Summa Th. I EN
Benziger Bros. edition, 1947.
Translated by Fathers of the English Dominican Province

  • Benziger Bros. edition, 1947 - CCEL.ORG
  • Public domain

  • Headings


    FIRST PART (FP: Questions 1-119)

    Q1: TREATISE ON SACRED DOCTRINE (Question [1])
    Whether, besides philosophy, any further doctrine is required?
    Whether sacred doctrine is a science?
    Whether sacred doctrine is one science?
    Whether sacred doctrine is a practical science?
    Whether sacred doctrine is nobler than other sciences?
    Whether this doctrine is the same as wisdom?
    Whether God is the object of this science?
    Whether sacred doctrine is a matter of argument?
    Whether Holy Scripture should use metaphors?
    Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses?
    Q2: THE EXISTENCE OF GOD (THREE ARTICLES)
    Whether the existence of God is self-evident?
    Whether it can be demonstrated that God exists?
    Whether God exists?
    Q3: OF THE SIMPLICITY OF GOD (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Whether God is a body?
    Whether God is composed of matter and form?
    Whether God is the same as His essence or nature?
    Whether essence and existence are the same in God?
    Whether God is contained in a genus?
    Whether in God there are any accidents?
    Whether God is altogether simple?
    Whether God enters into the composition of other things?
    Q4: THE PERFECTION OF GOD (THREE ARTICLES)
    Whether God is perfect?
    Whether the perfections of all things are in God?
    Whether any creature can be like God?
    Q5: OF GOODNESS IN GENERAL (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether goodness differs really from being?
    Whether goodness is prior in idea to being?
    Whether every being is good?
    Whether goodness has the aspect of a final cause?
    Whether the essence of goodness consists in mode, species and order?
    Whether goodness is rightly divided into the virtuous*, the useful and the pleasant?
    Whether God is good?
    Whether God is the supreme good?
    Whether to be essentially good belongs to God alone?
    Whether all things are good by the divine goodness?
    Q7: THE INFINITY OF GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether God is infinite?
    Whether anything but God can be essentially infinite?
    Whether an actually infinite magnitude can exist?
    Whether an infinite multitude can exist?
    Q8: THE EXISTENCE OF GOD IN THINGS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Whether God is in all things?
    Whether God is everywhere?
    Whether God is everywhere by essence, presence and power?
    Whether to be everywhere belongs to God alone?
    Q9: THE IMMUTABILITY OF GOD (TWO ARTICLES)
    Whether God is altogether immutable?
    Whether to be immutable belongs to God alone?
    Q10: THE ETERNITY OF GOD (SIX ARTICLES)
    Whether this is a good definition of eternity, "The simultaneously-whole and perfect possession of interminable life"?
    Whether God is eternal?
    Whether to be eternal belongs to God alone?
    Whether eternity differs from time?
    The difference of aeviternity and time
    Whether there is only one aeviternity?

    Question: 11 THE UNITY OF GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether "one" adds anything to "being"?
    Article: 2 Whether "one" and "many" are opposed to each other?
    Article: 3 Whether God is one?
    Article: 4 Whether God is supremely one?

    Question: 12 HOW GOD IS KNOWN BY US (THIRTEEN ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether any created intellect can see the essence of God?
    Article: 2 Whether the essence of God is seen by the created intellect through an image?
    Article: 3 Whether the essence of God can be seen with the bodily eye?
    Article: 4 Whether any created intellect by its natural powers can see the Divine essence?
    Article: 5 Whether the created intellect needs any created light in order to see the essence of God?
    Article: 6 Whether of those who see the essence of God, one sees more perfectly than another?
    Article: 7 Whether those who see the essence of God comprehend Him?
    Article: 8 Whether those who see the essence of God see all in God?
    Article: 9 Whether what is seen in God by those who see the Divine essence, is seen through any similitude?
    Article: 10 Whether those who see the essence of God see all they see in it at the same time?
    Article: 11 Whether anyone in this life can see the essence of God?
    Article: 12 Whether God can be known in this life by natural reason?
    Article: 13 Whether by grace a higher knowledge of God can be obtained than by natural reason?

    Question: 13 THE NAMES OF GOD (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether a name can be given to God?
    Article: 2 Whether any name can be applied to God substantially?
    Article: 3 Whether any name can be applied to God in its literal sense?
    Article: 4 Whether names applied to God are synonymous?
    Article: 5 Whether what is said of God and of creatures is univocally predicated of them?
    Article: 6 Whether names predicated of God are predicated primarily of creatures?
    Article: 7 Whether names which imply relation to creatures are predicated of God temporally?
    Article: 8 Whether this name "God" is a name of the nature?
    Article: 9 Whether this name "God" is communicable?
    Article: 10 Whether this name "God" is applied to God univocally by nature, by participation, and according to opinion?
    Article: 11 Whether this name, HE WHO IS, is the most proper name of God?
    Article: 12 Whether affirmative propositions can be formed about God?

    Question: 14 OF GOD'S KNOWLEDGE (SIXTEEN ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is knowledge [*Scientia]?
    Article: 2 Whether God understands Himself?
    Article: 3 Whether God comprehends Himself?
    Article: 4 Whether the act of God's intellect is His substance?
    Article: 5 Whether God knows things other than Himself?
    Article: 6 Whether God knows things other than Himself by proper knowledge?
    Article: 7 Whether the knowledge of God is discursive?
    Article: 8 Whether the knowledge of God is the cause of things?
    Article: 9 Whether God has knowledge of things that are not?
    Article: 10 Whether God knows evil things?
    Article: 11 Whether God knows singular things?
    Article: 12 Whether God can know infinite things?
    Article: 13 Whether the knowledge of God is of future contingent things?
    Article: 14 Whether God knows enunciable things?
    Article: 15 Whether the knowledge of God is variable?
    Article: 16 Whether God has a speculative knowledge of things?

    Question: 15 OF IDEAS (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there are ideas?
    Article: 2 Whether ideas are many?
    Article: 3 Whether there are ideas of all things that God knows?

    Question: 16 OF TRUTH (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether truth resides only in the intellect?
    Article: 2 Whether truth resides only in the intellect composing and dividing?
    Article: 3 Whether the true and being are convertible terms?
    Article: 4 Whether good is logically prior to the true?
    Article: 5 Whether God is truth?
    Article: 6 Whether there is only one truth, according to which all things are true?
    Article: 7 Whether created truth is eternal?
    Article: 8 Whether truth is immutable?

    Question: 17 CONCERNING FALSITY (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether falsity exists in things?
    Article: 2 Whether there is falsity in the senses?
    Article: 3 Whether falsity is in the intellect?
    Article: 4 Whether true and false are contraries?

    Question: 18 THE LIFE OF GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether to live belongs to all natural things?
    Article: 2 Whether life is an operation?
    Article: 3 Whether life is properly attributed to God?
    Article: 4 Whether all things are life in God?

    Question: 19 THE WILL OF GOD (TWELVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is will in God?
    Article: 2 Whether God wills things apart from Himself?
    Article: 3 Whether whatever God wills He wills necessarily?
    Article: 4 Whether the will of God is the cause of things?
    Article: 5 Whether any cause can be assigned to the divine will?
    Article: 6 Whether the will of God is always fulfilled?
    Article: 7 Whether the will of God is changeable?
    Article: 8 Whether the will of God imposes necessity on the things willed?
    Article: 9 Whether God wills evils?
    Article: 10 Whether God has free-will?
    Article: 11 Whether the will of expression is to be distinguished in God?
    Article: 12 Whether five expressions of will are rightly assigned to the divine will?

    Question: 20 GOD'S LOVE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether love exists in God?
    Article: 2 Whether God loves all things?
    Article: 3 Whether God loves all things equally?
    Article: 4 Whether God always loves more the better things?

    Question: 21 THE JUSTICE AND MERCY OF GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is justice in God?
    Article: 2 Whether the justice of God is truth?
    Article: 3 Whether mercy can be attributed to God?
    Article: 4 Whether in every work of God there are mercy and justice?

    Question: 22 THE PROVIDENCE OF GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether providence can suitably be attributed to God?
    Article: 2 Whether everything is subject to the providence of God?
    Article: 3 Whether God has immediate providence over everything?
    Article: 4 Whether providence imposes any necessity on things foreseen?

    Question: 23 OF PREDESTINATION (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether men are predestined by God?
    Article: 2 Whether predestination places anything in the predestined?
    Article: 3 Whether God reprobates any man?
    Article: 4 Whether the predestined are chosen by God? [*"Eligantur."]
    Article: 5 Whether the foreknowledge of merits is the cause of predestination?
    Article: 6 Whether predestination is certain?
    Article: 7 Whether the number of the predestined is certain?
    Article: 8 Whether predestination can be furthered by the prayers of the saints?

    Question: 24 THE BOOK OF LIFE (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the book of life is the same as predestination?
    Article: 2 Whether the book of life regards only the life of glory of the predestined?
    Article: 3 Whether anyone may be blotted out of the book of life?

    Question: 25 THE POWER OF GOD (SIX ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is power in God?
    Article: 2 Whether the power of God is infinite?
    Article: 3 Whether God is omnipotent?
    Article: 4 Whether God can make the past not to have been?
    Article: 5 Whether God can do what He does not?
    Article: 6 Whether God can do better than what He does?

    Question: 26 OF THE DIVINE BEATITUDE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether beatitude belongs to God?
    Article: 2 Whether God is called blessed in respect of His intellect?
    Article: 3 Whether God is the beatitude of each of the blessed?
    Article: 4 Whether all other beatitude is included in the beatitude of God?

    Question: 27 \BTREATISE ON THE MOST HOLY TRINITY (Questions [27]-43)

    THE PROCESSION OF THE DIVINE PERSONS (FIVE ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether there is procession in God?
    Article: 2 Whether any procession in God can be called generation?
    Article: 3 Whether any other procession exists in God besides that of the Word?
    Article: 4 Whether the procession of love in God is generation?
    Article: 5 Whether there are more than two processions in God?

    Question: 28 THE DIVINE RELATIONS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there are real relations in God?
    Article: 2 Whether relation in God is the same as His essence?
    Article: 3 Whether the relations in God are really distinguished from each other?
    Article: 4 Whether in God there are only four real relations---paternity, filiation, spiration, and procession?

    Question: 29 THE DIVINE PERSONS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Q 29 Article: 1 The definition of "person"
    Article: 2 Whether "person" is the same as hypostasis, subsistence, and essence?
    Article: 3 Whether the word "person" should be said of God?
    Article: 4 Whether this word "person" signifies relation?

    Question: 30 THE PLURALITY OF PERSONS IN GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there are several persons in God?
    Article: 2 Whether there are more than three persons in God?
    Article: 3 Whether the numeral terms denote anything real in God?
    Article: 4 Whether this term "person" can be common to the three persons?

    Question: 31 OF WHAT BELONGS TO THE UNITY OR PLURALITY IN GOD (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is trinity in God?
    Article: 2 Whether the Son is other than the Father?
    Article: 3 Whether the exclusive word "alone" should be added to the essential term in God?
    Article: 4 Whether an exclusive diction can be joined to the personal term?

    Question: 32 THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE DIVINE PERSONS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the trinity of the divine persons can be known by natural reason?
    Article: 2 Whether there are notions in God?
    Article: 3 Whether there are five notions?
    Article: 4 Whether it is lawful to have various contrary opinions of notions?

    Question: 33 OF THE PERSON OF THE FATHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether it belongs to the Father to be the principle?
    Article: 2 Whether this name "Father" is properly the name of a divine person?
    Article: 3 Whether this name "Father" is applied to God, firstly as a personal name?
    Article: 4 Whether it is proper to the Father to be unbegotten?

    Question: 34 OF THE PERSON OF THE SON (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether Word in God is a personal name?
    Article: 2 Whether "Word" is the Son's proper name?
    Article: 3 Whether the name "Word" imports relation to creatures?

    Question: 35 OF THE IMAGE (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether image in God is said personally?
    Article: 2 Whether the name of Image is proper to the Son?

    Question: 36 OF THE PERSON OF THE HOLY GHOST (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether this name "Holy Ghost" is the proper name of one divine person?
    Article: 2 Whether the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son?
    Article: 3 Whether the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father through the Son?
    Article: 4 Whether the Father and the Son are one principle of the Holy Ghost?

    Question: 37 OF THE NAME OF THE HOLY GHOST---LOVE (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether "Love" is the proper name of the Holy Ghost?
    Article: 2 Whether the Father and the Son love each other by the Holy Ghost?

    Question: 38 OF THE NAME OF THE HOLY GHOST, AS GIFT (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether "Gift" is a personal name?
    Article: 2 Whether "Gift" is the proper name of the Holy Ghost?

    Question: 39 OF THE PERSONS IN RELATION TO THE ESSENCE (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether in God the essence is the same as the person?
    Article: 2 Whether it must be said that the three persons are of one essence?
    Article: 3 Whether essential names should be predicated in the singular of the three persons?
    Article: 4 Whether the concrete essential names can stand for the person?
    Article: 5 Whether abstract essential names can stand for the person?
    Article: 6 Whether the persons can be predicated of the essential terms?
    Article: 7 Whether the essential names should be appropriated to the persons?
    Article: 8 Whether the essential attributes are appropriated to the persons in a fitting manner by the holy doctors?

    Question: 40 OF THE PERSONS AS COMPARED TO THE RELATIONS OR PROPERTIES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether relation is the same as person?
    Article: 2 Whether the persons are distinguished by the relations?
    Article: 3 Whether the hypostases remain if the relations are mentally abstracted from the persons?
    Article: 4 Whether the properties presuppose the notional acts?

    Question: 41 OF THE PERSONS IN REFERENCE TO THE NOTIONAL ACTS (SIX ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the notional acts are to be attributed to the persons?
    Article: 2 Whether the notional acts are voluntary?
    Article: 3 Whether the notional acts proceed from something?
    Article: 4 Whether in God there is a power in respect of the notional acts?
    Article: 5 Whether the power of begetting signifies a relation, and not the essence?
    Article: 6 Whether several persons can be the term of one notional act?

    Question: 42 OF EQUALITY AND LIKENESS AMONG THE DIVINE PERSONS (SIX ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is equality in God?
    Article: 2 Whether the person proceeding is co-eternal with His principle, as the Son with the Father?
    Article: 3 Whether in the divine persons there exists an order of nature?
    Article: 4 Whether the Son is equal to the Father in greatness?
    Article: 5 Whether the Son is in the Father, and conversely?
    Article: 6 Whether the Son is equal to the Father in power?

    Question: 43 THE MISSION OF THE DIVINE PERSONS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether a divine person can be properly sent?
    Article: 2 Whether mission is eternal, or only temporal?
    Article: 3 Whether the invisible mission of the divine person is only according to the gift of sanctifying grace?
    Article: 4 Whether the Father can be fittingly sent?
    Article: 5 Whether it is fitting for the Son to be sent invisibly?
    Article: 6 Whether the invisible mission is to all who participate grace?
    Article: 7 Whether it is fitting for the Holy Ghost to be sent visibly?
    Article: 8 Whether a divine person is sent only by the person whence He proceeds eternally?

    Question: 44 \BTREATISE ON THE CREATION (Questions 44-49)

    THE PROCESSION OF CREATURES FROM GOD, AND OF THE FIRST CAUSE OF ALL THINGS (FOUR ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether it is necessary that every being be created by God?
    Article: 2 Whether primary matter is created by God?
    Article: 3 Whether the exemplar cause is anything besides God?
    Article: 4 Whether God is the final cause of all things?

    Question: 45 THE MODE OF EMANATION OF THINGS FROM THE FIRST PRINCIPLE (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether to create is to make something from nothing?
    Article: 2 Whether God can create anything?
    Article: 3 Whether creation is anything in the creature?
    Article: 4 Whether to be created belongs to composite and subsisting things?
    Article: 5 Whether it belongs to God alone to create?
    Article: 6 Whether to create is proper to any person?
    Article: 7 Whether in creatures is necessarily found a trace of the Trinity?
    Article: 8 Whether creation is mingled with works of nature and art?

    Question: 46 OF THE BEGINNING OF THE DURATION OF CREATURES (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the universe of creatures always existed?
    Article: 2 Whether it is an article of faith that the world began?
    Article: 3 Whether the creation of things was in the beginning of time?

    Question: 47 \BTREATISE ON THE DISTINCTION OF THINGS IN GENERAL (Question [47])

    OF THE DISTINCTION OF THINGS IN GENERAL (THREE ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether the multitude and distinction of things come from God?
    Article: 2 Whether the inequality of things is from God?
    Article: 3 Whether there is only one world?

    Question: 48 \BTREATISE ON THE DISTINCTION OF GOOD AND EVIL (Questions [48]-49)

    THE DISTINCTION OF THINGS IN PARTICULAR (SIX ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether evil is a nature?
    Article: 2 Whether evil is found in things?
    Article: 3 Whether evil is in good as in its subject?
    Article: 4 Whether evil corrupts the whole good?
    Article: 5 Whether evil is adequately divided into pain* and fault?
    Article: 6 Whether pain has the nature of evil more than fault has?

    Question: 49 THE CAUSE OF EVIL (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether good can be the cause of evil?
    Article: 2 Whether the supreme good, God, is the cause of evil?
    Article: 3 Whether there be one supreme evil which is the cause of every evil?

    Question: 50 \BTREATISE ON THE ANGELS (Questions [50]-64)
    OF THE SUBSTANCE OF THE ANGELS ABSOLUTELY CONSIDERED (FIVE ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether an angel is altogether incorporeal?
    Article: 2 Whether an angel is composed of matter and form?
    Article: 3 Whether the angels exist in any great number?
    Article: 4 Whether the angels differ in species?
    Article: 5 Whether the angels are incorruptible?

    Question: 51 OF THE ANGELS IN COMPARISON WITH BODIES (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the angels have bodies naturally united to them?
    Article: 2 Whether angels assume bodies?
    Article: 3 Whether the angels exercise functions of life in the bodies assumed?

    Question: 52 OF THE ANGELS IN RELATION TO PLACE (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether an angel is in a place?
    Article: 2 Whether an angel can be in several places at once?
    Article: 3 Whether several angels can be at the same time in the same place?

    Question: 53 OF THE LOCAL MOVEMENT OF THE ANGELS (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether an angel can be moved locally?
    Article: 2 Whether an angel passes through intermediate space?
    Article: 3 Whether the movement of an angel is instantaneous?

    Question: 54 OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ANGELS (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether an angel's act of understanding is his substance?
    Article: 2 Whether in the angel to understand is to exist?
    Article: 3 Whether an angel's power of intelligence is his essence?
    Article: 4 Whether there is an active and a passive intellect in an angel?
    Article: 5 Whether there is only intellectual knowledge in the angels?

    Question: 55 OF THE MEDIUM OF THE ANGELIC KNOWLEDGE (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the angels know all things by their substance?
    Article: 2 Whether the angels understand by species drawn from things?
    Article: 3 Whether the higher angels understand by more universal species than the lower angels?

    Question: 56 OF THE ANGEL'S KNOWLEDGE OF IMMATERIAL THINGS (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether an angel knows himself?
    Article: 2 Whether one angel knows another?
    Article: 3 Whether an angle knows God by his own natural principles?

    Question: 57 OF THE ANGEL'S KNOWLEDGE OF MATERIAL THINGS (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the angels know material things?
    Article: 2 Whether an angel knows singulars?
    Article: 3 Whether angels know the future?
    Article: 4 Whether angels know secret thoughts?
    Article: 5 Whether the angels know the mysteries of grace?

    Question: 58 OF THE MODE OF ANGELIC KNOWLEDGE (SEVEN ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the angel's intellect is sometimes in potentiality, sometimes in act?
    Article: 2 Whether an angel can understand many things at the same time?
    Article: 3 Whether an angel's knowledge is discursive?
    Article: 4 Whether the angels understand by composing and dividing?
    Article: 5 Whether there can be falsehood in the intellect of an angel?
    Article: 6 Whether there is a "morning" and an "evening" knowledge in the angels?
    Article: 7 Whether the morning and evening knowledge are one?

    Question: 59 THE WILL OF THE ANGELS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is will in the angels?
    Article: 2 Whether in the angels the will differs from the intellect?
    Article: 3 Whether there is free-will in the angels?
    Article: 4 Whether there is an irascible and a concupiscible appetite in the angels?

    Question: 60 OF THE LOVE OR DILECTION OF THE ANGELS (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there is natural love or dilection in an angel?
    Article: 2 Whether there is love of choice in the angels?
    Article: 3 Whether the angel loves himself with both natural love, and love of choice?
    Article: 4 Whether an angel loves another with natural love as he loves himself?
    Article: 5 Whether an angel by natural love loves God more than he loves himself?

    Question: 61 OF THE PRODUCTION OF THE ANGELS IN THE ORDER OF NATURAL BEING (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the angels have a cause of their existence?
    Article: 2 Whether the angel was produced by God from eternity?
    Article: 3 Whether the angels were created before the corporeal world?
    Article: 4 Whether the angels were created in the empyrean heaven?

    Question: 62 OF THE PERFECTION OF THE ANGELS IN THE ORDER OF GRACE AND OF GLORY (NINE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the angels were created in beatitude?
    Article: 2 Whether an angel needs grace in order to turn to God?
    Article: 3 Whether the angels were created in grace?
    Article: 4 Whether an angel merits his beatitude?
    Article: 5 Whether the angel obtained beatitude immediately after one act of merit?
    Article: 6 Whether the angels receive grace and glory according to the degree of their natural gifts?
    Article: 7 Whether natural knowledge and love remain in the beatified angels?
    Article: 8 Whether a beatified angel can sin?
    Article: 9 Whether the beatified angels advance in beatitude?

    Question: 63 THE MALICE OF THE ANGELS WITH REGARD TO SIN (NINE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the evil of fault can be in the angels?
    Article: 2 Whether only the sin of pride and envy can exist in an angel?
    Article: 3 Whether the devil desired to be as God?
    Article: 4 Whether any demons are naturally wicked?
    Article: 5 Whether the devil was wicked by the fault of his own will in the first instant of his creation?
    Article: 6 Whether there was any interval between the creation and the fall of the angel?
    Article: 7 Whether the highest angel among those who sinned was the highest of all?
    Article: 8 Whether the sin of the highest angel was the cause of the others sinning?
    Article: 9 Whether those who sinned were as many as those who remained firm?

    Question: 64 THE PUNISHMENT OF THE DEMONS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the demons' intellect is darkened by privation of the knowledge of all truth?
    Article: 2 Whether the will of the demons is obstinate in evil?
    Article: 3 Whether there is sorrow in the demons?
    Article: 4 Whether our atmosphere is the demons' place of punishment?

    Question: 65 \BTREATISE ON THE WORK OF THE SIX DAYS (Questions [65]-74)
    THE WORK OF CREATION OF CORPOREAL CREATURES (FOUR ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether corporeal creatures are from God?
    Article: 2 Whether corporeal things were made on account of God's goodness?
    Article: 3 Whether corporeal creatures were produced by God through the medium of the angels?
    Article: 4 Whether the forms of bodies are from the angels?

    Question: 66 ON THE ORDER OF CREATION TOWARDS DISTINCTION (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether formlessness of created matter preceded in time its formation?
    Article: 2 Whether the formless matter of all corporeal things is the same?
    Article: 3 Whether the empyrean heaven was created at the same time as formless matter?
    Article: 4 Whether time was created simultaneously with formless matter?

    Question: 67 ON THE WORK OF DISTINCTION IN ITSELF (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the word "light" is used in its proper sense in speaking of spiritual things?
    Article: 2 Whether light is a body?
    Article: 3 Whether light is a quality?
    Article: 4 Whether the production of light is fittingly assigned to the first day?

    Question: 68 ON THE WORK OF THE SECOND DAY (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the firmament was made on the second day?
    Article: 2 Whether there are waters above the firmament?
    Article: 3 Whether the firmament divides waters from waters?
    Article: 4 Whether there is only one heaven?

    Question: 69 ON THE WORK OF THE THIRD DAY (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether it was fitting that the gathering together of the waters should take place, as recorded, on the third day?
    Article: 2 Whether it was fitting that the production of plants should take place on the third day?

    Question: 70 OF THE WORK OF ADORNMENT, AS REGARDS THE FOURTH DAY (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the lights ought to have been produced on the fourth day?
    Article: 2 Whether the cause assigned for the production of the lights is reasonable?
    Article: 3 Whether the lights of heaven are living beings?

    Question: 71 ON THE WORK OF THE FIFTH DAY (ONE ARTICLE)

    Question: 72 ON THE WORK OF THE SIXTH DAY (ONE ARTICLE)

    Question: 73 ON THE THINGS THAT BELONG TO THE SEVENTH DAY (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the completion of the Divine works ought to be ascribed to the seventh day?
    Article: 2 Whether God rested on the seventh day from all His work?
    Article: 3 Whether blessing and sanctifying are due to the seventh day?

    Question: 74 ON ALL THE SEVEN DAYS IN COMMON (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether these days are sufficiently enumerated?
    Article: 2 Whether all these days are one day?
    Article: 3 Whether Scripture uses suitable words to express the work of the six days?

    Question: 75 \BTREATISE ON MAN (Questions [75]-102)

    OF MAN WHO IS COMPOSED OF A SPIRITUAL AND A CORPOREAL SUBSTANCE: AND IN THE FIRST PLACE, CONCERNING WHAT BELONGS TO THE ESSENCE OF THE SOUL (SEVEN ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether the soul is a body?
    Article: 2 Whether the human soul is something subsistent?
    Article: 3 Whether the souls of brute animals are subsistent?
    Article: 4 Whether the soul is man?
    Article: 5 Whether the soul is composed of matter and form?
    Article: 6 Whether the human soul is incorruptible?
    Article: 7 Whether the soul is of the same species as an angel?
    Question: 76 OF THE UNION OF BODY AND SOUL (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    #1520
    Article: 1 Whether the intellectual principle is united to the body as its form?
    Article: 2 Whether the intellectual principle is multiplied according to the number of bodies?
    Article: 3 Whether besides the intellectual soul there are in man other souls essentially different from one another?
    Article: 4 Whether in man there is another form besides the intellectual soul?
    Article: 5 Whether the intellectual soul is properly united to such a body?
    Article: 6 Whether the intellectual soul is united to the body through the medium of accidental dispositions?
    Article: 7 Whether the soul is united to the animal body by means of a body?
    Article: 8 Whether the soul is in each part of the body?

    Question: 77 OF THOSE THINGS WHICH BELONG TO THE POWERS OF THE SOUL IN GENERAL (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the essence of the soul is its power?
    Article: 2 Whether there are several powers of the soul?
    Article: 3 Whether the powers are distinguished by their acts and objects?
    Article: 4 Whether among the powers of the soul there is order?
    Article: 5 Whether all the powers of the soul are in the soul as their subject?
    Article: 6 Whether the powers of the soul flow from its essence?
    Article: 7 Whether one power of the soul arises from another?
    Article: 8 Whether all the powers remain in the soul when separated from the body?

    Question: 78 OF THE SPECIFIC POWERS OF THE SOUL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there are to be distinguished five genera of powers in the soul?
    Article: 2 Whether the parts of the vegetative soul are fittingly described as the nutritive, augmentative, and generative?
    Article: 3 Whether the five exterior senses are properly distinguished?
    Article: 4 Whether the interior senses are suitably distinguished?

    Question: 79 OF THE INTELLECTUAL POWERS (THIRTEEN ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the intellect is a power of the soul?
    Article: 2 Whether the intellect is a passive power?
    Article: 3 Whether there is an active intellect?
    Article: 4 Whether the active intellect is something in the soul?
    Article: 5 Whether the active intellect is one in all?
    Article: 6 Whether memory is in the intellectual part of the soul?
    Article: 7 Whether the intellectual memory is a power distinct from the intellect?
    Article: 8 Whether the reason is distinct from the intellect?
    Article: 9 Whether the higher and lower reason are distinct powers?
    Article: 10 Whether intelligence is a power distinct from intellect?
    Article: 11 Whether the speculative and practical intellects are distinct powers?
    Article: 12 Whether synderesis is a special power of the soul distinct from the others?
    Article: 13 Whether conscience be a power?

    Question: 80 OF THE APPETITIVE POWERS IN GENERAL (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the appetite is a special power of the soul?
    Article: 2 Whether the sensitive and intellectual appetites are distinct powers?

    Question: 81 OF THE POWER OF SENSUALITY (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether sensuality is only appetitive?
    Article: 2 Whether the sensitive appetite is divided into the irascible and concupiscible as distinct powers?
    Article: 3 Whether the irascible and concupiscible appetites obey reason?

    Question: 82 OF THE WILL (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the will desires something of necessity?
    Article: 2 Whether the will desires of necessity, whatever it desires?
    Article: 3 Whether the will is a higher power than the intellect?
    Article: 4 Whether the will moves the intellect?
    Article: 5 Whether we should distinguish irascible and concupiscible parts in the superior appetite?

    Question: 83 OF FREE-WILL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether man has free-will?
    Article: 2 Whether free-will is a power?
    Article: 3 Whether free-will is an appetitive power?
    Article: 4 Whether free-will is a power distinct from the will?

    Question: 84 HOW THE SOUL WHILE UNITED TO THE BODY UNDERSTANDS CORPOREAL THINGS BENEATH IT (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the soul knows bodies through the intellect?
    Article: 2 Whether the soul understands corporeal things through its essence?
    Article: 3 Whether the soul understands all things through innate species?
    Article: 4 Whether the intelligible species are derived by the soul from certain separate forms?
    Article: 5 Whether the intellectual soul knows material things in the eternal types?
    Article: 6 Whether intellectual knowledge is derived from sensible things?
    Article: 7 Whether the intellect can actually understand through the intelligible species of which it is possessed, without turning to the phantasms?
    Article: 8 Whether the judgment of the intellect is hindered through suspension of the sensitive powers?

    Question: 85 OF THE MODE AND ORDER OF UNDERSTANDING (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether our intellect understands corporeal and material things by abstraction from phantasms?
    Article: 2 Whether the intelligible species abstracted from the phantasm is related to our intellect as that which is understood?
    Article: 3 Whether the more universal is first in our intellectual cognition?
    Article: 4 Whether we can understand many things at the same time?
    Article: 5 Whether our intellect understands by composition and division?
    Article: 6 Whether the intellect can be false?
    Article: 7 Whether one person can understand one and the same thing better than another can?
    Article: 8 Whether the intellect understands the indivisible before the divisible?

    Question: 86 WHAT OUR INTELLECT KNOWS IN MATERIAL THINGS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether our intellect knows singulars?
    Article: 2 Whether our intellect can know the infinite?
    Article: 3 Whether our intellect can know contingent things?
    Article: 4 Whether our intellect can know the future?

    Question: 87 HOW THE INTELLECTUAL SOUL KNOWS ITSELF AND ALL WITHIN ITSELF (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the intellectual soul knows itself by its essence?
    Article: 2 Whether our intellect knows the habits of the soul by their essence?
    Article: 3 Whether our intellect knows its own act?
    Article: 4 Whether the intellect understands the act of the will?

    Question: 88 HOW THE HUMAN SOUL KNOWS WHAT IS ABOVE ITSELF (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the human soul in the present state of life can understand immaterial substances in themselves?
    Article: 2 Whether our intellect can understand immaterial substances through its knowledge of material things?
    Article: 3 Whether God is the first object known by the human mind?
    Question: 89 OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SEPARATED SOUL (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the separated soul can understand anything?
    Article: 2 Whether the separated soul understands separate substances?
    Article: 3 Whether the separated soul knows all natural things?
    Article: 4 Whether the separated soul knows singulars?
    Article: 5 Whether the habit of knowledge here acquired remains in the separated soul?
    Article: 6 Whether the act of knowledge acquired here remains in the separated soul?
    Article: 7 Whether local distance impedes the knowledge in the separated soul?
    Article: 8 Whether separated souls know that takes place on earth?
    Question: 90 OF THE FIRST PRODUCTION OF MAN'S SOUL (FOUR ARTICLES)
    #1800
    Article: 1 Whether the soul was made or was of God's substance?
    Article: 2 Whether the soul was produced by creation?
    Article: 3 Whether the rational soul is produced by God immediately?
    Article: 4 Whether the human soul was produced before the body?

    Question: 91 THE PRODUCTION OF THE FIRST MAN'S BODY (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the body of the first man was made of the slime of the earth?
    Article: 2 Whether the human body was immediately produced by God?
    Article: 3 Whether the body of man was given an apt disposition?
    Article: 4 Whether the production of the human body is fittingly described in Scripture?

    Question: 92 THE PRODUCTION OF THE WOMAN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the woman should have been made in the first production of things?
    Article: 2 Whether woman should have been made from man?
    Article: 3 Whether the woman was fittingly made from the rib of man?
    Article: 4 Whether the woman was formed immediately by God?

    Question: 93 THE END OR TERM OF THE PRODUCTION OF MAN (NINE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the image of God is in man?
    Article: 2 Whether the image of God is to be found in irrational creatures?
    Article: 3 Whether the angels are more to the image of God than man is?
    Article: 4 Whether the image of God is found in every man?
    Article: 5 Whether the image of God is in man according to the Trinity of Persons?
    Article: 6 Whether the image of God is in man as regards the mind only?
    Article: 7 Whether the image of God is to be found in the acts of the soul?
    Article: 8 Whether the image of the Divine Trinity is in the soul only by comparison with God as its object?
    Article: 9 Whether "likeness" is properly distinguished from "image"?

    Question: 94 OF THE STATE AND CONDITION OF THE FIRST MAN AS REGARDS HIS INTELLECT (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the first man saw God through His Essence?
    Article: 2 Whether Adam in the state of innocence saw the angels through their essence?
    Article: 3 Whether the first man knew all things?
    Article: 4 Whether man in his first state could be deceived?

    Question: 95 OF THINGS PERTAINING TO THE FIRST MAN'S WILL---NAMELY, GRACE AND RIGHTEOUSNESS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the first man was created in grace?
    Article: 2 Whether passions existed in the soul of the first man?
    Article: 3 Whether Adam had all the virtues?
    Article: 4 Whether the actions of the first man were less meritorious than ours are?

    Question: 96 OF THE MASTERSHIP BELONGING TO MAN IN THE STATE OF INNOCENCE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether Adam in the state of innocence had mastership over the animals?
    Article: 2 Whether man had mastership over all other creatures?
    Article: 3 Whether men were equal in the state of innocence?
    Article: 4 Whether in the state of innocence man would have been master over man?

    Question: 97 OF THE PRESERVATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL IN THE PRIMITIVE STATE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether in the state of innocence man would have been immortal?
    Article: 2 Whether in the state of innocence man would have been passible?
    Article: 3 Whether in the state of innocence man had need of food?
    Article: 4 Whether in the state of innocence man would have acquired immortality by the tree of life?

    Question: 98 OF THE PRESERVATION OF THE SPECIES (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether in the state of innocence generation existed?
    Article: 2 Whether in the state of innocence there would have been generation by coition?
    Question: 99 OF THE CONDITION OF THE OFFSPRING AS TO THE BODY (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether in the state of innocence children would have had perfect strength of body as to the use of its members immediately after birth?
    Article: 2 \BWhether, in the primitive state, women would have been born?

    Question: 100 OF THE CONDITION OF THE OFFSPRING AS REGARDS RIGHTEOUSNESS (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether men would have been born in a state of righteousness?
    Article: 2 Whether in the state of innocence children would have been born confirmed in righteousness?

    Question: 101 OF THE CONDITION OF THE OFFSPRING AS REGARDS KNOWLEDGE (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether in the state of innocence children would have been born with perfect knowledge?
    Article: 2 Whether children would have had perfect use of reason at birth?

    Question: 102 OF MAN'S ABODE, WHICH IS PARADISE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether paradise is a corporeal place?
    Article: 2 Whether paradise was a place adapted to be the abode of man?
    Article: 3 Whether man was placed in paradise to dress it and keep it?
    Article: 4 Whether man was created in paradise?

    Question: 103 \BTREATISE ON THE CONSERVATION AND GOVERNMENT OF CREATURES (Questions [103]-119)

    OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THINGS IN GENERAL (EIGHT ARTICLES)

    Article: 1 Whether the world is governed by anyone?
    Article: 2 Whether the end of the government of the world is something outside the world?
    Article: 3 Whether the world is governed by one?
    Article: 4 Whether the effect of government is one or many?
    Article: 5 Whether all things are subject to the Divine government?
    Article: 6 Whether all things are immediately governed by God?
    Article: 7 Whether anything can happen outside the order of the Divine government?
    Article: 8 Whether anything can resist the order of the Divine government?

    Question: 104 THE SPECIAL EFFECTS OF THE DIVINE GOVERNMENT (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether creatures need to be kept in being by God?
    Article: 2 Whether God preserves every creature immediately?
    Article: 3 Whether God can annihilate anything?
    Article: 4 Whether anything is annihilated?

    Question: 105 OF THE CHANGE OF CREATURES BY GOD (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether God can move the matter immediately to the form?
    Article: 2 Whether God can move a body immediately?
    Article: 3 Whether God moves the created intellect immediately?
    Article: 4 Whether God can move the created will?
    Article: 5 Whether God works in every agent?
    Article: 6 Whether God can do anything outside the established order of nature?
    Article: 7 Whether whatever God does outside the natural order is miraculous?
    Article: 8 Whether one miracle is greater than another?

    Question: 106 HOW ONE CREATURE MOVES ANOTHER (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether one angel enlightens another?
    Article: 2 Whether one angel moves another angel's will?
    Article: 3 Whether an inferior angel can enlighten a superior angel?
    Article: 4 Whether the superior angel enlightens the inferior as regards all he himself knows?

    Question: 107 THE SPEECH OF THE ANGELS (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether one angel speaks to another?
    Article: 2 Whether the inferior angel speaks to the superior?
    Article: 3 Whether an angel speaks to God?
    Article: 4 Whether local distance influences the angelic speech?
    Article: 5 Whether all the angels know what one speaks to another?

    Question: 108 OF THE ANGELIC DEGREES OF HIERARCHIES AND ORDERS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether all the angels are of one hierarchy?
    Article: 2 Whether there are several orders in one hierarchy?
    Article: 3 Whether there are many angels in one order?
    Article: 4 Whether the distinction of hierarchies and orders comes from the angelic nature?
    Article: 5 Whether the orders of the angels are properly named?
    Article: 6 Whether the grades of the orders are properly assigned?
    Article: 7 Whether the orders will outlast the Day of Judgment?
    Article: 8 Whether men are taken up into the angelic orders?

    Question: 109 THE ORDERING OF THE BAD ANGELS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there are orders among the demons?
    Article: 2 Whether among the demons there is precedence?
    Article: 3 Whether there is enlightenment in the demons?
    Article: 4 Whether the good angels have precedence over the bad angels?

    Question: 110 HOW ANGELS ACT ON BODIES (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the corporeal creature is governed by the angels?
    Article: 2 Whether corporeal matter obeys the mere will of an angel?
    Article: 3 Whether bodies obey the angels as regards local motion?
    Article: 4 Whether angels can work miracles?

    Question: 111 THE ACTION OF THE ANGELS ON MAN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether an angel can enlighten man?
    Article: 2 Whether the angels can change the will of man?
    Article: 3 Whether an angel can change man's imagination?
    Article: 4 Whether an angel can change the human senses?

    Question: 112 THE MISSION OF THE ANGELS (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the angels are sent on works of ministry?
    Article: 2 Whether all the angels are sent in ministry?
    Article: 3 Whether all the angels who are sent, assist?
    Article: 4 Whether all the angels of the second hierarchy are sent?

    Question: 113 OF THE GUARDIANSHIP OF THE GOOD ANGELS (EIGHT ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether men are guarded by the angels?
    Article: 2 Whether each man is guarded by an angel?
    Article: 3 Whether to guard men belongs only to the lowest order of angels?
    Article: 4 Whether angels are appointed to the guardianship of all men?
    Article: 5 Whether an angel is appointed to guard a man from his birth?
    Article: 6 Whether the angel guardian ever forsakes a man?
    Article: 7 Whether angels grieve for the ills of those whom they guard?
    Article: 8 Whether there can be strife or discord among the angels?
    Question: 114 OF THE ASSAULTS OF THE DEMONS (FIVE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether men are assailed by the demons?
    Article: 2 Whether to tempt is proper to the devil?
    Article: 3 Whether all sins are due to the temptation of the devil?
    Article: 4 Whether demons can lead men astray by means of real miracles?
    Article: 5 Whether a demon who is overcome by man, is for this reason hindered from making further assaults?

    Question: 115 OF THE ACTION OF THE CORPOREAL CREATURE (SIX ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether a body can be active?
    Article: 2 Whether there are any seminal virtues in corporeal matter?
    Article: 3 Whether the heavenly bodies are the cause of what is produced in bodies here below?
    Article: 4 Whether the heavenly bodies are the cause of human actions?
    Article: 5 Whether heavenly bodies can act on the demons?
    Article: 6 Whether heavenly bodies impose necessity on things subject to their action?

    Question: 116 ON FATE (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether there be such a thing as fate?
    Article: 2 Whether fate is in created things?
    Article: 3 Whether fate is unchangeable?
    Article: 4 Whether all things are subject to fate?

    Question: 117 OF THINGS PERTAINING TO THE ACTION OF MAN (FOUR ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether one man can teach another?
    Article: 2 Whether man can teach the angels?
    Article: 3 Whether man by the power of his soul can change corporeal matter?
    Article: 4 Whether the separate human soul can move bodies at least locally?

    Question: 118 OF THE PRODUCTION OF MAN FROM MAN AS TO THE SOUL (THREE ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether the sensitive soul is transmitted with the semen?
    Article: 2 Whether the intellectual soul is produced from the semen?
    Article: 3 Whether human souls were created together at the beginning of the world?

    Question: 119 OF THE PROPAGATION OF MAN AS TO THE BODY (TWO ARTICLES)
    Article: 1 Whether some part of the food is changed into true human nature?
    Article: 2 Whether the semen is produced from surplus food?

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