Chrysostom Ga 400

Chapter IV. Verse 1-3. - 'But I say, that so long as the heir is a child,

400 he differeth nothing from a bond-servant, though he is lord of all; but is under guardians and stewards, until the term appointed of the father. So we also when we were children, were held in bondage under the rudiments of the world.' Ga 4

401 The word 'child' in this place denotes not age but understanding; 94 meaning that God had from the beginning designed for us these gifts, but, as we yet continued childish, He let us be under the elements of the world, that is, new moons and sabbaths, for these days are regulated by the course of sun and moon. 95 If then also now they bring you under law they do nothing else but lead you backward now in the time of your perfect age and maturity. And see what is the consequence of observing days; the Lord, the Master of the house, the Sovereign Ruler, is thereby reduced to the rank of aservant.

Ga 4,4-5. 'But when the fulness of the time came God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, under the Law that he might redeem them which were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.'

Here he states two objects and effects of the Incarnation, deliverance from evil and supply of good, things which none could compass but Christ. They are these; deliverance from the curse of the Law, and promotion to sonship. Fitly does he say, that we might 'receive,' '[be paid,]' implying that it was due; 96 for the promise was of old time made for these objects to Abraham, as the Apostle has himself shown at great length. And how does it appear that we have become sons' he has told us one mode, in that we have put on Christ who is the Son; and now he mentions another, in that we have received the Spirit of adoption.

Ga 4,6-7. 'And because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of His Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. So that thou art no longer a bond-servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God.'

Had not we been first made sons, we could not have called Him Father. If then grace hath made us freemen instead of slaves, men instead of children, heirs and sons instead of aliens, is it not utter absurdity and stupidity to desert this grace, and to turn away backwards?

Ga 4,8-9. 'Howbeit at that time not knowing God, ye were bondage to them which by nature are no gods. 97 But now, that ye have come to know God, or rather to be known of God, how turn ye back again to the weak and beggarly rudiments whereunto ye desire to be in bondage over again.'

Here turning to the Gentile believers he says that it is an idolatry, this rigid observance of days, and now incurs a severe punishment. To enforce this, and inspire them with a deeper anxiety, he calls the elements 'not by nature Gods.' And his meaning is, 'Then indeed, as being benighted and bewildered, ye lay grovelling upon the earth, but now that ye have known God or rather are known of Him, how great and bitter will be the chastisement ye draw upon you, if, after such a treatment, ye relapse into the same disease. It was not by your own pains that ye found out God, but while ye continued in error, He drew you to Himself. He says 'weak and beggarly rudiments,' in that they avail nothing towards the good things held out to us.

Ga 4,10. 'Ye observe days, and months, and seasons, and years.'

Hence is plain that their teachers were preaching to them not only circumscision, but also the feast-days and new-moons.

Ga 4,11. 'I am afraid of you, lest by any means I have bestowed labor upon you in vain.'

Observe the tender compassion of the Apostle; they were shaken and he trembles and fears. And hence he has put it so as thoroughly to shame them, 'I have bestowed labor upon you,' saying, as it were, make not vain the labors which have cost me sweat and pain. By saying 'I fear,' and subjoining the word 'lest,' he both inspires alarm, and encourages good hope. He says not 'I have labored in vain,' but 'lest,' which is as much as to say, the wreck has not happened, but I see the storm big with it; so I am in fear, yet not in despair; ye have the power to set all right, and to return into your former calm. Then, as it were stretching out a hand to them thus tempest-tost, 98 he brings himself into the midst, saying,

Ga 4,12. 'I beseech you, brethren, be as I am; for I am as you are.'

This is addressed to his Jewish disciples, and he brings his own example forward, to induce them thereby to abandon their old customs. Though you had none other for a pattern, he says, to look at me only would have sufficed for such a change, and for your taking courage. Therefore gaze on me; I too was 99 once in your state of mind, especially so; I had a burning zeal for the Law; yet afterwards I feared not to abandon the Law, to withdraw from that rule of life. And this ye know full well how obstinately I clung hold of Judiaism, and how with yet greater force I let it go. He does well to place this last in order: for most men, though they are given a thousand reasons, and those just ones, are more readily influenced by that which is like their own case, and more firmly hold to that which they see done by others.

94 ['It is clear from the context that here the apostle is not speaking of the Jewish race alone but of the heathen world also before Christ. He distinctly refers to their previous idolatrous worship (v. 8) and describes their adoption of Jewish ritualism as a 'return' to the weak and beggarly discipline of childhood. * * * Heathenism had been in respect to the 'ritualistic' element, which is the meeting-point of Judaism and heathenism, a disciplinary training like Judaism. They were made up of precepts and ordinances, as opposed to 'grace' and 'promise,' and in an imperfect way they might do the same work. They might by multiplying transgression and begetting a conviction of it prepare the way for liberty in Christ' - Lightfoot. - G. A.]
95 ['Paul in the following paragraph (ver. 12-20) interrupts his argument for a moment by an affectionate appeal to the feelings of the Galatians.' - Schaff.- G. A.]
96 ['AEEgenovmhn must be supplied in the second clause and not h]mhn as Chrysostom would understand: Become as I, free from Judaism, for I also have become as you. For when I abandoned Judaism I became as a Gentile and put myself on the same footing with you.' - Meyer. - G. A.]
97 [' 'Ye did me no wrong' probably means: I have no personal ground of complaint.' - Schaff and Lightfoot. - G. A.]
98 [' 'On account of some weakness of the flesh,' means he was compelled by reason of bodily weakness to make a stay there which did not form part of his plan, and during that forced sojourn he preached there.' - Meyer. - G. A.]
'He was detained there by some bodily infirmity or sickness and was thus induced to preach the Gospel. - Schaff. - G. A.]
99 [This word does not here mean 'they vie with you,' as Chrysostom interprets it, but 'they zealously seek you or pay court to you,' (1Co 12,31). - G. A.]

Ga 4,12. 'Ye did me no wrong.'

Observe how he again addresses them by a title of honor, which was a reminder moreover of the doctrine of grace. Having chid them seriously, and brought things together from all quarters, and shown their violations of the Law, and hit them on many sides, he gives in and conciliates them speaking more tenderly. For as to do nothing but conciliate causes negligence, so to be constantly talked at with sharpness sours a man; so that it is proper to observe due proportion everywhere. See then how he excuses to them what he has said, and shows that it proceeded not simply because he did not like them, but from anxiety. After giving them a deep cut, he pours in this encouragement like oil; and, showing that his words were not words of hate or enmity, he reminds them of the love which they had evinced toward him, mixing his self-vindication with praises.

402 Therefore he says, 'ye did me no wrong.'

Ga 4,13-14. 'But ye know that because of an infirmity of the flesh I preached the Gospel unto you the first time. And that which was a temptation in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected.'

Not to have injured one is indeed no great thing, for no man whatever would choose to hurt wantonly and without object to annoy another who had never injured him. But for you, not only have ye not injured me, but ye have shown me great and inexpressible kindness, and it is impossible that one who has been treated with such attention should speak thus from any malevolent motive. My language then cannot be caused by ill-will; it follows, that it proceeds from affection and solicitude. 100 'Ye did me no wrong; ye know that because of an infirmity of the flesh I preached the Gospel unto you.' What can be gentler than this holy soul, what sweeter, or more affectionate! And the words he had already used, arose not from an unreasoning anger, nor from a passionate emotion, but from much solicitude. And why do I say, ye have not injured me? Rather have ye evinced a great and sincere regard for me. For 'ye know,' he says, 'that because of an infirmity of the flesh I preached the Gospel unto you; and that which was a temptation to you in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected.' What does he mean? While I preached to you, I was driven about, I was scourged, I suffered a thousand deaths, yet ye thought no scorn of me; for this is meant by that which was a temptation to you in my flesh ye despised not, nor rejected." 101 Observe his spiritual skill; in the midst of his self-vindication, he again appeals to their feelings by showing what he had suffered for their sakes. This however, says he, did not at all offend you, nor did ye reject me on account of my sufferings and persecutions; or, as he now calls them, his infirmity and temptation.

Ga 4,14. 'But ye received me as an Angel of God.'

Was it not then absurd in them to receive him as an Angel of God, when he was persecuted and driven about, and then not to receive him when pressing on them what was fitting?

Ga 4,15-16. 'Where then is that gratulation of yourselves? for I bear you witness, that, if possible, ye would have plucked out your eyes, and given them to me. So then am I become your enemy, because I tell you the truth?'

Here he shows perplexity and amazement, and desires to learn of themselves the reason of their change. Who, says he, hath deceived you, and caused a difference in your disposition towards me? Are ye not the same who attended and ministered to me, counting me more precious than your own eyes? what then has happened? whence this dislike? whence this suspicion? Is it because I have told you the truth? You ought on this very account to pay me increased honor and attention; instead of which 'I am become your enemy, because I tell you the truth,? 'for I can find no other reason but this. Observe too what humbleness of mind appears in his defence of himself; he proves not by his conduct to them, but by theirs to him that his language could not possibly have proceeded from unkind feeling. For he says not; How is it supposable that one, who has been scourged and driven about, and ill-treated a thousand things for your sakes, should now have schemes against you? But he argues from what they had reason to boast of, saying, How can one who has been honored by you, and received as an Angel, repay you by conduct the very opposite?

Ga 4,17. 'They zealously seek you in no good way; nay, they desire to shut you out that ye may seek them.'

It is a wholesome emulation 102 which leads to an imitation of virtue, but an evil one, which seduces from virtue him who is in the right path. And this is the object of those persons, who would deprive you of perfect knowledge, 103 and impart to you that which is mutilated and spurious, and this for no other purpose than that they may occupy the rank of teachers, and degrade you, who now stand higher than themselves, to the position of disciples. For this is the meaning of the words 'that ye may seek them.' But I, says he, desire the reverse, that ye may become a model for them, and a pattern of a higher perfection: a thing which actually happened when I was present with you. Wherefore he adds,

Ga 4,18. 'But it is good to be zealously sought in a good matter at all times, and not only when I am present with you.'

Here he hints that his absence had been the cause of this, and that the true blessing was for disciples to hold right opinions not only in the presence but also in the absence of their master. But as they had not arrived at this point of perfection, he makes every effort to place them there.

Ga 4,19. 'My little children, 104 of whom I am again in travail until Christ be formed in you.'

Observe his perplexity and perturbation, 'Brethren, I beseech you:' 'My little children, of whom I am again in travail:' He resembles a mother trembling for her children. 'Until Christ be formed in you.' Behold his paternal tenderness, behold this despondency worthy of an Apostle. Observe what a wail he utters,far more piercing than of a woman in travail;'Ye have defaced the likeness, ye have destroyed the kinship, ye have changed the form, ye need another regeneration and refashioning; 105 nevertheless I call you children, abortions and monsters though ye be. However, he does not express himself in this way, but spares them, unwilling to strike, and to inflict wound upon wound. Wise physicians do not cure those who have fallen into a long sickness all at once, but little by little, lest they should faint and die. And so is it with this blessed man; for these pangs were more severe in proportion as the force of his affection was stronger. And the offense was of no trivial kind.

403 And as I have ever said and ever will say, even a slight fault mars the appearance and distorts the figure of the whole.

Ga 4,20. 'Yea, I could wish to be present with you now, and to change my voice.'

Observe his warmth, his inability to refrain himself, and to conceal these his feelings; such is the nature of love; nor is he satisfied with words, but desires to be present with them, and so, as he says, to change his voice, that is, to change to lamentation, to shed tears, to turn every thing into mourning. For he could not by letter show his tears or cries of grief, and therefore he ardently desires to be present with them.

Ga 4,20. 'For I am perplexed about you.' I know not, says he, what to say, or what to think. How is it, that ye who by dangers, which ye endured for the faith's sake, and by miracles, which ye performed through faith, had ascended to the highest heaven, should suddenly be brought to such a depth of degradation as to be drawn aside to circumcision or sabbaths, and should rely wholly upon Judaizers? Hence in the beginning he says, 'I marvel that ye are so quickly removing,' and here, 'I am perplexed about you,' as if he said, What am I to speak? What am I to utter? What am I to think? I am bitterly perplexed. And so he must needs weep, as the prophets do when in perplexity; for not only admonition but mourning also is a form in which solicitous attention is often manifested. And what he said in his speech to those at Miletus, 'By the space of three years I ceased not to warn every one with tears, he says here also, 'and to change my voice.' (Ac 20,31). When we find ourselves overcome by perplexity and helplessness which come contrary to expectation, we are driven to tears; and so Paul admonished them sharply, and endeavored to shame them, then in turn soothed them, and lastly he wept. And this weeping is not only a reproof but a blandishment; it does not exasperate like reproof, nor relax like indulgent treatment, but is a mixed remedy, and of great efficacy in the way of exhortation. Having thus softened and powerfully engaged their hearts by his tears, he again advances to the contest, 106 and lays down a larger propostion, proving that the Law itself was opposed to its being kept. Before, he produced the example of Abraham, but now (what is more cogent) he brings forward the Law itself enjoining them not to keep itself, but to leave off. So that, says he, you must abandon the Law, if you would obey it, for this is its own wish: this however he does not say expressly, but enforces it in another mode, mixing up with it an account of facts.

Ga 4,21. 'Tell me,' he says, 'ye that desire to be under the Law, do ye not hear the Law?' 107

100 ['They desire to shut you out' (not from a state of true knowledge, as Chrysostom interprets) but 'from other teachers,' anti-judaizing teachers, (according to Meyer) or from me (Paul) and so virtually from Christ Himself (according to Schaff) or from Christ (Lightfoot). - G. A.]
101 ['A mode of address common in St. Jn but nowhere else found in St. Paul.' - Lightfoot. 'It expresses Paul's tenderness and their feebleness. - Schaff. - G. A.]
102 ['I travailed with you once in bringing you to Christ. By your relapse you have renewed a mother's pangs in me.' - Lightfoot.
' 'Until Christ be formed in you,' is not an inversion of the metaphor he has begun with, but means, 'till you have taken the form of Christ as the embryo develops into the child.' ?- Lightfoot. - G. A.]
103 [The digression which contains his 'affectionate appeal' (see (note above) ends with verse 20, after which he resumes - G. A.]
104 ['The Apostle resumes his argument for the superiority of the Gospel over the Law and illustrates the difference of the two by an allegorical interpretation of the history of Hagar and Sarah.' - Schaff. - G. A.]
105 ['The story of Hagar and Sarah has another (namely a figurative, typical) meaning besides (not instead of) the literal or historical. Paul does not deny the fact but makes it the bearer of a general idea which was more fully expressed in two covenants. He uses allegorical here in a sense similar to the word 'typical' in 1Co 10,11' - Schaff. -G. A.]
[See on this difficult passage Schaff's Excursus in Com. and Lightfoot's Excursus xiii). Com. p. 368. - G. A.]
106 [So Meyer: 'In Arabia the name Hagar (to; (Agar) signifies Mt. Sinai.' But Schaff says: 'It cannot be satisfactorily proven that the name Hagar was an Arabic designation for Mt. Sinai, as the testimonies of Chrysostom and the traveler Harant are isolated and unconfirmed. The shorter reading, 'For Sinai is a mountain in Arabia' (to ga;r Sina` o]ro" evstivn ejn th` AEArabiva) given by the Sinaitic and other mss. and preferred by Lachmann, Tischendorf and Lightfoot (Excursus p. 361 of Com.) is quite intelligible and easily gives rise to the longer reading.' - G. A.]
107 ['This interpretation of Chrysostom is hardly the right one. The subject of sunstoicei` is Hagar and not Mt. Sinai'a view which runs counter to the context. It means that Hagar belongs to the same category with the present Jerusalem, is like it in that she was a bondwoman as Jerusalem with its children is also in bondage.' - Meyer. - G. A.]

(He says rightly, 'ye that desire,' for the matter was not one of a proper and orderly succession of things but of their own unseasonable contentiousness. It is the Book of Creation which he here calls the Law, which name he often gives to the whole Old Testament.

Ga 4,22. 'For it is written, (Gn 15,16). that Abraham had two sons, one by the hand-maid and the other by the freewoman.'

(He returns again to Abraham, not in the way of repetition, but, inasmuch as the Patriarch's fame was great among the Jews, to show that the types had their origin from thence, and that present events were pictured aforetime in him. Having previously shown that the Galatians were sons of Abraham, now, in that the Patriarch's sons were not of equal dignity, one being by a bondwoman, the other by a free-woman, he shows that they were not only his sons, but sons in the same sense as he that was freeborn and noble. Such is the power of Faith.

Ver 23. 'Howbeit the son by the handmaid is born after the flesh; but the son by the freewoman is born through promise.'

What is the meaning of 'after the flesh?' Having said that Faith united us to Abraham, and it having seemed incredible to his hearers, that those who were not begotten by Abraham should be called his sons, he proves that this paradox had actually happened long ago; for that Isaac, born not according to the order of nature, nor the law of marriage, nor the power of the flesh, was yet truly his own son. He was the issue of bodies that were dead, and of a womb that was dead; his conception was not by the flesh, nor his birth by the seed, for the womb was dead both through age and barrenness, but the Word of God fashioned Him. Not so in the case of the bondman; He came by virtue of the laws of nature, and after the manner of marriage. Nevertheless, he that was not according to the flesh was more honorable than he that was born after the flesh. Therefore let it not disturb you that ye are not born after the flesh; for from the very reason that ye are not so born, are ye most of all Abraham's kindred. The being born after the flesh renders one not more honorable, but less so, for a birth not after the flesh is more marvellous and more spiritual. And this is plain from the case of those who were born of old time; Ishmael, for instance, who was born according to the flesh, was not only a bondman, but was cast out of his father's house; but Isaac, who was born according to the promise, being a true son and free, was lord of all.

Ga 4,24. 'Which things contain an allegory.' 108

108 ['Against this view of Chrysostom it may be urged that h)ti" ejsti; mhvthr hJmw`n (which is our mother) is proved by (ga;r). The passage of the O. T. quoted in 5,27 and the hJmw`n includes 'all' Christians.' - Meyer. (See his long and good note in loc). - G. A.]

Contrary to usage, he calls a type an allegory; his meaning is as follows; this history not only declares that which appears on the face of it, but announces somewhat farther, whence it is called an allegory. And what hath it announced? no less than all the things now present.

Ga 4,24. 'For these women' he says, 'are two covenants; one from mount Sinai, bearing children unto bondage, which is Hagar.'

'These:'who' the mothers of those children, Sarah and Hagar; and what are they? Two covenants, two laws. As the names of the women were given in the history, he abides by this designation of the two races, showing how much follows from the very names. How from the names?

Ga 4,25. 'Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia:'

The bond-woman was called Hagar, and 'Hagar' is the word for Mount Sinai in the language of that country. 109

404 So that it is necessary that all who are born of the Old Covenant should be bondmen, for that mountain where the Old Covenant was delivered hath a name in common with the bondwoman. And it includes Jerusalem, for this is the meaning of,

Ga 4,25. 'And answereth to Jerusalem that now is.'

That is, it borders on, and is contiguous to it. 110

Ga 4,25. 'For she is in bondage with her children.'

What follows from hence? Not only that she was in bondage and brought forth bondmen, but that this Covenant is so too, whereof the bondwoman was a type. For Jerusalem is adjacent to the mountain of the same name with the bondwoman, and in this mountain the Covenant was delivered. Now where is the type of Sarah?

Ga 4,26. 'But Jerusalem that is above is free.'

Those therefore, who are born of her are not bondmen. Thus the type of the Jerusalem below was Hagar, as is plain from the mountain being so called; but of that which is above is the Church. Nevertheless he is not content with these types, but adds the testimony of Isaiah to what he has spoken. Having said that Jerusalem which is above 'is our Mother,' and having given that name to the Church, he cites the suffrage of the Prophet in his favor,

Ga 4,27. 'Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not, break forth and cry, thou that travailest not, for more are the children of the desolate than of her which hath the husband.' (Is 54,1).

34 Who is this who before was 'barren,' and 'desolate?' Clearly it is the Church of the Gentiles, 111 that was before deprived of the knowledge of God' Who, 'she which hath the husband?' plainly the Synagogue. Yet the barren woman surpassed her in the number of her children, for the other embraces one nation, but the children of the Church have filled the country of the Greeks and of the Barbarians, the earth and sea, the whole habitable world. Observe how Sarah by acts, and the Prophet by words, have described the events about to befal us. Observe too, that he whom Isaiah called barren, Paul hath proved to have many children, which also happened typically in the case of Sarah. For she too, although barren, became the mother of a numerous progeny. This however does not suffice Paul, but he carefully follows out the mode whereby the barren woman became a mother, that in this particular likewise the type might harmonize with the truth. Wherefore he adds

109 ['Chrysostom assumes the prevailing conception of a real priesthood and sacrifice, baptismal regeneration, etc.' - Schaff, Prolegomena, p. 8. - G. A.]
110 [See note above on this interpretation. - G. A.]
111 ['Before the emergence of the Christian people of God, the heavenly Jerusalem was still unpeopled, childless, stei`ra, 'barren,' ouj tivktousa 'not bearing,' and so like Sarah before she became the mother of Isaac. But with the emergence of the Christian people of God this heavenly Jerusalem has become a fruitful mother richer in children than the Jerusalem that now is.' - Meyer. - G. A.]

Ga 4,28. 'Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are children of promise.'

It is not merely that the Church was barren like Sarah, or became a mother of many children like her, but she bore them in the way Sarah did. As it was not nature but the promise of God which rendered Sarah a mother, [for the word of God which said, 'At the time appointed I will return unto thee, and Sarah shall have a son,' (Gn 18,14). this entered into the womb and formed the babe,] so also in our regeneration it is not nature, but the Words of God spoken by the Priest, 112 (the faithful know them,) which in the Bath of water as in a sort of womb, form and regenerate him who is baptized.

Wherefore if we are sons of the barren woman, then are we free. But what kind of freedom, it might be objected, is this, when the Jews seize and scourge the believers, and those who have this pretence of liberty are persecuted? for these things then occurred, in the persecution of the faithful. Neither let this disturb you, he replies, this also is anticipated in the type, for Isaac, who was free, was persecuted by Ishmael the bondman. Wherefore he adds,

Ga 4,29-30. 'But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Howbeit what saith the Scripture' (Gn 21,10). Cast out the handmaid and her son: for the son of the handmaid shall not inherit with the son of the freewoman.'

What! does all this consolation consist in showing that freemen are persecuted by bond-men? By no means, he says, I do not stop here, listen to what follows, and then, if you be not pusillanimous under persecution, you will be sufficiently comforted. And what is it that follows? 'Cast out the son of the handmaid, for he shall not inherit with the son of the freewoman.' Behold the reward of tyranny for a season, and of reckleness out of season! the son is cast out of his father's house, and becomes, together with his mother, an exile and a wanderer. And consider too the wisdom of the remark; for he says not that he was cast forth merely because he persecuted, but that he should not be heir. For this punishment was not exacted from him on account of his temporary persecution, (for that would have been of little moment, and nothing to the point,) but he was not suffered to participate in the inheritance provided for the son. And this proves that, putting the persecution aside, this very thing had been typified from the beginning, and did not originate in the persecution, but in the purpose of God. Nor does he say, 'the son of Abraham shall not be heir,' but, 'the son of the handmaid,' distinguishing him by his inferior descent. Now Sarah was barren, and so is the Gentile Church; 113 observe how the type is preserved in every particular, as the former, through all the by-gone years, conceived not, and in extreme old age became a mother, so the latter, when the fulness of time is come, brings forth. And this the prophets have proclaimed, saying, 'Rejoice, thou barren that bearest not; break forth and cry, thou that travailest not; for more are the children of the desolate than of her which hath the husband.' And hereby they intend the Church; for she knew not God, but as soon as she knew Him, she surpassed the fruitful synagogue. 114

Ga 4,31. 'Wherefore, brethren, we are not children of a handmaid but of the freewoman.'

(He turns and discusses this on all sides, desiring to prove that what had taken place was no novelty, but had been before typified many ages ago. How then can it be otherwise than absurd for those who had been set apart so long and who had obtained freedom, willingly to subject themselves to the yoke of bondage'

Next he states another inducement to them to abide in his doctrine).

Chapter V. Verse 1- 'With freedom did Christ set us free;

500 stand fast therefore. 115 .' Ga 5

501 Have ye wrought your own deliverance, that ye run back again to the dominion ye were under before? It is Another who hath redeemed you, it is Another who hath paid the ransom for you. Observe in how many ways he leads them away from the error of Judaism; by showing, first, that it was the extreme of folly for those, who had become free instead of slaves, to desire to become slaves instead of free; secondly, that they would be convicted of neglect and ingratitude to their Benefactor, in despising Him who had delivered, and loving him who had enslaved them; thirdly, that it was impossible. For Another having once for all redeemed all of us from it, the Law ceases to have any sway. By the word, 'stand fast,' he indicates their vacillation.

Ga 5,1. 'And be not entangled again in a yoke of bondage.'

By the word 'yoke' he signifies to them the burdensomeness of such a course, and by the word 'again' he points out their utter senselessness. Had ye never experienced this burden, ye would not have deserved so severe a censure, but for you who by trial have learnt how irksome this yoke is, again to subject yourself to it, is justly unpardonable.

Ga 5,2. 'Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye receive circumcision, Christ will profit you nothing.'

Lo, what a threat! reasonably then did he anathematize even angels. How then shall Christ profit them nothing? for he has not supported this by argument, but only declared it, the credence due to his authority, compensating, as it were, for all subsequent proof. Wherefore he sets out by saying, 'Behold, I Paul say unto you,' which is the expression of one who has confidence in what he asserts. We will subjoin what we can ourselves as to how Christ shall profit nothing them who are circumcised.

(He that is circumcised is circumcised for fear of the Law, and he who fears the Law, distrusts the power of grace, and he who distrusts can receive no benefit from that which is distrusted. Or again thus, he that is circumcised makes the Law of force; but thus considering it to be of force and yet transgressing it in the greater part while keeping it in the lesser, he puts himself again under the curse. But how can he be saved who submits himself to the curse, and repels the liberty which is of Faith? If one may say what seems a paradox, such an one believes neither Christ nor the Law, but stands between them, desiring to benefit both by one and the other, whereas he will reap fruit from neither. Having said that Christ shall profit them nothing, he lays down the proof 116 of it shortly and sententiously, thus:

Ga 5,3. 'Yea, I testify again 117 to every man that receiveth circumcision that he is a debtor to do the whole Law.'

That you may not suppose that this is spoken from ill-will 118 , I say not to you alone, he says, but to every one who receiveth circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole Law. The parts of the Law are linked one to the other. As he who from being free has enrolled himself as a slave, no longer does what he pleases, but is bound by all the laws of slavery, so in the case of the Law, if you take upon you a small portion of it, and submit to the yoke, you draw down upon yourself its whole domination. And so it is in a worldly inheritance: he who touches no part of it, is free from all matters which are consequent on the heirship to the deceased, but if he takes a small portion, though not the whole, yet by that part he has rendered himself liable for every thing. And this occurs in the Law, not only in the way I have mentioned, but in another also, for Legal observances are linked together. For example; Circumcision has sacrifice connected with it, and the observance of days; sacrifice again has the observance both of day and of place; place has the details of endless purifications; purifications involve a perfect swarm of manifold observances. For it is unlawful for the unclean to sacrifice, to enter the holy shrines, to do any other such act. Thus the Law introduces many things even by the one commandment. If then thou art circumcised, but not on the eighth day, or on the eighth day, but no sacrifice is offered, or a sacrifice is offered, but not in the prescribed place, or in the prescribed place, but not the accustomed objects, or if the accustomed objects, but thou be unclean, or if clean yet not purified by proper rules, every thing is frustrated. Wherefore 119 he says, 'that he is a debtor to the the whole Law.' Fulfil not a part, but the whole, if the Law is of force; but if it be not of force, not even a part.

Ga 5,4. 'Ye are severed from Christ, ye who would be justified by the Law; ye are fallen away from grace.'

Having established his point, he at length declares their danger of the severest punishment. When a man recurs to the Law, which cannot save him, and falls from grace, what remains but an inexorable retribution, the Law being powerless, and grace rejecting him?

502 Thus having aggravated their alarm, and disquieted their mind, and shown them all the shipwreck they were about to suffer, he opens to them the haven of grace which was near at hand. This is ever his wont, and he shows that in this quarter salvation is easy and secure, sub-joining the words,

Ga 5,5. 'For we through the Spirit by faith wait for the hope of righteousness.' 120

112 (The text of this verse is not settled. The textus receptus has th` evleuqeriva/ ou\n h cristo;" hJma`" hjleuqevrwse sthvkete, etc. Chrysostom has th` ga;r evleuqeriva h\ cristo;" uJma`" ejxhgovrase, sthvkete, etc. W. & H. have th` evleuqevriva h;ma`" cristo;" hjleuqevrwsen sthvkete ou\n kai;, etc., with Aleph, A). b.c. Ap Ver.
But W. & H. suspect there is some primitive error. Lightfoot joins th/` eleuqeriva/, with th`" ejleuqevra" of the preceding verse and retains the relative h/\, making it read; We are sons of the free woman with the freedom wherewith Christ freed us. Com. in loc. and Excursus p. 371.
113 [The following verse does not introduce proof that Christ shall profit them nothing, but leads on to more detailed information and so is introduced by dev, autem. So Meyer; though Lightfoot makes dev adversative to the idea of wvfelhvsei, and so Ellicott. Ap Ver. agrees with Meyer's view. - G. A.]
114 ['Again refers to 'I say' in preceding sentences.' Schaff, Lightfoot, Ellicott. Meyer says, 'It calls to the remembrance of his readers his last presence,' (second visit). - G. A.]
115 [' 'To every man' stands in a climactic relation to foregoing ujmi`n remorselessly embracing all; that no one may think himself excluded. Hence Chrysostom's view is wrong.' . Meyer. - G. A.]
116 [Perhaps Paul's reason for his statement that every one who suffers himself to be circumcised is a debtor to keep the whole Law is this Scripture which he quotes in iii:10: Cursed is he that continueth not in all the things that are written etc. - G. A.]
117 ['The Holy Spirit is the divine 'agent' and faith is the subjective 'source' of our expectation.' - Meyer. - G. A.]
118 ['Circumcision and uncircumsion are circumstances of no effect or avail in Christianity; and yet they were in Galatia the points on which the disturbance turned,' - Meyer, - G. A.]
119 ['How necessary it was for the Galatians that prominence should be given to the activity of faith 'in love' may be seen from verses 15, 20, 26. The passive view of ejnergoumevnh (wrought through love) as held by some Fathers and by Catholics is erroneous. In New Test). ejnergei`sqai is always middle: faith 'which is operative through love.' - Meyer. - G. A.]
Lightfoot says: 'The words dij ajgavph" energoumevnh bridge over the gulf which seems to separate the language of St. Paul and St. James. Both assert a principle of practical energy as opposed to a barren theory. - G. A.]
120 [The words ajlhqeiva mh; peivqesqavi are wanting in Chrysostom's text. - G. A.]

We need none of those legal observances, he says; faith suffices to obtain for us the Spirit, and by Him righteousness, and many and great benefits.

Ga 5,6. 'For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; 121 but faith working through love.'

Observe the great boldness with which he now encounters them; Let him that hath put on Christ, he says, no longer be careful about such matters. Having before said that Circumcision was hurtful, how is it that he now considers it indifferent? It is indifferent as to those who had it previously to the Faith, but not as to those who are circumcised after the Faith was given. Observe too the view in which he places it, by setting it by the side of Uncircumcision; it is Faith that makes the difference. As in the selection of wrestlers, whether they be hook-nosed or flat-nosed, black or white, is of no importance in their trial, it is only necessary to seek that they be strong and skilful; so all these bodily accidents do not injure one who is to be enrolled under the New Covenant, nor does their presence assist him.

What is the meaning of 'working through love?' 122 Here he gives them a hard blow, by showing that this error had crept in because the love of Christ had not been rooted within them. For to believe is not all that is required, but also to abide in love. It is as if he had said, Had ye loved Christ as ye ought, ye would not have deserted to bondage, nor abandoned Him who redeemed you, nor treated with contumely Him who gave you freedom. Here he also hints at those who have plotted against them, implying that they would not have dared to do so, had they felt affection towards them. He wishes too by these words to correct their course of life.

Ga 5,7. "Ye were running well; who did hinder you? 123

121 ['The false teachers had spread the malicious report that Paul himself preached circumcision because he practiced it in the case of Timothy. But this was a measure of expediency and charity and not a surrender of principle.' - Schaff.
'This calumny was sufficiently absurd to admit of his dismissing it, as he does here, with all brevity and with what a striking experimental proof!' - Meyer. - G. A.]
122 ['The vivid realization of the doings of his opponents, who were not ashamed to resort even to such falsehood, now wrings from his soul a strong and bitterly sarcastic wish of holy indignation.' - Meyer.
Paul wishes that the circumcisers would not stop with circumcision but go beyond it to mutilation (make themselves eunuchs) like the priests of Cybele. A severe irony and similar to the one in Ph iii:2, 3, where Paul calls the boasters of circumcision 'the Concision.' Self mutilation was a recognized form of heathen worship especially in Pessinus in Galatia and therefore quite familiar to the readers. Thus by their glorying in the flesh the Galatians relapsed into their former heathenism, - Schaff and Lightfoot. The Revised Version here has, 'would even cut themselves off,' the American Committee has, 'would go beyond circumcision.' - G. A.]
123 [AEApokoptein ejautouv". Chrysostom here, as often, 'goes off at a word' into a digression on a subject which is only remotely suggested by the passage in hand. - G. A.]

This is not an interrogation, but an expression of doubt and soroow. How hath such a course been cut short? who hath been able to do this? ye who were superior to all and in the rank of teachers, have not even continued in the position of disciples. What has happened? who could do this? these are rather the words of one who is exclaiming and lamenting, as he said before, 'Who did bewitch you?' (Ga 3,1).

Ga 5,8. 'This persuasion came not of him that calleth you.'

(He who called you, called you not to such fluctuations, he did not lay down a Law, that you should judaize. Then, that no one might object, 'Why do you thus magnify and aggravate the matter by your words; one commandment only of the Law have we kept, and yet you make this great outcry?' hear how he terrifies them, not by things present but future in these words:

Ga 5,7. 'A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump.' And thus this slight error, he says, if not corrected, will have power (as the leaven has with the lump) to lead you into complete Judaism.

Ga 5,10. 'I have confidence to you-ward in the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise minded.'

(He does not say, 'ye are not minded,' but, 'ye will not be minded;' that is, you will be set right. And how does he know this? he says not 'I know,' but 'I trust in God, and invoking His aid in order to your correction, I am in hopes;' and he says, not merely, 'I have confidence in the Lord,' but, 'I have confidence towards you in the Lord.' Every where he connects complaint with his praises; here it is as if he had said, I know my disciples, I know your readiness to be set right. I have good hopes, partly because of the Lord who suffers nothing, however trival, to perish, partly because of you who are quickly to recover yourselves. At the same time he exhorts them to use diligence on their own parts, it not being possible to obtain aid from God, if our own efforts are not contributed.

Ga 5,10. 'But he that troubleth you shall bear his judgment, whosoever he be.'

Not only by words of encouragement, but by uttering a curse or a prophecy against their teachers, he applies to them an incentive. And observe that he never mentions the name of these plotters, that they might not become more shameless. His meaning is as follows. Not because 'ye will be none otherwise minded,' are the authors of your seduction relieved from punishment. They shall be punished; for it is not proper that the good conduct of the one should become an encouragement to the evil disposition of the other. This is said that they might not make a second attempt upon others. And he says not merely, 'he that troubleth,' but, 'whosoever he be,' in the way of aggravation.

Ga 5,11. 'But I, brethren, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted?'

Observe how clearly he exonerates himself from the charge, 124 that in every place he judaized and played the hypocrite in his preaching. Of this he calls them as witnesses; for ye know, he says, that my command to abandon the Law was made the pretext for persecuting me. "If I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? for this is the only charge which they of the Jewish descent have to bring against me. Had I permitted them to receive the Faith, still retaining the customs of their fathers, neither believers nor unbelievers would have laid snares for me, seeing that none of their own usages were disturbed.

124 [This is not a digression. It is in strict continuity with the preceeding context and gives a reason for the indignant expression of the foregoing sentence.
'They are defeating the very purpose of your calling: ye were called for liberty and not for bondage.' - Lightfoot. - G. A.]

503 What then! did he not preach circumcision? did he not circumcise Timothy? Truly he did. How then can he say, 'I preach it not?' Here observe his accuracy; he says not, 'I do not perform circumcision,' but, 'I preach it not,' that is, I do not bid men so to believe. Do not therefore consider it any confirmation of your doctrine, for though I circumdised, I did not preach circumcision.

Ga 5,11. 'Then hath the stumbling block of the cross been done away.'

That is, if this which ye assert be true, the obstacle, the hindrance, is removed; for not even the Cross was so great an offence to the Jews, as the doctrine that their father's customs ought not to be obeyed. When they brought Stephen before the council, they said not that this man adores the Crucified, but that he speaks 'against this holy place and the Law.' (Ac 6,13). And it was of this they accused Jesus, that He broke the Law. Wherefore Paul says, If Circumcision be conceded, the strife you are involved in is appeased; hereafter no enmity to the Cross and our preaching remains. But why do they bring this charge against us, while waiting day after day to murder us? it is because I brought an uncircumcised man into the Temple (Ac 21,29). that they fell upon me. Am I then, he says, so senseless, after giving up the point of Circumcision, vainly and idly to expose myself to such injuries, and to place such a stumbling-block before the Cross? For ye observe, that they attack us for nothing with such vehemence as about Circumcision. Am I then so senseless as to suffer affliction for nothing at all, and to give offence to others? He calls it the offence of the Cross, because it was enjoined by the doctrine of the Cross; and it was this which principally offended the Jews, and hindered their reception of the Cross, namely, the command to abandon the usages of their fathers.

Ga 5,12. 'I would that they which unsettle you, would even cut themselves off.'

Observe how bitterly he speaks here against their deceivers. 125 At the outset he directed his charge against those who were deceived, and called them foolish, once and again. Now, having sufficiently corrected and instructed them, he turns to their deceivers. And you should remark his wisdom in the manner in which he admonishes and chastens the former as his own children, and as capable of receiving correction, but their deceivers he cuts off, as aliens and incurably depraved. And this he does, partly, when he says, 'he shall bear his judgment whosoever he be;' partly when he utters the imprecation against them, 'I would that they which unsettle you would even cut themselves off.' And he says well 'that unsettle you.' For they had compelled them to abandon their own fatherland, their liberty, and their heavenly kindred, and to seek an alien and foreign one; they had cast them out of Jerusalem which is above and free, and compelled them to wander forth as captives and emigrants. On this account he curses them; and his meaning is as follows, For them I have no concern, 'A man that is heretical after the first and second admonition refuse.' (Tt 3,10) If they will, let them not only be circumcised, but mutilated. Where then are those who dare to mutilate themselves 126 ; seeing that they draw down the Apostolic curse, and accuse the workmanship of God, and take part with the Manichees? For the latter call the body a treacherous thing, and from the evil principle; and the former by their acts give countenance to these wretched doctrines, cutting off the member as being hostile and treacherous. Ought they not much rather to put out the eyes, for it is through the eyes that desire enters the soul? But in truth neither the eye nor any other part of us is to blame, but the depraved will only. But if you will not allow this, why do you not mutilate the tongue for blasphemy, the hands for rapine, the feet for their evil courses, in short, the whole body? For the ear enchanted by the sound of a flute hath often enervated the soul; and the perception of a sweet perfume by the nostrils hath bewitched the mind, and made it frantic for pleasure. Yet this would be extreme wickedness and satanic madness. The evil spirit, ever delighting in slaughter, hath seduced them to crush the instrument, as if its Maker had erred, whereas it was only necessary to correct the unruly passion of the soul. How then does it happen, one may say, that when the body is pampered, lust is inflamed? Observe here too that it is the sin of the soul, for to pamper the flesh is not an act of the flesh but of the soul, for if the soul choose to mortify it, it would possess absolute power over it. But what you do is just the same as if one seeing a man lighting a fire, and heaping on fuel, and setting fire to a house, were to blame the fire, instead of him who kindled it, because it had caught this heap of fuel, and risen to a great height. Yet the blame would attach not to the fire but to the one who kindled it; for it was given for the purpose of dressing food, affording light, and other like ministries, not for burning houses. In like manner desire is implanted for the rearing of families and the ensuring of life, not for adultery, or fornication, or lasciviousness; that a man may become a father, not an adulterer; a lawful husband, not a seducer; leaving heirs after him, not doing damage to another man's. For adultery arises not from nature, but from wantonness against nature, which prescribes the use not the misuse.

504 These remarks I have not made at random, but as a prelude to a dispute, as skirmishing against those who assert that the workmanship of God is evil, and who neglecting the sloth of the soul, madly inveigh against the body, and traduce our flesh, whereof Paul afterwards discourses, accusing not the flesh, but devilish thoughts.

Ga 5,13. 'For ye, brethren, were called for freedom; only use not your freedom for an occasion to the flesh.'

Henceforward he appears to digress 127 into a moral discourse, but in a new manner, which does not occur in any other of his Epistles. For all of them are divided into two parts, and in the first he discusses doctrine, in the last the rule of life, but here, after having entered upon the moral discourse, he again unites with it the doctrinal part. For this passage has reference to doctrine in the controversy with the Manichees. 128 What is the meaning of, 'Use not your freedom for an occasion to the flesh?' Christ hath delivered us, he says, from the yoke of bondage, He hath left us free to act as we will, not that we may use our liberty for evil, but that we may have ground for receiving a higher reward, advancing to a higher philosophy. Lest any one should suspect, from his calling the Law over and over again a yoke of bondage, and a bringing on of the curse, that his object in enjoining an abandonment of the Law, was that one might live lawlessly, he corrects this notion, and states his object to be, not that our course of life might be lawless, but that our philosophy might surpass the Law. For the bonds of the Law are broken, and I say this not that our standard may be lowered, but that it may be exalted. For both he who commits fornication, and he who leads a virgin life, pass the bounds of the Law, but not in the same direction; the one is led away to the worse, the other is elevated to the better; the one transgresses the Law, the other transcends it. Thus Paul says that Christ hath removed the yoke from you, not that ye may prance and kick, but that though without the yoke ye may proceed at a well-measured pace. And next he shows the mode whereby this may be readily eftected; and what is this mode' he says,

125 [On the doctrine of the Manichees see Schaff Church History vol. 2,p. 498-508, where a full account of the literature is given also. - G. A.]
126 ['An ingenious juxtaposition of 'freedom' and brotherly 'service' in that freedom,' - Meyer.
'Ye were called for 'freedom,' but through love make yourselves willing 'bond-servants' to each other.' - .G. A.]
127 [See Lightfoot, Introduction, p. 39. Note 3. - G. A.]
128 ['Paul returns to the warning in ver. 13, not to abuse their freedom for an occasion to the 'flesh' - Schaff.
'In verse 13 he had warned them against using liberty for an occasion to the flesh; now, ver. 16, he shows them how they are to accomplish that end and this introduces the deadly and interminable antagonism between the spirit and the flesh.' - Lightfoot. - G. A.]

Ga 5,13. 'But through love be servants one to another.' 129

129 [That is, the 'psychical' man, from yuchv, the soul. - G. A.]

Here again he hints that strife and party-spirit, love of rule and presumptousness, had been the causes of their error, for the desire of rule is the mother of heresies. By saying, 'Be servants one to another,' he shows that the evil had arisen from this presumptuous and arrogant spirit, and therefore he applies a corresponding remedy. As your divisions arose from your desire to domineer over each other, 'serve one another;' thus will ye be reconciled again. However, he does not openly express their fault, but he openly tells them its corrective, that through this they may become aware of that; as if one were not to tell an immodest person of his immodesty, but were continually to exhort him to chastity. He that loves his neighbor as he ought, declines not to be servant to him more humbly than any servant. As fire, brought into contact with wax, easily softens it, so does the warmth of love dissolve all arrogance and presumption more powerfully than fire. Wherefore he says not, 'love one another,' merely, but, 'be servants one to another,' thus signifying the intensity of the affection. When the yoke of the Law was taken off them that they might not caper off and away another was laid on, that of love, stronger than the former, yet far lighter and pleasanter; and, to point out the way to obey it, he adds;

Ga 5,14. 'For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, even in this; Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.'

Seeing that they made so much of the Law, he says, 'If you you wish to fulfill it, do not be circumcised, for it is fulfilled not in circumcision but in love.' Observe how he cannot forget his grief, but constantly touches upon what troubled him, even when launched into his moral discourse.

Ga 5,15. 'But if ye bite and devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.'

That he may not distress them, he does not assert this, though he knew it was the case, 130 but mentions it ambiguously. For he does not say, 'In as much as ye bite one another,' nor again does he assert, in the clause following, that they shall be consumed by each other; but 'take heed that ye be not consumed one of another,' and this is the language of apprehension and warning, not of condemnation. And the words which he uses are expressly significant; he says not merely, 'ye bite,' which one might do in a passion, but also 'ye devour,' which implies a bearing of malice. To bite is to satisfy the feeling of anger, but to devour is a proof of the most savage ferocity. The biting and devouring he speaks of are not bodily, but of a much more cruel kind; for it is not such an injury to taste the flesh of man, as to fix one's fangs in his soul. In proportion as the soul is more precious than the body, is damage to it more serious. 'Take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.' For those who commit injury and lay plots, do so in order to destroy others; therefore he says, Take heed that this evil fall not on your own heads. For strife and dissensions are the ruin and destruction as well of those who admit as of those who introduce them, and eats out every thing worse than a moth does.

Ga 5,16. 'But I say, Walk by the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.'

505 Here he points out another 131 path which makes duty easy, and secures what had been said, a path whereby love is generated, and which is fenced in by love. For nothing, nothing I say, renders us so susceptible of love, as to be spiritual, and nothing is such an inducement to the Spirit to abide in us, as the strength of love. Therefore he says, 'Walk by the Spirit and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh:' having spoken of the cause of the disease, he likewise mentions the remedy which confers health. And what is this, what is the destruction of the evils we have spoken of, but the life in the Spirit? hence he says, 'Walk by the Spirit and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.'

Ga 5,17. 'For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh, for these are contrary the one to the other: that ye may not do the things that ye would.'

Here some make the charge that the Apostle has divided man into two parts, and that he states the essence of which he is compounded to be conflicting with itself, and that the body has a contest with the soul. But this is not so, most certainly; for by 'the flesh,' he does not mean the body; if he did, what would be the sense of the clause immediately following, 'for it lusteth,' he says, 'against the Spirit?' yet the body moves not, but is moved, is not an agent, but is acted upon. How then does it lust, for lust belongs to the soul not to the body, for in another place it is said, 'My soul longeth,' (Ps 80,4 Ps 80,2). and, 'Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee,' (1S 20,4). and, 'Walk not according to the desires of thy heart,' and, 'So panteth my soul.' (Ps 42,1). Wherefore then does Paul say, 'the flesh lusteth against the Spirit?' he is wont to call the flesh, not the natural body but the depraved will, as where he says, 'But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit,' (Rm 8,8-9). and again, 'They that are in the flesh cannot please God.' What then? Is the flesh to be destroyed? was not he who thus spoke clothed with flesh? such doctrines are not of the flesh, but from the Devil, for 'he was a murderer from the beginning.' (Jn 8,44). What then is his meaning? it is the earthly mind, slothful and careless, that he here calls the flesh, and this is not an accusation of the body, but a charge against the slothful soul. The flesh is an instrument, and no one feels aversion and hatred to an instrument, but to him who abuses it. For it is not the iron instrument but the murderer, whom we hate and punish. But it may be said that the very calling of the faults of the soul by the name of the flesh is in itself an accusation of the body. And I admit that the flesh is inferior to the soul, yet it too is good, for that which is inferior to what is good may itself be good, but evil is not inferior to good, but opposed to it. Now if you are able to prove to me that evil originates from the body, you are at liberty to accuse it; but if your endeavor is to turn its name into a charge against it, you ought to accuse the soul likewise. For he that is deprived of the truth is called 'the natural man.' (1Co 11,14). 132 and the race of demons 'the spirits of wickedness.' (Ep 6,12).

Again, the Scripture is wont to give the name of the Flesh to the Mysteries of the Eucharist, and to the whole Church, calling them the Body of Christ. (Col 1,24). Nay, to induce you to give the name of blessings to the things of which the flesh is the medium, you have only to imagine the extinction of the senses, and you will find the soul deprived of all discernment, and ignorant of what it before knew. For if the power of God is since 'the creation of the world clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made,' (Rm 1,20). how could we see them without eyes? and if 'faith cometh of hearing,' (Rm 10,17). how shall we hear without ears? and preaching depends on making circuits wherein the tongue and feet are employed. 'For how shall they preach, except they be sent?' (Rm 10,15). In the same way writing is performed by means of the hands. Do you not see that the ministry of the flesh produces for us a thousand benefits? In his expression, 'the flesh lusteth against the Spirit,' he means two mental states. For these are opposed to each other, namely virtue and vice, not the soul and the body. Were the two latter so opposed they would be destructive of one another, as fire of water, and darkness of light. But if the soul cares for the body, and takes great forethought on its account, and suffers a thousand things in order not to leave it, and resists being separated from it, and if the body too ministers to the soul, and conveys to it much knowledge, and is adapted to its operations, how can they be contrary, and conflicting with each other? For my part, I perceive by their acts that they are not only not contrary but closely accordant and attached one to another. It is not therefore of these that he speaks as opposed to each other, but he refers to the contest of bad and good principles. (Compare Rm 7,23). To will and not to will belongs to the soul; wherefore he says, 'these are contrary the one to the other,' that you may not suffer the soul to proceed in its evil desires. For he speaks this like a Master and Teacher in a threatening way.

Ga 5,18 18. 'But if ye are led by the Spirit, ye are not under the Law.' 133

130 ['If you adopt the rule of the Spirit, you thereby renounce your allegiance to the Law. In this passage the Spirit is doubly contrasted; first with the flesh, and secondly, with the Law, both of which are closely allied.' - Lightfoot.- G. A ]
131 ['Would you ascertain whether you are walking by the Spirit or the flesh' Then apply the plain practical test.?' - Lightfoot.- G. A.]
132 ['The sins here mentioned seem to fall into four classes: (1) Sensual sins; fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness; (2) Unlawful dealings in things spiritual; idolatry, sorcery; (3) Violations of brotherly love; enmities ' envyings; (4) Excesses, drunkenness and revellings.' - Lightfoot. - G. A.]
133 ['Used apparently with a significant reference to the organic development, from their root, the Spirit.' - Ellicott. So substantially Lightfoot and Schaff. But Meyer demurs and says no marked distinction is intended. He refers it to Paul's fondness for variety of expression. - G. A.]

506 If it be asked in what way are these two connected, I answer, closely and plainly; for he that hath the Spirit as he ought, quenches thereby every evil desire, and he that is released from these needs no help from the Law, but is exalted far above its precepts. He who is never angry, what need has he to hear the command, Thou shalt not kill? He who never casts unchaste looks, what need hath he of the admonition, Thou shalt not commit adultery? Who would discourse about the fruits of wickedness with him who had plucked up the root itself? for anger is the root of murder, and of adultery the inquisitive gazing into faces. Hence he says, 'If ye are led by the Spirit, ye are not under the Law;' wherein he appears to me to have pronounced a high and striking eulogy of the Law, if, at least, the Law stood, according to its power, in the place of the Spirit before the Spirit's coming upon us. But we are not on that account obliged to continue apart with our schoolmaster. Then we were justly subject to the Law, that by fear we might chasten our lusts, the Spirit not being manifested; but now that grace is given, which not only commands us to abstain from them, but both quenches them, and leads us to a higher rule of life, what more need is there of the Law? He who has attained an exalted excellence from an inner impulse, has no occasion for a schoolmaster, nor does any one, if he is a philosopher, require a grammarian. Why then do ye so degrade yourselves, as now to listen to the Law, having previously given yourselves to the Spirit?

Ga 5,19-21. 'Now the works of the flesh are manifest, 134 which are these; fornication, 135 uncleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, enmities, strife, jealousies, wrath, factions, divisions, heresies, envyings, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I forewarn you even as I did forewarn you, that they which practice such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.'

Answer me now, thou that accusest thine own flesh, and supposest that this is said of it as of an enemy and adversary. Let it be allowed that adultery and fornication proceed, as you assert, from the flesh; yet hatred, variance, emulations, strife, heresies, and witchcraft, these arise merely from a depraved moral choice. And so it is with the others also, for how can they belong to the flesh? you observe that he is not here speaking of the flesh, but of earthly thoughts, which trail upon the ground. Wherefore also he alarms them by saying, that 'they which practice such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.' If these things belonged to nature and not to a bad moral choice, his expression, 'they practice,' is inappropriate, it should be, 'they suffer.' And why should they be cast out of the kingdom, for rewards and punishments relate not to what proceeds from nature but from choice?

Ga 5,22. 'But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace.'

(He says not, 'the work of the Spirit,' but, 'the fruit of the Spirit.' Is the soul, however, superfluous? the flesh and the Spirit are mentioned, but where is the soul? is he discoursing of beings without a soul? for if the things of the flesh be evil, and those of the Spirit good, the soul must be superfluous. By no means, for the mastery of the passions belongs to her, and concerns her; and being placed amid vice and virtue, if she has used the body fitly, she has wrought it to be spiritual, but if she separate from the Spirit and give herself up to evil desires, she makes herself more earthly. You observe throughout that his discourse does not relate to the substance of the flesh, but to the moral choice, which is or is not vicious. And why does he say, 'the fruit 136 of the Spirit?' it is because evil works originate in ourselves alone, and therefore he calls them 'works,' but good works require not only our diligence but God's loving kindness. He places first the root of these good things, and then proceeds to recount them, in these words, 'Love, joy, peace, long-suffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, meekness, temperance; against such there is no law.' For who would lay any command on him who hath all things within himself, and who hath love for the finished mistress of philosophy? As horses, who are docile and do every thing of their own accord, need not the lash, so neither does the soul, which by the Spirit hath attained to excellence, need the admonitions of the Law. Here too he completely and strikingly casts out the Law, not as bad, but as inferior to the philosophy given by the Spirit.

Ga 5,24. 'And they that are of Christ Jesus 137 have crucified the flesh with the passions and the lusts thereof.'

That they might not object, 'And who is such a man as this?' he points out by their works those who have attained to this perfection, here again giving the name of the 'flesh' to evil actions. He does not mean that they had destroyed their flesh, otherwise how were they going to live? for that which is crucified is dead and inoperative, but he indicates the perfect rule of life. For the desires, although they are troublesome, rage in vain. Since then such is the power of the Spirit, let us live therein and be content therewith, as he adds himself,

Ga 5,25. 25. 'If we live 138 by the Spirit, by the Spirit let us also walk,'

'being governed by His laws. For this is the force of the words 'let us walk,' that is, let us be content with the power of the Spirit, and seek no help from the Law. Then, signifying that those who would fain have introduced circumcision were actuated by ambitious motives, he says,

Ga 5,26. 'Let us not be vainglorious,' 139 which is the cause of all evils, 'provoking 140 one another' to contentions and strife, 'envying one another,' for from vainglory comes envy and from envy all these countless evils).

Chrysostom Ga 400