Basil: letters, hexaemeron - II. WORKS

1 Placed in 373.

2 On the same subject as the preceding). cf Letters cii., ccxxvii., ccxxviii., ccxxix., and cxxx.

1 Written in 373.

2 cf. Letter cclxii).

1 Placed in 373.

1 Placed in 373.

2 On Basil’s relations with Eustathius of Sebasteia (Siwas in Armenia Minor), the Vicar of Bray of the Arian controversies, who probably subscribed more creeds than any other prominent bishop of his age, se Letters cxxx. and ccxliv., and p. 171, n.

3 (1Co 1,5 1Co 1,

4 Marcellus of Ancyra (Angora) was represented to teach that the Son had no real personality, but was only the outward manifestation (Porforiko;" Aovgo") of the Father, but he could always defend himself on the ground that he was in communion with Julius and Athanasius, popes of Rome and Alexandria). cf. Jer., De Vir. Ill.. chap. lxxxvi).

5 cf. Letters 38,and xcii. Basil is anxious to show that his own view is identical with the Nicene, and does not admit a development and variation in the meaning of the word hypostasis; but on comparing such a passage as that in Athan. c). Afros, "hypostasis is substance, and means nothing else but very being" (h; de; u Jpovstasi" ouAEsiva eAEsti; kai; ouAEde;n aAEllo; shmainovmenon e(cei h)auAEto; to; o[n) with St. Basil’s words in the text it appears plain that hypostasis is not used throughout in the same sense. An erroneous sense of "three hypostases" was understood to be condemned at Nicaea, though Athanasius, e.g. "In illud omnia," etc., Schaff and Wace’s ed., p. 90, does himself use the phrase, writing probably about ten years after Nicaea; but he more commonly treats ousiva and u;povstasi" as identical. See specially the Tomus ad Antiochenos of a.d. 362 on the possible use of either "three hypostases" or "one hypostasis." cf. also n. on p. 179.

6 I give the creed in the original Greek. The passages in brackets indicate the alterations of the Constantinopolitan revision according to the text of Chalcedon.

7 "Deum de Deo" is inserted in the Sarum Breviary.

8 cf. pp. 27 and 39, notes.

9 cf). De Sp. S. § 25, p. 17. On those who described the Spirit as merely a ministering spirit, vide Athan., Ad Serap. 1,(legovntwn auAEto; mh; movnon ktivsma, aAElla; kai; tw`n leitourgikw`n pneuma;twn e)n auAEto; ei\nai). This new party arose in the Delta about 362, and was first known as "Tropici." They were condemned at the synod held at Alexandria on the return of Athanasius from his third exile. Its Synodical Letter is the Tomus ad Antiochenos.

10 (He 1,14).

11 (Mt 28,14 Mt 28,

1 Placed in 373.

2 Bishop of Neocaesarea). Vide Letter lxv.

1 Placed in 373.

2 On Basil’s difficulties while at Nicopolis, with a request for the sympathy of Eusebius.

1 Placed in 373.

2 On the difficulty of reconciliation with Eustathius.

3 Maran supposes this to be the place referred to in Letter ccliv. 2).

4 i.e. Eustathius.

5 (Ac 4,32 Ac 4,

1 Placed in 373.

2 A refutation of a charge that he was the author of an Apollinarian document).

3 The Ben. note adduces this letter and Letter ccxxiv. as shewing two kinds of communion, (1) Personal in the Eucharist and prayer, and (2) by letter.

1 Placed in 373.

2 Bishop of Castabala, whither he was translated from Eleutheropolis). cf. Letters ccliv. and ccxlv.

3 cf. Jr 13,23.

4 (Rm xii 19).

5 (1Co 13,5 and 4.

6 There is no other mention in Basil’s letters of Eustathius being guilty of re-ordination. The Ben. note, however, states that Basil is not accurate in saying that there was no heretical precedent for such proceedings. The Arians are charged with it in the Book of Prayers of Faustus and Marcellinus, Bib. Patr 5,655). cf. also the letter of Constantius to the Ethiopians against Frumentius. Athan., Apol. ad Const. § 31.

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Letters 12,and xiii.

3 cf. Letter cxxv. and Greg. Naz., Orat. 1,and xxix.

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Letter xcii. He was present at the Council of Constantinople).

1 Peter II. succeeded Athanasius in May, 373. Athanasius died May 2.

1 Placed in 373.

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Letter 109,Theodoret, Hist. Ecc. 4,24. He was a pupil of Silvanus, bishop of Tarsus). Letter ccxliv. Theodoret, Ep. xvi., refers to his obligations to him as a teacher. In 378 he became bishop of Tarsus. Only some fragments of his works remain, the bulk having been destroyed, it is said, by the Arians).

1 Placed in 373.

2 On his own sickness and the troubles of the Church. On his bad health). cf. Letters ix., xxvii., cxcviii., ccii., cciii., and ccxvi. The translation of the first section is Newman’s.

1 Placed in 373.

2 Compare Letters clxxxvi. and clxxxvii).

3 Possibly the person to whom the disturbance at Palladia’s house was due.

1 Placed in 373.

2 The translation of Sec. 1, down to "medical men," is partly Newman’s.

3 On Evagrius, known generally as Evagrius of Antioch, to distinguish him from Evagrius the historian, see especially Theodoret, Ecc. Hist. 5,23. He had travelled to Italy with Easebius of Vercellae. His communication to Basil from the Western bishops must have been disappointing and unsatisfactory. On his correspondence with Basil, after his return to Antioch, see Letter clvi. His consecration by the dying Paulinus in 388 inevitably prolonged the disastrous Meletian schism at Antioch.

4 i.e. that Basil, as primate, should either consecrate them an orthodox bishop, or, if this was impossible under Valens, should take them under his own immediate episcopal protection.

5 i.e. Antioch.

6 (He was succeeded by Joh I). cf. Letter clxi. and note).

1 Placed in 373.

2 On the cruel persecution roused by Valens in Alexandria shortly after the death of Athanasius in 373, and the horrors perpetrated there, see the letter of Peter, Athanasius’ successor, in Theod. 4,19.

3 eAEn th` politei;a kamavtou"; or, possibly, labours in life, i.e. ascetic life. The Ben. ed. prefer the latter.

4 (2Th 2,4 2Th 2,

5 (1Co 10,13 1Co 10,

6 cf. He 11,36, 37.

7 Rom 8,18.

1 Placed in 373.

2 (Ps lv. 6).

3 Here follows in the text the Nicene Creed with the anathemas. The Ben. note points out that the Nicene Creed was brought to Caesarea by St. Leontius, and was vigorously defended by his successor Hermogenes). cf. Letter lxxxi. Dianius, who next followed in the see, signed several Arian formulae. The Nicene Creed, however, had been maintained at Caesarea, and in Letter li. Dianius is described as supporting it.

1 Placed in 373.

2 On his being hindered from traveling by ill health, and on his difficulties with the bishops in communion with him.

3 cf. Letter. 51,

4 The Ben. note is: "Canones illos qui apostolis affict fuere, nonnunquam citat Basilius in Epsitolis canonics. Videtur hol loco respicere ad vigesimum (?xxxvii). septimum,ubi praescibitur, ut in unaquaque provincia episcopi nihil majoris rei incipiant sine sententia illius, qui inter eos primus, ac unus quisque iis contentus sit, quae ad paroeciam suam pertinent: sed nec ille absque omnium voluntate quidquam faciat. Erat Basilius hujus canonis observandi studiosus, et quamvis noninis fama et sidis dignitate plurimum posset, nunquam ab eo communionis restitutionem impetrare potuerunt Marcelli discipuli, antequam Petri Alexandrini auctoritates accesisset: et cum ab Episcopis in Palaestina Exsulantibus non ex spectato aliorum Episcoporum consensu restiuti fuissent, factum moleste tulit et libere reprehendit ." Epist. cclxv.

1 Placed in 373.

2 On the exemption of hospitals form taxation.

3 cf. Letters c. and cclii., and note on p. 184.

1 Of the same date as the preceding.

2 On the same subject.

1 Placed in 373.

2 On the same subject.

1 Placed in 373.

2 On a possible visit of Eusebius to Caesarea.

3 i.e. Valens).

4 "Vita vere mortalis spes est vitae immortalis." St. Augustine in Ps 3,"Spes aeternitatem animum ergit, et idcirco nulla mala sentit." St. Greg., Moral). cf. Ovid. I. Pon. 7:

Quamvis est igitur meritis indebita nostris,

Magna tamen spes est in bonitate Dei.

1 Placed in 373.

2 Nephew of Eusebius, who had written a salutation in his uncle’s letter). cf. Letter clxviii.

3 i.e. his uncle Eusebius.

1 Placed in 373.

2 To commend Maximus, late prefect of Cappadocia and in great distress.

1 Placed in 373.

2 A trajan was commander-in-chief under Valens). cf. Theod. iv. 30 and Amm. Marcellinus 31,He was killed at the battle of Adrianople in 378. This may have been the same officer).

1 Placed in 373.

2 The Ben. notes points out that though in all the mss. the inscription is tw` auAEtw` to the same, that is to Trajan, the internal evidence points to its having been written to some one else. Trajan had had no personal knowledge of the troubles of Maximus.

1 Placed in 373.

2 Amphilochius, not yet consecrated to Iconium, had abandoned his profession as an advocate, and was living in retirement at Ozizala, a place not far from Nazianzus, the see of his uncle Gregory, devoted to the care of his aged father, whose name he bores. Heraclidas, it appears, had also renounced bar, and devoted himself to religious life; but did not join Amphilochius on the ground that he was living in Basil’s hospital at Caesarea). cf. the letters of Gregory, first cousin of Amphilochius. On the relationship, see Bp. Lightfoot in D. C. B. 1,p. 104, and pedigree in prolegomena).

3 cf. Gn 19,26.

4 (Ps 34,15 Ps 34,

5 (Lc 3,11 Lc 3,

6 (Mt 10,10 Mt 10,

7 (Mt 19,21 Mt 19,

8 (Ac 4,35 Ac 4,

9 It will be observed that St. Basil’s quotation here does not quite bear out his point. There is no "by them" in Ac 4,35. "Distribution was made unto every man according as he had need." In Ac 2,45 the primitive communists are said themselves to have "parted to all men as every man had need," the responsibility of distribution being apparently retained).

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Letter cixxxi. On those who had renounced communion with Eustathius the bishop.

3 i.e. Eustathius, the bishop, isrushing upon the knife.

4 The view of the Ben. Ed. is that the bales thrown overboard represent the loss of unity incurred by the Sebastenes by leaving the communion of Eustathius for his own). cf. Letter ccxxxvii.

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Greg. Naz., Letters cxxxiii. and cxxxiv. and Theodoret, Ecc. Hist. 4,30. and Amm. Marc. 31,7.

1 Placed in 373.

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Letters clxiv. and clxv. Ascholius baptized Theodosius at Thessalonica in 380, and was present at the Council of Constantinople in 381. Soc., Ecc. Hist. 5,6 and 8).

1 Placed in 373.

2 Supposed by Maran (Vit. Bas). to be Julius Soranus, a relative of Basil, and dux of Scythia. Maran supposes that a copyist added these words to the title because Soranus was "a trainer" (aleivpth") and encourager of martyrs: in Letter clxiv. Basil calls Ascholius "a trainer" of the martyr Sabas.

3 khouvgmata. On St. Basil’s use of this word for decree, vide De Sp. S. c. 66. Here it seems to have the force of an appointed liturgy). cf. the letter of Firmilianus to Cyprian. (Ep. Cyp. 75).

4 This is one of the earliest references to the preservation of relics. So late as the case of St. Fructuosus (Acta SS. Fructuosi, etc)., who died at Tarragona in 259, the friends are forbidden to keep the relics. On St. Basil’s views on the subject). cf). Hom. in Mart. Jul. 2 and Hom. de SS. 40,MM.S. So Gregory of Nyssa). Hom. 1,in in 40,Mar. 2,935. As early as the time of St. Augustine (†430) a thriving trade in forged relics had already begun. (Aug., De Opere Monach. 28)). cf. Littledale’s Plain Reasons, p. 51.

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Letter cxxxviii).

3 Meletius of Antioch.

1 Placed in 373.

2 cf. Letters 146,and ccxxxix. Maran. (Vit. Bas). is of opinion that as these two letters, clvii. and clviii., written at the same time, are very much in the same terms, they cannot be to the same person, and thinks that the sluggishness, which Basil complains of, fits with Eusebius much better than with Antiochus, who could not travel without his uncle’s permission.

1 Placed in 373).

1 Placed about 373.

2 On the Nicene Creed and the Holy Ghost.

3 Phil 1,21.

4 df. Rm 8,2.

5 (Jn 6,63 Jn 6,

6 (Jn 14,26 Jn 14,

7 (Rm 15,16 Rm 15,

8 (Pr 9,9 Pr 9,

1 Placed in 373, or 374.

2 On the marriage with a deceased wife’s sister). cf. Letter xcccv).

3 (Lv 18,18 Lv 18,

4 (Lv 18,3 Lv 18,

5 (Am 2,7 Am 2,

6 (Ep 5,3 Ep 5,

7 (Lv 18,6).

8 St. Mt 19,6.

9 (1Co 7,31 1Co 7,

10 (1Co 7,29 1Co 7,

11 (Gn 1,28 Gn 1,

12 (1Co 7,9 1Co 7,

13 On the ancient dislike of stepmothers,cf. Herod. 4,154, and Eurip., Alcetis 309, where they are said to be as dangerous to the children as vipers. Meanander writes deinovteron ouAEde;n a(llo mptruia`" kakovn.

14 (1Th 4,4 1Th 4, A.V., apparently taking skeu`o" for body with Chrys., Theodoret, and others. The Greek is, most simply, not "possess," but get, and is in favour of the interpretation of Theod. of Mops., Augustine, and others, "get his wife." See Ellicott, Thess. p. Is 53
1 Placed in 374.

2 (Ps 139,7 Ps 139,

3 (1S 9,3 1S 9, six mss. Editors have substituted "enemies." The letter does not exist in the Codes Harlaeanus ). Onoi is supposed to meant that Faustinus and John, the predecessors of Amphilochius in the see of Iconium, were not very wise bishops). e(cqroi might mean that they were Arian). cf. Letter cxxxviii).

4 cf. Ps lv. 22 and 1P 5,7.

1 Placed in 374.

2 On Basil’s hopes of visiting Eusebius.

1 Placed in 374.

1 Placed in 374.

2 cf. Letter liv).

3 Eutyches was a Cappadocian, who was taken prisoner by the Goths, in the reign of Gallienus, in a raid into Cappadocia. It was through the teaching of these captives that the ancestors of Ulphilas became Christians). cf. Philost., H.E. 2,5.

4 The Ben. note illustrates these modes of martyrdom from the letter of the Gothic Church, supposed to have been written by Ascholius, sent to Caesarea with the body of Saint Sabas, who suffered under Athanaricus, king of the Goths, in the end of the fourth century. "They bring him down to the water, giving thanks and glorifying God; then they flung him down, and put a block about his neck, and plunged him into the depth. So slain by wood and water, he kept the symbol of salvation undefiled, being 38 years old.: cf. Ruinart., Act. Sinc. p. 670.

1 Placed in 374.

2 (So all the mss. But it is the opinion of Maran that there can be no doubt of the letter being addressed, not to Ascholius, but to Soranus, duke of Scythia. We have seen in letter 255 that Basil requested his relative Julius Soranus to send him some relics of the Gothic martyrs. This letter appears to refer to his prompt compliance with the request by sending relics of Saint Sabas).

1 Placed in 374.

2 This letter is numbered 65,among those of Gregory of Nazianzus, to whom it is to be attributed. It is only found in one ms. of the letters of Basil (Coisl. i).

1 Placed in 374.

1 Placed in 374.

2 Nephew of Eusebius). cf Letters cxlivi, clvii., and clviii.

3 Eusebius was now in exile in Thrace. On this picturesque scene of his forced departure from his diocese, the agony of his flock at losing him, and his calm submission to the tyranny of Valens, see Theodoret 4,12 and 13, pp. 115, 116, of this edition.

1 Placed in 374, on the misconduct of Glycerius, a deacon.

2 Tillemont says either of Nyssa or Nazianzus. In thems. Coisl. I. it is preceded by lxxi., unquestionably addressed to Gregory of Nazianzus, and inscribed "to the same." In the Codes Harl it is inscribed Grhgorivw e Jtaivrw. Garnier, however (Viat S. Bas. xxxi. § iv). allows that there are arguments in favor of Gregory of Nyssa. Probably it is the elder Gregory who is addressed. See Prolegomena.

3 Or Veësa, or Synnasa; the mss. vary).

4 eAEpistolh`" is read in the version of this letter appearing in the works of Greg. Naz., and Combefis is no doubt right in thinking that it makes better sense than eAEpisthvmh", reading of the chief mss. here.

5 cf. Prolegomena, and Ramsay’s Church and Roman Empire, Cap. xviii.

1 Placed with the preceding.

2 tou` baqmou`). cf. 1Tm 3,13). oi J kalw`" diakonhsante" Baqmo;n e Jautoi`" kalo;n peripoiou`ntai.. There seems an evident allusion to this passage, but not such as to enable Basil to be positively ranked with Chrysostom in his apparent interpretation of baqmov" objectively of preferment, or with Theodoret in his subjective idea of honour with God. Apparently the "degree" is the Diaconate.

3 otolhv. The technical use of this word for a "stole" is not earlier than the ninth century. It was indeed used for a sacred vestment, e.g. the sacred robe which Constantine presented to Macarius, Bishop of Jersusalem. (Theodoret ii. 27). In Latin "stola" designated the distinctive dress of the matron, and it seems to be used with a suggestion of effeminacy.

1 Placed with the preceding.

1 Placed in 374.

2 This Sophronius is distinguished by Maran from the Sophronius, magister offciorum, to whomLetter xxxii., lxxvi., and xcvi. have already been addressed, and who is also the recipient of clxxvi., clxxx., cxcii., cclxii. Nothing else is know of him).

3 (Mt 24,12 Mt 24,

4 (2Tm 2,15 2Tm 2,

1 Placed in 374.

2 On the Canonicae, pious women who devoted themselves to education, district visiting, funerals, and various charitable works, and living in a community apart from men, cf. Soc. 1,17, "virgins in the register," and Sozomen 8,23, on Nicarete. They were distinguished from nuns as not being bound by vows, and from deaconesses as not so discharging ministerial duties.

1 Placed in 374).

2 "Prayer ardent opens heaven." Young, N.T. viii., 721.

1 Written probably early in 374.

2 One ms. reads Magninianus. On the identification of this officer with the recipient of cccxxv., see that letter.

3 But what Basil declined to do at the prompting of Magnenianus, he shortly afterwards did for Amphilochius, and wrote the De Spiritu Sancto.

4 Maran (V. Basil xxx). thinks that the allusion is to Atarbuis of Neocaesarea and to some of his presbyters). cf. Letter ccx.

5 cf). De Sp. Scto. p. 17.

1 Placed in 374.

2 An invitation to feast of St. Eupsychius, with a request to arrive three days before the actual day of the festival, which was observed on the 7th of September. (cf. Letter c. and note, and the invitation to the Pontic bishops in cclii).

3 i.e. Damas and Eupsychius.

4 (So the date stands in eight mss. However it arose, 5th mistake for 7th, the day of St. Eupsychius in the Greek Kalendar.

5 Mnh;mh. The Ben. Ed. understand by this word the church erected by Basil in his hospital (cf. Letter xciv) at Caesarea. In illustration of the use of muhvuh in this sense Du Cange cites Act. Conc. Chalced. 1,144, and explains it as being equivalent to "memoria," i.e. "aedes sacra in qua extat sancti alicujus sepulcrum." cf.Nomocan. Photii. 5,§ 1. For the similar use of "memoria," in Latin, cf. Aug., De Civ. Dei. 22,10: "Nos autem martvribus nostris non templa sicut diis sed memorias sicut hominibus mortuis fabricamus."

1 Placed in 374.

1 Placed with the preceding.

2 Also recommending the interests of Eusebius.

3 The Ben. note considers the circumstances referred to are the cruelties of Valens to those who were accused of enquiring by divination as to who should succeed him on the throne). cf. Ammianus Marcellinus 29,1, 2.

1 Placed in 374.

2 Possibly commendatory of the same Eusebius.

1 Of the same date).

1 Placed in 374.

2 In Armenia Minor, now Malatia. Basil asks him for and offers sympathy in the exile of Eusebius. Otreius was at Tyana in 367, and at Constantinople in 381 (Labbe 2,99 and 955).

3 Where Eusebius was in exile.

1 Placed in 374.

2 Specially the exile of Eusebius.

1 Of the same date.

2 cavrin e[cein toi`" oikonomrqei`sin, with the Cod. Med., instead of eAEpi; toi`" oi;konomhqei`sin. The Ben. note points out that this expression of gratitude to the troubles themselves is of a piece with the expression of gratitude to enemies in the De. Sp. S. 6,§ 13. (p. 8), and concludes: "Sic etiam Machabaeorum mater apud Gregorium Nazianzenum orat. xxii. ait se tyranno pene gratias agere.

3 cf. Pr 17,3 and 27,21.

1 Placed in 374.

2 Nothing more is known of this Eustathius. Himmeria is in Osrhoene.

1 Placed in 374.

2 Nothing more is known of this Theodotus).

1 Placed in 374.

2 cf. Letter cxxxvii.

3 The Greek proverb was di;" kravmbh qavnato", vide Politian). Miscel. 33). cf. "Occidit miseros crambe repetita magistros." Juv. 7,154.

4 kourotpovfo". Ithaca is aAEgaqh; kourotrovfo", because it bore and bred hardy men). Od. 9,27.

5 Od. 9,93.

6 Od. 5,93.

1 Placed in 347.

2 In this letter Basil replies to several questions of Amphilochius concerning the Canons, and also concerning the interpretation of some passages of Holy Scripture. Maran dates it at the end of 374.

3 (Pr 17,28, lxx.

4 i.e. the followers of Novatian). cf. Eusebius 6,43). cf). De. Sp. Scto. ch. x. p. 17 and note.

5 Or Pepuziani, another name for the Montanists. "Epiphanius may safely be disregarded, who, treating of the Montanists, in the 48th section of his work on heresies, treats of the Pepuziani, in the 49th, as a kindred, but distinct, sect" Dr. Salmon in D. C. B. iv. 303 . The name is derived from Pepuza in Western Phrygia, the Montanist, or Cataphrygian, "Jerusalem." (Eus). H.E. v. 18.

6 i.e. of Alexandria. Jerome (Vir. ilust. lxix). says that he agreed with Cyprian and the African Synod on the rebaptizing of heretics. The Ben. note says: "Videtur hac in re major auctoriatas Basilio attribuenda quam Hieronymo. Plus operae insumpserat Basilius in ea re examinando."

7 parasunagwghv.

8 Archbp. Trench (N.T. Syn. 330) quotes Augustione (Con. Crescon. Don. 2,7): "Schisma est recens congregationis ex aliquâ sententiarum diversitate dissensio; haeresis autem schisma inveteratum;" and Jerome ( Tit. 3,10): "Inter haeresim et schisma hoc esse arbitrantur, quod haeresis perversum dogma habeat; schisma propter episcopalem dissensionem ab ecclesiâ separetur; quod quidem in principio aliquâ ex parte intelligi queat. Caeterum nullum schisma non sibi aliquam confingit haeresim, ut recte ab ecclesia recessisse videatur."

To these may be added Aug. (Quaest. in Mt 11,2): "Solet autem etiam quaeri schismatici quid ab haereticis disent, et hoc inveniri quod schismaticos non fides diversa faciat sed communionis disrupta societas. Sed utrum inter zizania numerandi sint dubitari potest, magis autem videntr spicis corruptis esse similiores, vel paleis aristarum fractis, vel scissis et de segete abruptis."

9 tw`n aAEposcisavntwn, w J" e[ti eAEk th`" evkklhsiva" o[ntwn.

The Ben. note is "Quod autem addit Basilius, ut adhuc ex Ecclesia exsistentium, non idcirco addit quod schismaticos in Ecclesiae membris numeraret. Illius verba si quis in deteriorem partem rapiat, facilis et expedita responsio, Nam sub finem hujus, canonis de Encratitis ipsis, id est, de haereticis incarnationem et Dei singularitatem negantibus, ait sibi non jam integrum esse eos qui huic sectae conjunci sunt ab Ecclesia separare, quia duos eorum episcopos sine baptismo ac sine nova ordinatione receperat. Nemo autem suspicabitur Basilium ejusmodi haereticos ab Ecclesia alienissimos non judicasse. Quare quidquid schismaticis tribuit, in sola baptismi societate positum est. Nam cum Cyprianus et Firmilianus schismaticos et haereticos ita ba Ecclesia distractos crederent, ut hihil prosus ad eos ex fontibus Ecclesiae perflueret; Basilius huic sententiae non assentitur, et in schismaticis quia fidem Ecclesiae retinent, vestigium quoddam agnoscit necessitudinis et societatis cum Ecclesia, ita ut valida sacramentorum administratio ab Ecclesia ad illos permanare possit. Hinc sibi integrum negat detestandos haereticos ab Ecclesia separare, quorum baptisma ratum habuerat. Idem docent duo praestantissimi unitatis defensores. Optatus et Augustinus. Quod enim scissum est, inquit Optatus lib. 3,n. 9, ex parte divisum est, non ex foto: cum constet merito, quia nobis et vobis ecclesiastica una est conversatio, et si hominum litigant mentes, non litigant sacramenta). Vid. lib. 4,n. 2. Sic etiam Augustinus lib. i De baptismo n. 3: Itaque isti (haeretici et schismatici) in quibusdam rebus nobiscum sunt: in quibus autem nobiscum non sunt, ut veniendo accipiant, vel redeundo recipiant, adhortamur). Vid. lib. 3,n. 26. Sic ex Basilio haeretici nobiscum sunt quoad baptisma ."

10 tou" eAEn baqmw`). cf. note on p. 218.

11 As being on e of Basil’s predecessors in the see of Caesarea.

12 "Hoc Encratitarum facinore non corrupta essentialis baptismi forma. Sed novae quaedam adjectae caerimoniae." Ben. Ed.

13 i.e. those who used water instead of wine in the Eucharist, as Tatian and his followers). cf. Clem. Al., Strom. 1,19 and Cyprian). Ep. lxiii.

14 The Ben. note points out that the improper proceeding of the Encratites consisted not in any corruption of the baptismal formula, but in the addition of certain novel ceremonies, and proceeds: "Nam in canone 47 sic eos loquentes inducit.. In Patrem et Filium et Spiritum baptizati summus). Hinc eorum baptisma ratum habet, si qua inciderit magni momenti causa. Quod autem ait hoc facinus eos incipere, ut reditum sibi in Ecclesiam intercludatn, videtur id prima specie in eam sententiam accipiendum, quasi Encratitae baptisma suum ea mente immutassent, ut Catholicos ad illud rejiciendum incitarent, sicque plures in secta contineret odium et fuga novi baptismatis. Abhorrebat enim ab omnium anaimis iteratus baptismus, ut pluribus exemplis probat Augustinus, lib. 5,De baptismo, n. 6. Videtur ergo prima specie Encratitis, ea, quam dixi, exstitisse causa, cur baptismum immutarent. Atque ita hunl locum interpretatur Tillemontius, tom.iv. p. 628. Sic etiam illius exemplo interpretatus sum in Praef. novae Cypriani operum editioni praemissa cap. 4. p. 12. Sed huic interpretationi non convenit cum his quae addit Basilius. Vereri enim se significat ne Catholici, dum Encratitas ab hac baptismi immutatione deterrere volunt, nomium restricti sint et severi in eorum baptismo rejiciendo. Sperabant ergo Catholici tardiores ad ejus modi baptisma Encratitas futuros, si illud Catholici ratum habrere nollent; nedum ipsi Encratitae baaptisma a Catholicis rejiceretur. Quamobrem haec verba, ut reditum sibi in Ecclesiam intercludant, non consilium et propositum Encratitarum designant, sed incommodum quod ex eorum facinore consequebatur; velut si docamus aliquem scelus admittere, ut aeternam sibi damnationem accersat."

15 cf. note on p. 42. St. Cyprian (Ep. lxx). says that heretics who have no true altar cannot have oil sanctified by the altar. "Gregory of Nazianzus, Orat. (xlviii in Jul). speaks of oil sanctified or consecrated on the spiritual or divine table; Optatus of Milevis (c. Don. 7,102) says that this ointment is compounded (conditur) in the name of Christ; and the Pseudo-Dionysius (De Hierarch. Eccles. c. 4) mentions the use of the sign of the cross in the consecration of it." D. C. A. 1,355.

16 This is the only known reference to these two bishops.

17 "Respicit, ni falor, ad canonem 25 apostolorum, ad quem Balsamon et Zonaras observant nonnulla esse peccata, quibus excommunicatio, non solum depositio, infligitur; velut si quis pecunia, vel magistratus potentia, sacedotium assequatur, ut sancitur Can. 29 et 30." Ben. note.

18 (Na 1,9, LXX.

19 "Duo veteres libri ountrimmou` th`" kardiva"." Ben. note.

20 cf. 1 Cor. 9,27.

21 (Jn 4,18 Jn 4, the more usual modern interpretation that the sixth union was an unlawful one, cf ). Bengel. Matrimonium hoc sextum non erat legitimum, vel non consummatum, aut desertio aliudve impedimentum intercesserat, ex altera utra parte.).

22 tw`n kanouikw`n. The Greek is of either gender. The Ben. note is: Clericos sive eos qui in canone recensentur hac voce designari hactenus existimarunt Basilii interpretes, ac ipsi etiam Zonares et Balsamon. Sed ut canonicas sive sacras virgines interpreter, plurimis rationum momentis adducor: I. Basilius hoc nomine clericos appellare non solet, sed sacras virgines, ut persici potest ex epistolis 52 et 175; 2. praescriptum Basilii non convenit in clericos, quorum nonnullis, nempe lectoribus et aliis ejus modi venia dabatur ineundi matrimonii, quamvis in canone recenserentur: 3. prohibet Basilius ejusmodi stupra quae honesto matrimonii nomine praetexi solebant. At id non inconcessum erat matrimonium, alios vero matrimonium post ordinationem inire nulla porsus Ecclesia patiebatur, aut certe matrimonii pretium erat depositio. Contra virginibus nubentibus non longior poena pluribus in locis imponebatur, quam digamis, ut perspicitur ex canone 18, ubi Basilius hance consuetudinem abrogat, ac virginum matrimonia instar adulterii existimat.

23 (So the mss. But the Ben. note points out that there must be some error, if a sin knowingly committed was punished by excommunication for fifteen years (Canons lviii., lxii., lxiii)., and one unwittingly committed by a punishment of twice the duration.

24 cf. 1 Tim. 1,20.

25 The Ben. note continues: "Deinde vero testatur Basilius eos fere hominis aetatem satanae traditos fuisse. At aetas hominis (geneav) saepe annorum viginti spatio existimatur; velut cum ait Dionysius Alexandrinus Alexandrinus apud Eusebium, lib. 7,cap. 21. Israelitas in deserto fuisse duabus aetatibus. Ipse Basilius in Epistola 201, quae scripta est anno 375, Neocaeaetatem succenseant; quos tamen non ita pridem amicos habuerat; ac anno 568, Musonii morte affictos litteris amicissimis consolatus fuerat. Saeculum apud Latinos non semper stricte sumitur; velut cum ait Hieronymus in Epist. 27 ad Marcellum, in Christi verbis explicandis per tanta jam saecula tantorum ingenia sudasse; vel cum auctor libri De rebaptismate in Cyprianum tacito nomine invehitur, quod adversus prisca consulta post tot saeculorum tantam seriem nunc primum repente sine ratione insurgat, p. 357. De hoc ergo triginta annorum numero non paucos deducendos esse crediderim).

26 (Mt 5,32 Mt 5,

27 (1Co 6,16 1Co 6,

28 (Jr 3,1 Jr 3,

29 (Pr 18,22, LXX.

30 The Ben. note is, Sequitur in hoc canone Basilius Romanas leges, quos tamen fatetur cum evangelio minus consentire. Lex Constantini jubet in repudio mittendo a femina haec sola crimina inquiri, si homicidam, vel medicamentarium, vel scpulcrorum dissolutorem maitum suum esse probaverit. At eadem lege viris conceditur, ut adulteras uxores dimittant. Aliud discrimen hoc in canone uxores inter et maritos ponitur, quod uxor injuste dimissa, si ab alia ducatur, adulterit notam non effugait; dimissus autem injuste maritus nec adulter sit, si aliam ducat, nec aquae ab co ducitur, adultera. Caeterum Basilius ante episcopatum eodem jure uxorem ac maritum esse censebat. Nam in Moral. reg. 73 statuit virum ab uxore, aut uxorem a viro non debere separari, nisi quis deprehendatur in adulterio. Utrique pariter interdict novis nuptiis, sive repudient, sive repudientur.

31 (1Co 7,16 1Co 7,

Basil: letters, hexaemeron - II. WORKS