPAIR (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    801Whether hope is the same as desire of cupidity?
    802Whether hope is in the apprehensive or in the appetitive power?
    803Whether hope is in dumb animals?
    804Whether despair is contrary to hope?
    805Whether experience is a cause of hope?
    806Whether hope abounds in young men and drunkards?
    807Whether hope is a cause of love?
    808Whether hope is a help or a hindrance to action?
    820Q41: OF FEAR, IN ITSELF (FOUR ARTICLES)
    821Whether fear is a passion of the soul?
    Whether fear is a special passion?
    823Whether there is a natural fear?
    824Whether the species of fear is suitably assigned?
    840Q42: OF THE OBJECT OF FEAR (SIX ARTICLES)
    841Whether the object of fear is good or evil?
    842Whether evil of nature is an object of fear?
    843Whether the evil of sin is an object of fear?
    844Whether fear itself can be feared?
    845Whether sudden things are especially feared?
    846Whether those things are more feared, for which there is no remedy?
    860Q43: OF THE CAUSE OF FEAR (TWO ARTICLES)
    861Whether love is the cause of fear?
    862Whether defect is the cause of fear?
    880Q44: OF THE EFFECTS OF FEAR (FOUR ARTICLES)
    881Whether fear causes contraction?
    882Whether fear makes one suitable for counsel?
    883Whether fear makes one tremble?
    884Whether fear hinders action?
    900Q45: OF DARING (FOUR ARTICLES)
    901Whether daring is contrary to fear?
    902Whether daring ensues from hope?
    903Whether some defect is a cause of daring?
    904Whether the brave are more eager at first than in the midst of danger?
    920Q46: OF ANGER, IN ITSELF (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    921Whether anger is a special passion?
    922Whether the object of anger is good or evil?
    923Whether anger is in the concupiscible faculty?
    924Whether anger requires an act of reason?
    925Whether anger is more natural than desire?
    926Whether anger is more grievous than hatred?
    927Whether anger is only towards those to whom one has an obligation of justice?
    928Whether the species of anger are suitably assigned?
    Q47: OF THE CAUSE THAT PROVOKES ANGER, AND OF THE REMEDIES OF ANGER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    941Whether the motive of anger is always something done against the one who is angry?
    942Whether the sole motive of anger is slight or contempt?
    943Whether a man's excellence is the cause of his being angry?
    944Whether a person's defect is a reason for being more easily angry with him?
    960Q48: OF THE EFFECTS OF ANGER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    961Whether anger causes pleasure?
    962Whether anger above all causes fervor in the heart?
    963Whether anger above all hinders the use of reason?
    964Whether anger above all causes taciturnity?
    980Q49: OF HABITS IN GENERAL, AS TO THEIR SUBSTANCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    981Whether habit is a quality?
    982Whether habit is a distinct species of quality?
    983Whether habit implies order to an act?
    984Whether habits are necessary?
    1000Q50: OF THE SUBJECT OF HABITS (SIX ARTICLES)
    1001Whether there is a habit in the body?
    1002Whether the soul is the subject of habit in respect of its essence or in respect of its power?
    1003Whether there can be any habits in the powers of the sensitive parts?
    1004Whether there is any habit in the intellect?
    1005Whether any habit is in the will?
    1006Whether there are habits in the angels?
    1020Q51: OF THE CAUSE OF HABITS, AS TO THEIR FORMATION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether any habit is from nature?
    1022Whether any habit is caused by acts?
    1023Whether a habit can be caused by one act?
    1024Whether any habits are infused in man by God?
    1040Q52: OF THE INCREASE OF HABITS (THREE ARTICLES)
    1041Whether habits increase?
    1042Whether habits increases by addition?
    1043Whether every act increases its habit?
    1060Q53: HOW HABITS ARE CORRUPTED OR DIMINISHED (THREE ARTICLES)
    1061Whether a habit can be corrupted?
    1062Whether a habit can diminish?
    1063Whether a habit is corrupted or diminished through mere cessation from act?
    1080Q54: OF THE DISTINCTION OF HABITS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1081Whether many habits can be in one power?
    1082Whether habits are distinguished by their objects?
    1083Whether habits are divided into good and bad?
    1084Whether one habit is made up of many habits?
    1100Q55: OF THE VIRTUES, AS TO THEIR ESSENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1101Whether human virtue is a habit?
    1102Whether human virtue is an operative habit?
    1103Whether human virtue is a good habit?
    1104Whether virtue is suitably defined?
    1120Q56: OF THE SUBJECT OF VIRTUE (SIX ARTICLES)
    1121Whether the subject of virtue is a power of the soul?
    1122Whether one virtue can be in several powers?
    1123Whether the intellect can be the subject of virtue?
    1124Whether the irascible and concupiscible powers are the subject of virtue?
    1125Whether the sensitive powers of apprehension are the subject of virtue?
    1126Whether the will can be the subject of virtue?
    1140Q57: OF THE INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES (SIX ARTICLES)
    1141Whether the habits of the speculative intellect are virtues?
    1142Whether there are only three habits of the speculative intellect, viz. wisdom, science and understanding?
    1143Whether the intellectual habit, art, is a virtue?
    1144Whether prudence is a distinct virtue from art?
    1145Whether prudence is a virtue necessary to man?
    1146Whether "eubulia, synesis, and gnome" are virtues annexed to prudence? [*(euboulia, synesis, gnome)]
    1160Q58: OF THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)
    1161Whether every virtue is a moral virtue?
    1162Whether moral virtue differs from intellectual virtue?
    Whether virtue is adequately divided into moral and intellectual?
    1164Whether there can be moral without intellectual virtue?
    1165Whether there can be intellectual without moral virtue?
    1180Q59: OF MORAL VIRTUE IN RELATION TO THE PASSIONS (FIVE ARTICLES)
    1181Whether moral virtue is a passion?
    1182Whether there can be moral virtue with passion?
    1183Whether sorrow is compatible with moral virtue?
    1184Whether all the moral virtues are about the passions?
    1185Whether there can be moral virtue without passion?
    1200Q60: HOW THE MORAL VIRTUES DIFFER FROM ONE ANOTHER (FIVE ARTICLES)
    1201Whether there is only one moral virtue?
    1202Whether moral virtues about operations are different from those that are about passions?
    1203Whether there is only one moral virtue about operations?
    1204Whether there are different moral virtues about different passions?
    1205Whether the moral virtues differ in point of the various objects of the passions?
    1220Q61: OF THE CARDINAL VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)
    1221Whether the moral virtues should be called cardinal or principal virtues?
    1222Whether there are four cardinal virtues?
    1223Whether any other virtues should be called principal rather than these?
    1224Whether the four cardinal virtues differ from one another?
    1225Whether the cardinal virtues are fittingly divided into social virtues, perfecting, perfect, and exemplar virtues?
    1240Q62: OF THE THEOLOGICAL VIRTUES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1241Whether there are any theological virtues?
    1242Whether the theological virtues are distinct from the intellectual and moral virtues?
    1243Whether faith, hope, and charity are fittingly reckoned as theological virtues?
    1244Whether faith precedes hope, and hope charity?
    1260Q63: OF THE CAUSE OF VIRTUES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1261Whether virtue is in us by nature?
    1262Whether any virtue is caused in us by habituation?
    1263Whether any moral virtues are in us by infusion?
    1264Whether virtue by habituation belongs to the same species as infused virtue?
    1280Q64: OF THE MEAN OF VIRTUE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1281Whether moral virtues observe the mean?
    1282Whether the mean of moral virtue is the real mean, or the rational mean?
    1283Whether the intellectual virtues observe the mean?
    1284Whether the theological virtues observe the mean?
    1300Q65: OF THE CONNECTION OF VIRTUES (FIVE ARTICLES)
    1301Whether the moral virtues are connected with one another?
    1302Whether moral virtues can be without charity?
    1303Whether charity can be without moral virtue?
    1304Whether faith and hope can be without charity?
    1305Whether charity can be without faith and hope?
    1320Q66: OF EQUALITY AMONG THE VIRTUES (SIX ARTICLES)
    1321Whether one virtue can be greater or less than another?
    1322Whether all the virtues that are together in one man, are equal?
    1323Whether the moral virtues are better than the intellectual virtues?
    1324Whether justice is the chief of the moral virtues?
    1325Whether wisdom is the greatest of the intellectual virtues?
    1326Whether charity is the greatest of the theological virtues?
    1340Q67: OF THE DURATION OF VIRTUES AFTER THIS LIFE (SIX ARTICLES)
    1341Whether the moral virtues remain after this life?
    1342Whether the intellectual virtues remain after this life?
    1343Whether faith remains after this life?
    1344Whether hope remains after death, in the state of glory?
    1345Whether anything of faith or hope remains in glory?
    1346Whether charity remains after this life, in glory?
    1360Q68: OF THE GIFTS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    1361Whether the Gifts differ from the virtues?
    1362Whether the gifts are necessary to man for salvation?
    1363Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost are habits?
    1364Whether the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost are suitably enumerated?
    1365Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost are connected?
    1366Whether the gifts of the Holy Ghost remain in heaven?
    1367Whether the gifts are set down by Isaias in their order of dignity?
    1368Whether the virtues are more excellent than the gifts?
    1380Q69: OF THE BEATITUDES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1381Whether the beatitudes differ from the virtues and gifts?
    1382Whether the rewards assigned to the beatitudes refer to this life?
    1383Whether the beatitudes are suitably enumerated?
    1384Whether the rewards of the beatitudes are suitably enumerated?
    1400Q70: OF THE FRUITS OF THE HOLY GHOST (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1401Whether the fruits of the Holy Ghost which the Apostle enumerates (@Ga 5@) are acts?
    1402Whether the fruits differ from the beatitudes?
    1403Whether the fruits are suitably enumerated by the Apostle?
    1404Whether the fruits of the Holy Ghost are contrary to the works of the flesh?
    1420Q71: OF VICE AND SIN CONSIDERED IN THEMSELVES (SIX ARTICLES)
    1421Whether vice is contrary to virtue?
    1422Whether vice is contrary to nature?
    1423Whether vice is worse than a vicious act?
    1424Whether sin is compatible with virtue?
    1425Whether every sin includes an action?
    1426Whether sin is fittingly defined as a word, deed, or desire contrary to the eternal law?
    1440Q72: OF THE DISTINCTION OF SINS (NINE ARTICLES)
    1441Whether sins differ in species according to their objects?
    1442Whether spiritual sins are fittingly distinguished from carnal sins?
    1443Whether sins differ specifically in reference to their causes?
    1444Whether sin is fittingly divided into sin against God, against oneself, and against one's neighbor?
    1445Whether the division of sins according to their debt of punishment diversifies their species?
    1446Whether sins of commission and omission differ specifically?
    1447Whether sins are fittingly divided into sins of thought, word, and deed?
    1448Whether excess and deficiency diversify the species of sins?
    1449Whether sins differ specifically in respect of different circumstances?
    1460Q73: OF THE COMPARISON OF ONE SIN WITH ANOTHER (TEN ARTICLES)
    1461Whether all sins are connected with one another?
    1462Whether all sins are equal?
    1463Whether the gravity of sins varies according to their objects?
    1464Whether the gravity of sins depends on the excellence of the virtues to which they are opposed?
    1465Whether carnal sins are of less guilt than spiritual sins?
    1466Whether the gravity of a sin depends on its cause?
    1467Whether a circumstance aggravates a sin?
    1468Whether sin is aggravated by reason of its causing more harm?
    1469Whether a sin is aggravated by reason of the condition of the person against whom it is committed?
    1470Whether the excellence of the person sinning aggravates the sin?
    1480Q74: OF THE SUBJECT OF SIN (TEN ARTICLES)
    1481Whether the will is a subject of sin?
    1482Whether the will alone is the subject of sin?
    1483Whether there can be sin in the sensuality?
    1484Whether mortal sin can be in the sensuality?
    1485Whether sin can be in the reason?
    1486Whether the sin of morose delectation is in the reason?
    1487Whether the sin of consent to the act is in the higher reason?
    1488Whether consent to delectation is a mortal sin?
    1489Whether there can be venial sin in the higher reason as directing the lower powers?
    1490Whether venial sin can be in the higher reason as such?
    1500Q75: OF THE CAUSES OF SIN, IN GENERAL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1501Whether sin has a cause?
    1502Whether sin has an internal cause?
    1503Whether sin has an external cause?
    1504Whether one sin is a cause of another?
    1520Q76: OF THE CAUSES OF SIN, IN PARTICULAR (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1521Whether ignorance can be a cause of sin?
    1522Whether ignorance is a sin?
    1523Whether ignorance excuses from sin altogether?
    1524Whether ignorance diminishes a sin?
    1540Q77: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, ON THE PART OF THE SENSITIVE APPETITE (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    1541Whether the will is moved by a passion of the senstive appetite?
    1542Whether the reason can be overcome by a passion, against its knowledge?
    1543Whether a sin committed through passion, should be called a sin of weakness?
    1544Whether self-love is the source of every sin?
    1545Whether concupiscence of the flesh, concupiscence of the eyes, and pride of life are fittingly described as causes of sin?
    1546Whether sin is alleviated on account of a passion?
    1547Whether passion excuses from sin altogether?
    1548Whether a sin committed through passion can be mortal?
    1560Q78: OF THAT CAUSE OF SIN WHICH IS MALICE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1561Whether anyone sins through certain malice?
    1562Whether everyone that sins through habit, sins through certain malice?
    1563Whether one who sins through certain malice, sins through habit?
    1564Whether it is more grievous to sin through certain malice than through passion?
    1580Q79: OF THE EXTERNAL CAUSES OF SIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1581Whether God is a cause of sin?
    1582Whether the act of sin is from God?
    1583Whether God is the cause of spiritual blindness and hardness of heart?
    1584Whether blindness and hardness of heart are directed to the salvation of those who are blinded and hardened?
    1600Q80: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, AS REGARDS THE DEVIL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1601Whether the devil is directly the cause of man's sinning?
    1602Whether the devil can induce man to sin, by internal instigations?
    1603Whether the devil can induce man to sin of necessity?
    1604Whether all the sins of men are due to the devil's suggestion?
    1620Q81: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, ON THE PART OF MAN (FIVE ARTICLES)
    1621Whether the first sin of our first parent is contracted by his descendants, by way of origin?
    1622Whether also other sins of the first parent or of nearer ancestors are transmitted to their descendants?
    1623Whether the sin of the first parent is transmitted, by the way of origin, to all men?
    1624Whether original sin would be contracted by a person formed miraculously from human flesh?

    1640Q82: OF ORIGINAL SIN, AS TO ITS ESSENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1641Whether original sin is a habit?
    1642Whether there are several original sins in one man?
    1643Whether original sin is concupiscence?
    1644Whether original sin is equally in all?
    1660Q83: OF THE SUBJECT OF ORIGINAL SIN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1661Whether original sin is more in the flesh than in the soul?
    1662Whether original sin is in the essence of the soul rather than in the powers?
    1663Whether original sin infects the will before the other powers?
    1664Whether the aforesaid powers are more infected than the others?
    1680Q84: OF THE CAUSE OF SIN, IN RESPECT OF ONE SIN BEING THE CAUSE OF ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1681Whether covetousness is the root of all sins?
    1682Whether pride is the beginning of every sin?
    1683Whether any other special sins, besides pride and avarice, should be called capital?
    1684Whether the seven capital vices are suitably reckoned?
    1700Q85: OF THE EFFECTS OF SIN, AND, FIRST, OF THE CORRUPTION OF THE GOOD OF NATURE (SIX ARTICLES)
    1701Whether sin diminishes the good of nature?
    1702Whether the entire good of human nature can be destroyed by sin?
    1703Whether weakness, ignorance, malice and concupiscence are suitably reckoned as the wounds of nature consequent upon sin?
    1704Whether privation of mode, species and order is the effect of sin?
    1705Whether death and other bodily defects are the result of sin?
    1706Whether death and other defects are natural to man?
    1720Q86: OF THE STAIN OF SIN (TWO ARTICLES)
    1721Whether sin causes a stain on the soul?
    1722Whether the stain remains in the soul after the act of sin?
    1740Q87: OF THE DEBT OF PUNISHMENT (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    1741Whether the debt of punishment is an effect of sin?
    1742Whether sin can be the punishment of sin?
    1743Whether any sin incurs a debt of eternal punishment?
    1744Whether sin incurs a debt of punishment infinite in quantity?
    1745Whether every sin incurs a debt of eternal punishment?
    1746Whether the debt of punishment remains after sin?
    1747Whether every punishment is inflicted for a sin?
    1748Whether anyone is punished for another's sin?
    1760Q88: OF VENIAL AND MORTAL SIN (SIX ARTICLES)
    1761Whether venial sin is fittingly condivided with mortal sin?
    1762Whether mortal and venial sin differ generically?
    1763Whether venial sin is a disposition to mortal sin?
    1764Whether a venial sin can become mortal?
    1765Whether a circumstance can make a venial sin to be mortal?
    1766Whether a mortal sin can become venial?
    1780Q89: OF VENIAL SIN IN ITSELF (SIX ARTICLES)
    1781Whether venial sin causes a stain on the soul?
    1782Whether venial sins are suitably designated as "wood, hay, and stubble"?
    1783Whether man could commit a venial sin in the state of innocence?
    1784Whether a good or a wicked angel can sin venially?
    1785Whether the first movements of the sensuality in unbelievers are mortal sin?
    1786Whether venial sin can be in anyone with original sin alone?
    1800Q90: OF THE ESSENCE OF LAW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1801Whether law is something pertaining to reason?
    1802Whether the law is always something directed to the common good?
    1803Whether the reason of any man is competent to make laws?
    1804Whether promulgation is essential to a law?
    1820Q91: OF THE VARIOUS KINDS OF LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    1821Whether there is an eternal law?
    1822Whether there is in us a natural law?
    1823Whether there is a human law?
    1824Whether there was any need for a Divine law?
    1825Whether there is but one Divine law?
    1826Whether there is a law in the fomes of sin?
    1840Q92: OF THE EFFECTS OF LAW (TWO ARTICLES)
    1841Whether an effect of law is to make men good?
    1842Whether the acts of law are suitably assigned?
    1860Q93: OF THE ETERNAL LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    1861Whether the eternal law is a sovereign type [*Ratio] existing in God?
    1862Whether the eternal law is known to all?
    1863Whether every law is derived from the eternal law?
    1864Whether necessary and eternal things are subject to the eternal law?
    1865Whether natural contingents are subject to the eternal law?
    1866Whether all human affairs are subject to the eternal law?
    1880Q94: OF THE NATURAL LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    1881Whether the natural law is a habit?
    1882Whether the natural law contains several precepts, or only one?
    1883Whether all acts of virtue are prescribed by the natural law?
    1884Whether the natural law is the same in all men?
    1885Whether the natural law can be changed?
    1886Whether the law of nature can be abolished from the heart of man?
    1900Q95: OF HUMAN LAW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1901Whether it was useful for laws to be framed by men?
    1902Whether every human law is derived from the natural law?
    1903Whether Isidore's description of the quality of positive law is appropriate?
    1904Whether Isidore's division of human laws is appropriate?
    1920Q96: OF THE POWER OF HUMAN LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    1921Whether human law should be framed for the community rather than for the individual?
    1922Whether it belongs to the human law to repress all vices?
    1923Whether human law prescribes acts of all the virtues?
    1924Whether human law binds a man in conscience?
    1925Whether all are subject to the law?
    1926Whether he who is under a law may act beside the letter of the law?
    1940Q97: OF CHANGE IN LAWS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    1941Whether human law should be changed in any way?
    1942Whether human law should always be changed, whenever something better occurs?
    1943Whether custom can obtain force of law?
    1944Whether the rulers of the people can dispense from human laws?
    1960Q98: OF THE OLD LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    1961Whether the Old Law was good?
    1962Whether the Old Law was from God?
    1963Whether the Old Law was given through the angels?
    1964Whether the Old Law should have been given to the Jews alone?
    1965Whether all men were bound to observe the Old Law?
    1966Whether the Old Law was suitably given at the time of Moses?
    1980Q99: OF THE PRECEPTS OF THE OLD LAW (SIX ARTICLES)
    1981Whether the Old Law contains only one precept?
    1982Whether the Old Law contains moral precepts?
    1983Whether the Old Law comprises ceremonial, besides moral, precepts?
    1984Whether, besides the moral and ceremonial precepts, there are also judicial precepts?
    1985Whether the Old Law contains any others besides the moral, judicial, and ceremonial precepts?
    1986Whether the Old Law should have induced men to the observance of its precepts, by means of temporal promises and threats?
    2000Q100: OF THE MORAL PRECEPTS OF THE OLD LAW (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    2001Whether all the moral precepts of the Old Law belong to the law of nature?
    2002Whether the moral precepts of the Law are about all the acts of virtue?
    2003Whether all the moral precepts of the Old Law are reducible to the ten precepts of the decalogue?
    2004Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably distinguished from one another?
    2005Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably set forth?
    2006Whether the ten precepts of the decalogue are set in proper order?
    2007Whether the precepts of the decalogue are suitably formulated?
    2008Whether the precepts of the decalogue are dispensable?
    2009Whether the mode of virtue falls under the precept of the law?
    2010Whether the mode of charity falls under the precept of the Divine law?
    2011Whether it is right to distinguish other moral precepts of the law besides the decalogue?
    2012Whether the moral precepts of the Old Law justified man?
    2040Q: 102
    2043Whether a suitable cause can be assigned for the ceremonies which pertained to sacrifices?
    2044Whether sufficient reason can be assigned for the ceremonies pertaining to holy things?
    2045Whether there can be any suitable cause for the sacraments of the Old Law?
    2046Whether there was any reasonable cause for the ceremonial observances?
    2060Q103: OF THE DURATION OF THE CEREMONIAL PRECEPTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    2061Whether the ceremonies of the Law were in existence before the Law?
    2062Whether, at the time of the Law, the ceremonies of the Old Law had any power of justification?
    2063Whether the ceremonies of the Old Law ceased at the coming of Christ?
    2064Whether since Christ's Passion the legal ceremonies can be observed without committing mortal sin?
    2080Q 104: OF THE JUDICIAL PRECEPTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    2081Whether the judicial precepts were those which directed man in relation to his neighbor?
    2082Whether the judicial precepts were figurative?
    2083Whether the judicial precepts of the Old Law bind for ever?
    2084Whether it is possible to assign a distinct division of the judicial precepts?
    2100Q105: OF THE REASON FOR THE JUDICIAL PRECEPTS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    2101Whether the Old Law enjoined fitting precepts concerning rulers?
    2102Whether the judicial precepts were suitably framed as to the relations of one man with another?
    2103Whether the judicial precepts regarding foreigners were framed in a suitable manner?
    2104Whether the Old Law set forth suitable precepts about the members of the household?
    2120Q106: OF THE LAW OF THE GOSPEL, CALLED THE NEW LAW, CONSIDERED IN ITSELF (FOUR ARTICLES)
    2121Whether the New Law is a written law?
    2122Whether the New Law justifies?
    2123Whether the New Law should have been given from the beginning of the world?
    Whether the New Law will last till the end of the world?
    2140Q107: OF THE NEW LAW AS COMPARED WITH THE OLD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    2141Whether the New Law is distinct from the Old Law?
    2142Whether the New Law fulfils the Old?
    2143Whether the New Law is contained in the Old?
    2144Whether the New Law is more burdensome than the Old?
    2160Q108: OF THOSE THINGS THAT ARE CONTAINED IN THE NEW LAW (FOUR ARTICLES)
    2161Whether the New Law ought to prescribe or prohibit any external acts?
    2162Whether the New Law made sufficient ordinations about external acts?
    2163Whether the New Law directed man sufficiently as regards interior actions?
    2164Whether certain definite counsels are fittingly proposed in the New Law?
    2180Q109: OF THE NECESSITY OF GRACE (TEN ARTICLES)
    2181Whether without grace man can know any truth?
    2182Whether man can wish or do any good without grace?
    2183Whether by his own natural powers and without grace man can love God above all things?
    2184Whether man without grace and by his own natural powers can fulfil the commandments of the Law?
    2185Whether man can merit everlasting life without grace?
    2186Whether a man, by himself and without the external aid of grace, can prepare himself for grace?
    2187Whether man can rise from sin without the help of grace?
    2188Whether man without grace can avoid sin?
    2189Whether one who has already obtained grace, can, of himself and without further help of grace, do good and avoid sin?
    2190Whether man possessed of grace needs the help of grace in order to persevere?
    2200Q110: OF THE GRACE OF GOD AS REGARDS ITS ESSENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    2201Whether grace implies anything in the soul?
    2202Whether grace is a quality of the soul?
    2203Whether grace is the same as virtue?
    2204Whether grace is in the essence of the soul as in a subject, or in one of the powers?
    2220Q111: OF THE DIVISION OF GRACE (FIVE ARTICLES)
    2221Whether grace is fittingly divided into sanctifying grace and gratuitous grace?
    2222Whether grace is fittingly divided into operating and cooperating grace?
    2223Whether grace is fittingly divided into prevenient and subsequent grace?
    2224Whether gratuitous grace is rightly divided by the Apostle?
    2225Whether gratuitous grace is nobler than sanctifying grace?
    2240Q112: OF THE CAUSE OF GRACE (FIVE ARTICLES)
    2241Whether God alone is the cause of grace?
    2242Whether any preparation and disposition for grace is required on man's part?
    2243Whether grace is necessarily given to whoever prepares himself for it, or to whoever does what he can?
    2244Whether grace is greater in one than in another?
    2245Whether man can know that he has grace?
    2260Q113: OF THE EFFECTS OF GRACE (TEN ARTICLES)
    2261Whether the justification of the ungodly is the remission of sins?
    2262Whether the infusion of grace is required for the remission of guilt, i.e. for the justification of the ungodly?
    2263Whether for the justification of the ungodly is required a movement of the free-will?
    2264Whether a movement of faith is required for the justification of the ungodly?
    2265Whether for the justification of the ungodly there is required a movement of the free-will towards sin?
    2266Whether the remission of sins ought to be reckoned amongst the things required for justification?
    2267Whether the justification of the ungodly takes place in an instant or successively?
    2268Whether the infusion of grace is naturally the first of the things required for the justification of the ungodly?
    2269Whether the justification of the ungodly is God's greatest work?
    2270Whether the justification of the ungodly is a miraculous work?
    2280Q114: OF MERIT (TEN ARTICLES)
    2281Whether a man may merit anything from God?
    2282Whether anyone without grace can merit eternal life?
    2283Whether a man in grace can merit eternal life condignly?
    2284Whether grace is the principle of merit through charity rather than the other virtues?
    2285Whether a man may merit for himself the first grace?
    2286Whether a man can merit the first grace for another?
    2287Whether a man may merit restoration after a fall?
    2288Whether a man may merit the increase of grace or charity?
    2289Art. 9. Whether a man may merit perseverance?
    2290Whether temporal goods fall under merit?

    Version
    Latin