Chrysostom hom. on Mt 54
54 Mt 14,13
“Now when Jesus had gone forth into the coasts1 of Caesarea Philippi, He asked His disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I the Son of Man am?”2
Wherefore hath he mentioned the founder of the city? Because there was another besides, Caesarea Stratonis. But not in that, but in this doth He ask them, leading them far away from the Jews, so that being freed from all alarm, they might speak with boldness all that was in their mind.
And wherefore did He not ask them at once their own opinion, but that of the people? In order that when they had told the people’s opinion, and then were asked, “But whom3 say ye that I am?” by the manner of His inquiry they might be led up to a sublimer notion, and not fall into the same low view as the multitude. Accordingly He asks them not at all in the beginning of His preaching, but when He had done many miracles, and had discoursed with them of many and high doctrines, and had afforded so many clear proofs of His Godhead, and of His unanimity with the Father, then He puts this question to them.
And He said not, “Whom say the Scribes and Pharisees that I am?” often as these had come unto Him, and discoursed with Him; but, “Whom do men say that I am?” inquiring after the judgment of the people, as unbiassed. For though it was far meaner than it should be, yet was it free from malice, but the other was teeming with much wickedness,
And signifying how earnestly He desires His Economy4 to be confessed, He saith, “The Son of Man;” thereby denoting His Godhead, which He doth also in many other places. For He saith, “No man hath ascended up to Heaven, but the Son of Man, which is in Heaven.”5 And again, “But when ye shall see the Son of Man ascend up, where He was before.”6
Then, since they said, “Some John the Baptist, some Elias, some Jeremias, or one of the prophets,”7 and set forth their mistaken opinion, He next added, “But whom say ye that I am?”8 calling them on by His second inquiry to entertain some higher imagination concerning Him, and indicating that their former judgment falls exceedingly short of His dignity. Wherefore He seeks for another judgment from themselves, and puts a second question, that they might not fall in with the multitude, who, because they saw His miracles greater than human, accounted Him a man indeed, but one that had appeared after a resurrection, as Herod also said.9 But He, to lead them away from this notion, saith, “But whom say ye that I am?” that is, “ye that are with me always, and see me working miracles, and have yourselves done many mighty works by me.”
5. What then saith the mouth of the apostles, Peter, the ever fervent, the leader of the apostolic choir?10 When all are asked, he answers. And whereas when He asked the opinion of the people, all replied to the question; when He asked their own, Peter springs forward, and anticipates them, and saith, “Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.”11
What then saith Christ? “Blessed art thou, Simon Barjona, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee.”12
Yet surely unless he had rightly confessed Him, as begotten of the very Father Himself, this were no work of revelation; had he accounted our Lord to be one of the many, his saying was not worthy of a blessing. Since before this also they said, “Truly He is Son of God,”13 those, I mean, who were in the vessel after the tempest, which they saw, and were not blessed, although of course they spake truly. For they confessed not such a Sonship as Peter, but accounted Him to be truly Son as one of the many, and though peculiarly so beyond the many, yet not of the same substance.
And Nathanael too said, “Rabbi, Thou art the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel;” s and so far from being blessed, he is even reproved by Him, as having said what was far short of the truth. He replied at least, “Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these.”14
Why then is this man blessed? Because he acknowledged Him very Son. Wherefore you see, that while in those former instances He had said no such thing, in this case He also signifies who had revealed it. That is, lest his words might seem to the many (because he was an earnest lover of Christ) to be words of friendship and flattery, and of a disposition to show favor to Him, he brings forward the person who had made them ring15 in his soul; to inform thee that Peter indeed spake, but the Father suggested, and that thou mightest believe the saying to be no longer a human opinion, but a divine doctrine.
And wherefore doth He not Himself declare it, nor say, “I am the Christ,” but by His question establish this, bringing them in to confess it? Because so to do was both more suitable to Him, yea necessary at that time, and it drew them on the more to the belief of the things that were said.
Seest thou how the Father reveals the Son, how the Son the Father? For “neither knoweth any man the Father,” saith He, “save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal Him.”16 It cannot therefore be that one should learn the Son of any other than of the Father; neither that one should learn the Father of any other than of the Son. So that even hereby, their sameness of honor and of substance is manifest.
3. What then saith Christ? “Thou art Simon, the son of Jonas; thou shalt be called Cephas.”17 “Thus since thou hast proclaimed my Father, I too name him that begat thee;” all but saying, “As thou art son of Jonas, even so am I of my Father.” Else it were superfluous to say, “Thou art Son of Jonas;” but since he had said, “Son of God,” to point out that He is so Son of God, as the other son of Jonas, of the same substance with Him that begat Him, therefore He added this, “And I say unto thee, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build my Church;”18 that is, on the faith of his confession. Hereby He signifies that many were now on the point of believing, and raises his spirit, and makes him a shepherd. “And the gates of hell” shall not prevail against it.” “And if not against it, much more not against me. So be not troubled because thou art shortly to hear that I shall be betrayed and crucified.”
Then He mentions also another honor. “And I also19 will give thee the keys of the heavens.”20 But what is this, “And I also will give thee?” “As the Father hath given thee to know me, so will I also give thee.”
And He said not, “I will entreat the Father” (although the manifestation of His authority was great, and the largeness of the gift unspeakable), but, “I will give thee.” What dost Thou give? tell me. “The keys of the heavens, that whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in Heaven,21 and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in Heaven.” How then is it not “His to give to sit on His right hand, and on His left,”22 when He saith, “I will give thee”?
Seest thou how He, His own self, leads Peter on to high thoughts of Him, and reveals Himself, and implies that He is Son of God by these two promises? For those things which are peculiar to God alone, (both to absolve sins, and to make the church incapable of overthrow in such assailing waves, and to exhibit a man that is a fisher more solid than any rock, while all the world is at war with him), these He promises Himself to give; as the Father, speaking to Jeremiah, said, He would make him as “a brazen pillar, and as a wall;”23 but him to one nation only, this man in every part of the world.
I would fain inquire then of those who desire to lessen the dignity of the Son, which manner of gifts were greater, those which the Father gave to Peter, or those which the Son gave him? For the Father gave to Peter the revelation of the Son; but the Son gave him to sow that of the Father and that of Himself in every part of the world; and to a mortal man He entrusted the authority over all things in Heaven, giving him the keys; who extended the church to every part of the world, and declared it to be stronger than heaven. “For heaven and earth shall pass away, but my word shall not pass away.”24 How then is He less, who hath given such gifts, hath effected such things?
And these things I say, not dividing the works of Father and Son (“for all things are made by Him, and without Him was nothing made which was made”):25 but bridling the shameless tongue of them that dare so to speak.
But see, throughout all, His authority: “I say unto thee, Thou art Peter; I will build the Church; I will give thee the keys of Heaven.”
4. And then, when He had so said, “He charged them that they should tell no man that He was the Christ.”26
And why did He charge them? That when the things which offend are taken out of the way, and the cross is accomplished, and the rest of His sufferings fulfilled, and when there is nothing any more to interrupt and disturb the faith of the people in Him, the right opinion concerning Him may be engraven pure and immovable in the mind of the hearers. For, in truth, His power had not yet clearly shone forth. Accordingly it was His will then to be preached by them, when both the plain truth of the facts, and the power of His deeds were pleading in support of the assertions of the apostles. For it was by no means the same thing to see Him in Palestine, now working miracles, and now insulted and persecuted (and especially when the very cross was presently to follow the miracles that were happening); and to behold him everywhere in the world, adored and believed, and no more suffering anything, such as He had suffered.
Therefore He bids them “tell no man.” For that which hath been once rooted and then plucked up, would hardly, if planted, again be retained among the many; but that which, once fixed, hath remained immovable, and hath suffered injury from no quarter, easily mounts up, and advances to a greater growth.
And if they who had enjoyed the benefit of many miracles, and had had part in so many unutterable mysteries, were offended by the mere hearing of it; or rather not these only, but even the leader27 of them all, Peter; consider what it was likely the common sort should feel, being first told that He is the Son of God, then seeing Him even crucified and spit upon, and that without knowledge of the secret of those mysteries, or participation in the gift of the Holy Ghost. For if to His disciples He said, “I have many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now;”28 much more would the rest of the people have utterly failed, had the chiefest of these mysteries been revealed to them before the proper time. Accordingly He forbids them to tell.
And to instruct thee how great a thing it was, their afterwards learning His doctrine complete, when the things that offend had passed by; learn it from this same leader of theirs. For this very Peter, he who after so many miracles proved so weak as even to deny Him, and to be in fear of a mean damsel; after the cross had come forth, and he had received the certain proofs of the resurrection, and there was nothing more to offend and trouble him, retained the teaching of the Spirit so immovable, that more vehemently than a lion he sprang upon the people of the Jews, for all the dangers and innumerable deaths which were threatened.
With reason then did He bid them not tell the many before the crucifixion, since not even to them that were to teach did He venture to commit all before the crucifixion. “For I have many things to say unto you,” saith He, “but ye cannot bear them now.”
And of the things too that He did say, they do not understand many, which He did not make plain before the crucifixion. At least when He was risen from the dead, then and not before they knew some of His sayings.
5. “From that time forth began He to show unto them that He must suffer.29 From that time.” What time? When He had fixed the doctrine in them; when He had brought in the beginning of the Gentiles.30
But not even so did they understand what He said. “For the saying,” it is said, “was hid from them; “31 and they were as in a kind of perplexity, not knowing that He must rise again. Therefore He rather dwells on the difficulties, and enlarges His discourse, that He may open their mind, and they may understand what it can be that He speaks of.
“But they understood not, but the saying was hid from them, and they feared to ask this; “32 not whether He should die, but how, and in what manner, and what this mystery could be. For they did not even know what was this same rising again, and supposed it much better not to die. Therefore, the rest being troubled and in perplexity, Peter again, in his ardor, alone ventures to discourse of these things; and not even he openly, but when he had taken Him apart; that is, having separated himself from the rest of the disciples; and he saith, “Be it far from Thee, Lord, this shall not be unto Thee.”33 What ever is this? He that obtained a revelation, he that was blessed, hath he so soon fallen away, and suffered overthrow, so as to fear His passion? And what marvel, that one who had not on these points received any revelation, should have that feeling? Yea, to inform thee that not of himself did he speak those other things either, see in these matters that were not revealed to him how he is confounded and overthrown, and being told ten thousand times, knows not what the saying can mean.
For that He is Son of God he had learnt, but what the mystery of the cross and of the resurrection might be, was not yet manifest to him: for “the saying,” it is said, “was hid from them.”
Seest thou that with just cause He bade them not declare it to the rest? For if it so confounded them, who must needs be made aware of it, what would not all others have felt?
6. He however, to signify that He is far from coming to the passion against His will, both rebuked Peter, and called him Satan.
Let them hear, as many as are ashamed of the suffering of the cross of Christ. For if the chief apostle, even before he had learnt all distinctly, was called Satan for feeling this, what excuse can they have, who after so abundant proof deny His economy? I say., when he who had been so blessed, who made such a confession, has such words addressed to him; consider what they will suffer, who after all this deny the mystery of the cross.
And He said not, “Satan spake by thee,” but, “Get thee behind me, Satan.”34 For indeed it was a desire of the adversary that Christ should not suffer. Therefore with such great severity did He rebuke him, as knowing that both he and the rest are especially afraid of this, and will not easily receive it.
1 [R. V. “came into the parts,” etc.]
2 [R. V. text, “who do men say that the Son of Man is?” But Chrysostom. with the rec. text, reads me. So R. V. margin, “that I the Son of Man am,” as in the p arallel passages.—R.]
3 [The A. V. is ungrammatical; “whom” is simply a transfer of the Greek accusative (with the infinitive in the passage) into the English finite clause.—R.]
4 i. e. His Incarnation).
5 Jn 3,13.
6 Jn 6,62 Jn 6,7.
7 Mt 16,14.
8 Mt 16,15.
9 Mt 14,2.
10 oJ kiruvai`o").
11 Mt 16,16.
12 Mt 16,17.
13 Mt 14,33.
14 Jn 1,49.
15 Jn 1,50.
17 Mt 11,27 Lc 10,22.
18 Mt 16,17-18 see Jn 1,42.
19 Mt 16,18.
20 [R. V., “Hades.” ]
21 [Chrysostom reads kaij egw; dev, probably from verse 18, as none of our authorities have this fuller form.—R.]
22 Mt 16,19. [The text is peculiar in omitting th`" basileiva";. The translator has here rendered th`n oujranw`n, “the heavens;” but not in all similar instances. The English versions generally disregard the plural form.—R.]
23 [toi`" oujranoi`"]
24 Mt 20,23.
25 Jr 1,18.
26 Mt 24,35.
27 Jn 1,3. [The Greek text omits o) gevgonen “which was made.”]
28 [The singular is retained here by the translator, though the Greek form is the same, tw`n oujranw`n.—R.]
29 Mt 16,20.
30 oJ korufai`o").
31 Jn 16,12.
32 Mt 16,21.
33 i. e., the woman of Canaan).
34 Lc 18,34.
Therefore He also reveals the thoughts of his mind, saying, “Thou savorest35 not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.”
35 Lc 9,45.
But what means, “Thou savorest36 not the things that be of God, but those that be of men”? Peter examining the matter by human and earthly reasoning, accounted it disgraceful to Him and an unmeet thing. Touching him therefore sharply,37 He saith, “My passion is not an unmeet thing, but thou givest this sentence with a carnal mind; whereas if thou hadst hearkened to my sayings in a godly manner, disengaging thyself from thy carnal understanding, thou wouldest know that this of all things most becometh me. For thou indeed supposest that to suffer is unworthy of me; but I say unto thee, that for me not to suffer is of the devil’s mind;” by the contrary statements repressing his alarm.
Thus as John, accounting it unworthy of Christ to be baptized by him, was persuaded of Christ to baptize Him, He saying, “Thus it becometh us,”38 and this same Peter too, forbidding Him to wash his feet, by the words, “Thou hast no part with me, unless I wash thy feet; “39 even so here too He restrained him by the mention of the opposite, and by the severity of the reproof repressed his fear of suffering.
7. Let no man therefore be ashamed of the honored symbols of our salvation, and of the chiefest of all good things, whereby we even live, and whereby we are; but as a crown, so let us bear about the cross of Christ. Yea, for by it all things are wrought, that are wrought among us. Whether one is to be new-born, the cross is there; or to be nourished with that mystical food, or to be ordained, or to do anything else, everywhere our symbol of victory is present. Therefore both on house, and walls, and windows, and upon our forehead, and upon our mind, we inscribe it with much care.
For of the salvation wrought for us, and of our common freedom, and of the goodness of our Lord, this is the sign. “For as a sheep was He led to the slaughter.”40 When therefore thou signest thyself, think of the purpose of the cross, and quench anger, and all the other passions. When thou signest thyself, fill thy forehead with all courage, make thy soul free. And ye know assuredly what are the things that give freedom. Wherefore also Paul leading us there, I mean unto the freedom that beseems us, did on this wise lead us unto it, having reminded us of the cross and blood of our Lord. “For ye are bought,” saith he, “with a price; be not ye the servants of men.”41 Consider, saith he, the price that hath been paid for thee, and thou wilt be a slave to no man; by the price meaning the cross.
Since not merely by the fingers ought one to engrave it, but before this by the purpose of the heart with much faith. And if in this way thou hast marked it on thy face, none of the unclean spirits will be able to stand near thee, seeing the blade whereby he received his wound, seeing the sword which gave him his mortal stroke. For if we, on seeing the places in which the criminals are beheaded, shudder; think what the devil must endure, seeing the weapon, whereby Christ put an end to all his power, and cut off the head of the dragon.
Be not ashamed then of so great a blessing, lest Christ be ashamed of thee, when He comes with His glory, and the sign appears before Him, shining beyond the very sunbeam.42 For indeed the cross cometh then, uttering a voice by its appearance, and pleading with the whole world for our Lord, and signifying that no part hath failed of what pertained to Him.
This sign, both in the days of our forefathers and now, hath opened doors that were shut up;43 this hath quenched poisonous drugs;44 this hath taken away the power of hemlock:, this hath healed bites of venomous beasts. For if it opened the gates of hell, and threw wide the archways of Heaven, and made a new entrance into Paradise, and cut away the nerves of the devil; what marvel, if it prevailed over poisonous drugs, and venomous beasts, and all other such things.
This therefore do thou engrave upon thy mind, and embrace the salvation of our souls. For this cross saved and converted the world, drove away error, brought back truth, made earth Heaven, fashioned men into angels. Because of this, the devils are no longer terrible, but contemptible; neither is death, death, but a sleep; because of this, all that warreth against us is cast to the ground, and trodden under foot.
If any one therefore say to thee, Dost thou worship the crucified? say, with your voice all joy, and your countenance gladdened, “I do both worship Him, and will never cease to worship.” And if he laugh, weep for him, because he is mad. Thank the Lord, that He hath bestowed on us such benefits, as one cannot so much as learn without His revelation from above. Why, this is the very reason of his laughing, that “the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit.”45 Since our children too feel this, when they see any of the great and marvellous things; and if thou bring a child into the mysteries, he will laugh. Now the heathen are like these children; or rather they are more imperfect even than these; wherefore also they are more wretched, in that not in an immature age, but when full grown, they have the feelings of babes; wherefore neither are they worthy of indulgence.
But let us with a clear voice, shouting both loud and high, cry out and say (and should all the heathen be present, so much the more confidently), that the cross is our glory, and ’the sum of all our blessings, and our confidence, and all our crown. I would that also with Paul I were able to say, “By which the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world; “46 but I cannot, restrained as I am by various passions.
8. Wherefore I admonish both you, and surely before you myself, to be crucified to the world, and to have nothing in common with the earth, but to set your love on your country above, and the glory and the good things that come from it. For indeed we are soldiers of a heavenly King, and are clad with spiritual arms. Why then take we upon ourselves the life of traders, and mountebanks, nay rather of worms? For where the King is, there should also the soldier be. Yea, we are become soldiers, not of them that are far off, but of them that are near. For the earthly king indeed would not endure that all should be in the royal courts, and at his own side, but the King of the Heavens willeth all to be near His royal throne.
And how, one may say, is it possible for us, being here, to stand by that throne? Because Paul too being on earth was where the seraphim, where the cherubim are; and nearer to Christ, than these the body guards to the king. For these turn about their faces in many directions, but him nothing beguiled nor distracted, but he kept his whole mind intent upon the king. So that if we would, this is possible to us also.
For were He distant from us in place, thou mightest well doubt, but if He is present everywhere, to him that strives and is in earnest He is near. Wherefore also the prophet said, “I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me;47 “ and God Himself again, “I am a God nigh at hand, and not a God afar off.”48 Then as our sins separate us from Him, so do our righteousnesses draw us nigh unto Him. “For while thou art yet speaking,” it is said, “I will say, Here I am.”49 What father would ever be thus obedient to his offspring?What mother is there, so ready, and continually standing, if haply her children call her? There is not one, no father, no mother: but God stands continually waiting, if any of his servants should perchance call Him; and never, when we have called as we ought, hath He refused to hear. Therefore He saith, “While thou art yet speaking,” I do not wait for thee to finish, and I straightway hearken.
9. Let us call Him therefore, as it is His will to be called. But what is this His will? “Loose,” saith He, “every band of iniquity, unloose the twisted knots of oppressive covenants, tear in pieces every unjust contract. Break thy bread to the hungry, and bring in the poor that are cast out to thy house. If thou seest one naked, cover him, and them that belong to thy seed thou shalt not overlook. Then shall thy light break forth in the morning, and thine healings shall spring forth speedily, and thy righteousness shall go before thee, and the glory of the Lord shall cover thee. Then thou shalt call upon me, and I will give ear unto thee; whilst thou art yet speaking, I will say, Lo! here I am.”50
And who is able to do all this? it may be asked. Nay, who is unable, I pray thee?For which is difficult of the things I have mentioned?Which is laborious? Which not easy?
Why, so entirely are they not possible only, but even easy, that many have actually overshot the measure of those sayings, not only tearing in pieces unjust contracts, but even stripping themselves of all their goods; making the poor welcome not to roof and table, but even to the sweat of their body, and laboring in order to maintain them; doing good not to kinsmen only, but even to enemies.
But what is there at all even hard in these sayings? For neither did He say, “Pass over the mountain, go across the sea, dig through so many acres of land, abide without food, wrap thyself in sackcloth;” but, “Impart to the poor? impart of thy bread, cancel the contracts unjustly made.”
What is more easy than this? tell me. But even if thou account it difficult, look, I pray thee, at the rewards also, and it shall be easy to thee.
For much as our emperors at the horse races heap together before the combatants crowns, and prizes, and garments, even so Christ also sets His rewards in the midst of His course, holding them out by the prophet’s words, as it were by many hands. And the emperors, although they be ten thousand times emperors, yet as being men, and the wealth which they have in a course of spending, and their munificence of exhaustion, are ambitious of making the little appear much; wherefore also they commit each thing severally into the hand of the several attendants, and so bring it forward. But our King contrariwise, having heaped all together (because He is very rich, and doeth nothing for display), He so brings it forward, and what He so reaches out is indefinitely great, and will need many hands to hold it. And to make thee aware of this, examine each particular of it carefully.
“Then,” saith He, “shall thy light break forth in the morning.”51 Doth not this gift appear to thee as some one thing?But it is not one; nay, for it hath many things in it, both prizes, and crowns, and other rewards. And, if ye are minded, let us take it to pieces and show all its wealth, as it shall be possible for us to show it; only do not ye grow weary.
36 Mt 16,22. [R. V., “this shall never be unto thee.”]
37 Mt 16,23 Mt 16,6.
38 [R. V., “mindest.”]
40 Mt 3,15.
41 Jn 13,8.
42 Is 53,7.
43 1Co 7,23. [R. V., “become not bondservants of men.”]
44 See S. Cyril, Catech. xiii. 41. Oxf. Trans. and the note there: see also especially hereafter on S. Mt 24,30, Hom. LXXVI).
45 S. Greg. Nyss. Life of S. Greg. Thaum.Works, t. 3,p. 573. Paris, 1638).
46 Sim. Metaphr. Life of St. John, p.47, etc. Oxon. 1597).
47 1Co 2,14.
48 Ga 6,14.
49 Ps 23,4.
50 Jr 23,23.
51 Is 58,9 Is 65,24. [The citation is from the former passage; but “I will say” from the latter is substituted for “he will say.” So in the last part of the longer citation below.—R.]
And first, let us learn the meaning of “It shall break forth.” For He said not at all, “shall appear,” but” shall break forth;” declaring to us its quickness and plentifulness, and how exceedingly He desires our salvation, and how the good things themselves travail to come forth, and press on; and that which would check their unspeakable force shall be nought; by all which He indicates their plentifulness, and the infinity of His abundance. But what is “the morning.” It means, “not after being in life’s temptations, neither after our evils have come upon us;” nay, it is quite beforehand with them. For as in our fruits, we call that early, which has shown itself before its season; so also here again, declaring its rapidity, he has spoken in this way, much as above He said, “Whilst thou art yet speaking, I will say, Lo! here I am.”
But of what manner of light is He speaking, and what can this light be?Not this, that is sensible; but another far better, which shows us Heaven, the angels, the archangels, the cherubim, the seraphim, the thrones, the dominions, the principalities, the powers, the whole host, the royal palaces, the tabernacles. For shouldest thou be counted worthy of this light, thou shalt both see these, and be delivered from hell, and from the venomous worm, and from the gnashing of teeth, and from the bonds that cannot be broken, and from the anguish and the affliction, from the darkness that hath no light, and from being cut asunder, and from the river of fire, and from the curse, and from the abodes of sorrow; and thou shalt depart, “where sorrow and woe are fled away,”52 where great is the joy, and the peace, and the love, and the pleasure, and the mirth; where is life eternal, and unspeakable glory, and inexpressible beauty; where are eternal tabernacles, and the untold glory of the King, and those good things, “which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man;” where is the spiritual bridechamber, and the apartments of the heavens, and the virgins that bear the bright lamps, and they who have the marriage garment; where many are the possessions of our Lord, and the storehouses of the King.
Seest thou how great the rewards, and how many He hath set forth by one expression, and how He brought all together?
So also by unfolding each of the expressions that follow, we shall find our abundance great, and the ocean immense. Shall we then still delay, I beg you; and be backward to show mercy on them that are in need? Nay, I entreat, but though we must throw away all, be cast into the fire, venture against the sword, leap upon daggers, suffer what you will; let us bear all easily, that we may obtain the garment of the kingdom of Heaven, and that untold glory; which may we all attain, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and might, world without end. Amen.
52 . [LXX., see note above.]
55 Mt 16,24
“Then said Jesus unto His disciples, If any man will come after me, let him renounce himself,1 and take up his cross and follow me.”
Then; when? When Peter said, ’Be it far from Thee, this shall not be unto Thee; and was told, “Get thee behind me, Satan.”2 For He was by no means satisfied with the mere rebuke, but, willing also more abundantly to show both the extravagance of what Peter had said, and the benefit of His passion, He saith, “Thy word to me is, “Be it far from Thee, this shall not be unto Thee:” but my word to thee is, “Not only is it hurtful to thee, and destructive, to hinder me and to be displeased at my Passion, but it will be impossible for thee even to be saved, unless thou thyself too be continually prepared for death.”
Thus, test they should think His suffering unworthy of Him, not by the former things only, but also by the events that were coming on, He teaches them the gain thereof. Thus in John first, He saith,” Except the corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone; but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit;”3 but here more abundantly working it out, not concerning Himself only doth He bring forward the statement that it is meet to die, but concerning them also. “For so great is the profit thereof, that in your case also unwillingness to die is grievous, but to be ready for it, good.”
This however He makes clear by what follows, but for the present He works it out on one side only. And see how He also makes His discourse unexceptionable: not saying at all, “whether you will, or no, you must suffer this,” but how? “If any man will come after me.” “I force not, I compel not, but each one I make lord of his own choice; wherefore also I say, ’If any man will.’ For to good things do I call you, not to things evil, or burdensome; not to punishment and vengeance, that I should have to compel. Nay, the nature of the thing is alone sufficient to attract you.”
Now, thus saying, He drew them unto Him the more. For he indeed that uses compulsion oftens turns men away, but he that leaves the hearer to choose attracts him more. For soothing is a mightier thing than force. Wherefore even He Himself said, “If any man will.” “For great,” saith He, “are the good things which I give you, and such as for men even to run to them of their own accord. For neither if one were giving gold, and offering a treasure, would he invite with force. And if that invitation be without compulsion, much more this, to the good things m the Heavens. Since if the nature of the thing persuade thee not to run, thou art not worthy to receive it at all, nor if thou shouldest receive it, wilt thou well know what thou hast received.”
Wherefore Christ compels not, but urges, sparing us. For since they seemed to be murmuring much, being secretly disturbed at the saying, He saith, “No need of disturbance or of trouble. If ye do not account what I have mentioned to be a cause of innumerable blessings, even when befalling yourselves, I use no force, nor do I compel, but if any be willing to follow, him I call.
“For do not by any means imagine that this is your following of me; I mean, what ye now do attending upon me. Ye have need of many toils, many dangers, if ye are to come after me. For thou oughtest not, O Peter, because thou hast confessed me Son of God, therefore only to expect crowns, and to suppose this enough for thy salvation, and for the future to enjoy security, as having done all. For although it be in my power, as Son of God, to hinder thee from having any trial at all of those hardships; yet such is not my will, for thy sake, that thou mayest thyself too contribute something, and be more approved.”
For so, if one were a judge at the games, and had a friend in the lists, he would not wish to crown him by favor only, but also for his own toils; and for this reason especially, because he loves him. Even so Christ also; whom He most loves, those He most of all will have to approve themselves by their own means also, and not from His help alone.
But see how at the same time He makes His saying not a grievous one. For He cloth by no means compass them only with His terror, but He also puts forth the doctrine generally to the world, saying, “If any one will,” be it woman or man, ruler or subject, let him come this way.
5. And though he seem to have spoken but one single thing, yet His sayings are three, “Let him renounce himself,” and “Let him bear his cross,” and “Let him follow me;” and two of them are joined together, but the one is put by itself.
But let us see first what it can be to deny one’s self. Let us learn first what it is to deny another, and then we shall know what it may be to deny one’s self. What then is it to deny another?He that is denying another,—for example, either brother, or servant, or whom you will,—should he see him either beaten, or bound, or led to execution, or whatever he may suffer, stands not by him, doth not help him, is not moved, feels nothing for him, as being once for all alienated from him. Thus then He will have us disregard our own body, so that whether men scourge, or banish, or burn, or whatever they do, we may not spare it. For this is to spare it. Since fathers too then spare their offspring, when committing them to teachers, they command not to spare them.
So also Christ; He said not, “Let him not spare himself,” but very strictly, “Let him renounce himself;” that is, let him have nothing to do with himself, but give himself up to all dangers and conflicts; and let him so feel, as though another were suffering it all.
And He said not, “Let him deny,”4 but “Let him renounce;”5 even by this small addition intimating again, how very far it goes. For this latter is more than the former.
1 [R. V., “If any man would come after me, let him deny him self,” etc. The Oxford translator substitutes “renounce” to bring out the distinction between ajparnei`sqai and ajrnei`sqai, which is pointed out in the Homily, sec. 2.—R.]
2 Mt 16,22-23.
3 Jn 12,24.
“And let him take up his cross.” This arises out of the other. For to hinder thy supposing that words, and insults, and reproaches are to be the limits of our self-renunciation, He saith also how far one ought to renounce one’s self; that is, unto death, and that a reproachful death. Therefore He said not, “Let him renounce himself unto death,” but, “Let him take up his cross;” setting forth the reproachful death; and that not once, nor twice, but throughout all life one ought so to do. “Yea,” saith He, “bear about this death continually, and day by day be ready for slaughter. For since many have indeed contemned riches, and pleasure, and glory, but death they despised not, but feared dangers; I,” saith He, “will that my champion should wrestle even unto blood, and that the limits of his course should reach unto slaughter; so that although one must undergo death, death with reproach, the accursed death, and that upon evil surmise, we are to bear all things nobly, and rather to rejoice in being suspected.”
“And let him follow me.” That is, it being possible for one to suffer, yet not to follow Him, when one doth not suffer for Him (for so robbers often suffer grievously, and violaters of tombs, and sorcerers); to hinder thy supposing that the mere nature of thy calamities is sufficient, He adds the occasion of these calamities.
And what is it? In order that, so doing and suffering, thou mayest follow Him; that for Him thou mayest undergo all things; that thou mayest possess the other virtues also. For this too is expressed by “Let him follow me;” so as to show forth not fortitude only, such as is exercised in our calamities, but temperance also, and moderation, and all self-restraint. This being properly “to follow,” the giving heed also to the other virtues, and for His sake suffering all.
For there are who follow the devil even to the endurance of all this, and for his sake give up their own lives; but we for Christ, or rather for our own sakes: they indeed to harm themselves both here and there; but we, that we may gain both lives.
How then is it not extreme dullness, not to show forth even the same fortitude with them that perish; and this, when we are to reap from it so many crowns? Yet with us surely Christ Himself is present to be our help, but with them no one.
Now He had indeed already spoken this very injunction, when He sent them, saying, “Go not into the way of the Gentiles” (for, saith He, “I send you as sheep in the midst of wolves,” and, “ye shall be brought before kings and governors”)6 but now with more intensity and severity. For then He spake of death only, but here He hath mentioned a cross also, and a continual cross. For “let him take up,” saith He, “his cross;” that is,” let him carry it continually and bear it.” And this He is wont to do in everything; not in the first instance, nor from the beginning, but quietly and gradually, bringing in the greater commandments, that the hearers may not count it strange.
3. Then, because the saying seemed to be vehement, see how He softens it by what follows, and sets down rewards surpassing our toils; and not rewards only, but also the penalties of vice: nay, on these last He dwells more than on those, since not so much His bestowing blessings, as His threat of severities, is wont to bring ordinary men to their senses. See at least how He both begins here from this, and ends in this.
“For whosoever will save his life shall lose it,” saith He, “but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake, shall find it. For what is a man profiled,’ if he should gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul ?”7
Now what He saith is like this: “not as unsparing towards you, but rather as exceedingly sparing you, I enjoin these things. For he who spares his child, ruins it; but he who spares it not, preserves.” To which effect also a certain wise man said, “If thou beat thy son with a rod, he shall not die, but thou shall deliver his soul from death.”8 And again, “He that refresheth his son, shall bind up his wounds.”9
This takes place in the camp also. For if the general, sparing the soldiers, commands them to remain within the place always, he will destroy with them the inhabitants too.
“In order then that this may not happen in your case also,” saith He, “ye must be arrayed against continual death. For now too a grievous war is about to be kindled. Sit not therefore within, but go forth and fight; and shouldest thou fall in thy post, then hast thou obtained life.” For if in the visible wars he that in his post meets slaughter, is both more distinguished than the rest, and more invincible, and more formidable to the enemy; although we know that after death the king, in behalf of whom he takes his station, is not able to raise him up again: much more in these wars, when there are such hopes of resurrection besides, will he who exposes his own life unto death, find it; in one sense, because he will not be quickly taken; in a second, because even though he fall, God10 will lead his life on to a higher life.
4. Then, because he had said, “He who will save shall lose it, but whosoever shall lose shall save it,” and on that side had set salvation and destruction, and on this salvation and destruction; to prevent any one’s imagining the one destruction and salvation to be all the same with the other, and to teach thee plainly that the difference between this salvation and that is as great as between destruction and salvation; from the contraries also He makes an inference once for all to establish these points. “For what is a man profited,”11 saith He, “if he gain the whole world, and lose his own soul ?”
Seest thou how the wrongful preservation of it is destruction, and worse than all destruction, as being even past remedy, from the want of anything more to redeem it?For “tell me not this,” saith He, “that he that hath escaped such dangers hath saved his life; but together with his life put also the whole world, yet what profit hath he thereby, if the soul perish?”
For tell me, shouldest thou see thy servants in luxury, and thyself in extreme calamity, wilt thou indeed profit aught by being master?By no means. Make this reckoning then with regard to thy soul also, when the flesh is in luxury and wealth, and she awaiting the destruction to come.
“What shall a man give in exchange for his soul ?”12
5 ajparnhsavsqw. [Comp. note, p.338.]
6 Mt 10,5 Mt 10,16 Mt 10,18.
7 [R. V., “shall a man be profited;” so the Homily here, against rec. text.—R.]
8 Mt 16,25-26. [Chrysostom inserts uJpevp, and takes yuchv in ver. 26 as “soul,” but in his comment in ver. 26 recognizes the obvious contrast between lower and higher life.—R.]
9 Pr 23,13-14.
10 Si 30,7.
11 [The word “God” is supplied by the translator, but this is not necessarily the sense; the subject may be the man himself.—R.]
12 [Here the citation agrees with the rec. text.—R.]
Again, He dwells upon the same point. What?hast thou another soul to give for this soul?saith He. Why, shouldest thou lose money, thou wilt be able to give money; or be it house, or slaves, or any other kind of possession, but for thy soul, if thou lose it, thou wilt have no other soul to give: yea, though thou hadst the world, though thou wast king of the whole earth, thou wouldest not be able, by paying down all earthly goods, with the earth itself, to redeem but one soul.
And what marvel, if it be so with the soul? Since even in the body one may see that so it turns out. Though thou wear ten thousand diadems, but have a body sickly by nature, and incurable, thou wilt not be able, not by giving all thy kingdom, to recover this body, not though thou add innumerable persons, and cities, and goods.
Now thus I bid thee reason with regard to thy soul also; or rather even much more with regard to the soul; and do thou, forsaking all besides, spend all thy care upon it. Do not then while taking thought about the things of others, neglect thyself and thine own things; which now all men do, resembling them that work in the mines. For neither do these receive any profit from this labor, nor from the wealth; but rather great harm, both because they incur fruitless peril, and incur it for other men, reaping no benefit from such their toils and deaths. These even now are objects of imitation to many, who are digging up wealth for others; or rather we are more wretched even than this, inasmuch as hell itself awaits us after these our labors. For they indeed are staid from those toils by death, but to us death proves a beginning of innumerable evils.
But if thou say, thou hast in thy wealth the fruit of thy toils: show me thy soul gladdened, and then I am persuaded. For of all things in us the soul is chief. And if the body be fattened, while she is pining away, this prosperity is nothing to thee (even as when the handmaiden is glad, the happiness of the maidservant is nothing to her mistress perishing, nor is tho fair robe anything compared with the weak flesh); but Christ will say unto thee again, “What shall a man give in exchange for his soul ?” on every hand commanding thee to be busied about that, and to take account of it only.5. Having alarmed them therefore hereby, He comforts them also by His good things.
“For the Son of Man shall come,” saith He, “in the glory of His Father with His holy angels, and then He shall reward every man according to his works.”13
Seest thou how the glory of the Father and of the Son is all one? But if the glory be one, it is quite evident that the substance also is one. For if in one substance there be a difference of glory (“for there is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differeth from another star in glory;”14 although the substance be one), how may the substance of those differ, whereof the glory is one? For He said not at all, “In glory such as the Father’s,” whereby thou mightest suppose again some variation; but implying entire perfection, “In that same glory,” saith He, “will He come;” for it to be deemed one and the same.
“Now, why fear, O Peter” (so He speaks), “on being told of death? Why, then shalt thou see me in the glory of the Father. And if I am in glory, so are ye; your interests are no wise limited to the present life, but another sort of portion will take you up, a better one.” Nevertheless, when He had spoken of the good things, He stayed not at this, but mingled the fearful things also, bringing forward that judgment-seat, and the inexorable account, and the inflexible sentence, and the judgment that cannot be deceived.
He suffered not however His discourse to appear only dismal, but tempered it also with good hopes. For neither did He say, “then shall He punish them that sinned,” but, “He shall reward every man according to his doings.”15 And this He said, reminding not only the sinners of punishment, but also them that have done well of prizes and crowns.
6. And He indeed spake it, in part to refresh the good, but I ever shudder at hearing it, for I am not of them that are crowned, and I suppose that others also share with us in our fear and anxiety. For whom is this saying not enough to startle, when he hath entered into his own conscience; and to make him shudder, and convince him that we have need of sackcloth, and of prolonged fasting, more than the people of the Ninevites? For not for an overthrow of a city, and the common end, are we concerned, but for eternal punishment, and the fire that is never quenched.
Wherefore also I praise and admire the monks that have occupied the desert places, as for the rest, so for this saying. For they after having made their dinners, or rather after supper (for dinner they know not at any time, because they know that the present time is one of mourning and fasting); after supper then, in saying certain hymns of thanksgiving unto God, they make mention of this expression also. And if ye would hear the very hymns themselves, that ye too may say them continually, I will rehearse to you the whole of that sacred song. The words of it then stand as follows: “Blessed God, who feedest me from my youth up, who givest food to all flesh; fill our hearts with joy and gladness, that always having all sufficiency we may abound unto every good work in Christ Jesus our Lord; with whom be unto Thee glory, honor and might, with the Holy Spirit, forever. Amen. Glory to Thee, O Lord, glory to Thee, O Holy One, glory to Thee. O King, that Thou hast given us meat to make us glad. Fill us with the Holy Ghost, that we may be found well-pleasing before Thee, not being ashamed, when Thou rendcrest to every man according to his works.”
Now this hymn is in all parts worthy of admiration, but especially the above ending of it. That is, because meals and food are wont to dissipate and weigh down, they put this saying as a kind of bridle upon the soul, at the time of indulgence reminding it of the time of judgment. For they have learnt what befell Israel through a costly table. “For my beloved,” saith He, “ate, and waxed fat, and kicked.”’ Wherefore also Moses said, “When thou shalt have eaten and drunk and art full, remember the Lord thy God.”16
For after that feast, then they ventured on those acts of lawless daring.
Do thou therefore also look to it, lest something like it befall thee. For though thou sacrifice not to stone nor to gold, either sheep or bullocks, see lest to wrath thou sacrifice thine own soul, lest to whoredom or other like passions, thou sacrifice thine own salvation. Yea—on this account, you see, they being afraid of these downfalls, when they have enjoyed their meal, or rather fasting (for their meal is in fact fasting), remind themselves of the terrible judgment-seat, and of that day. And if they who correct themselves both with fasting, and with nights spent on the ground, with watchings, and with sackcloth, and with ten thousand means, do yet require also this reminding, when will it be possible for us to live virtuously; who set forth tables loaded with innumerable wrecks, and do not so much as pray at all, neither in the beginning nor the end ?
7. Wherefore to put an end to these shipwrecks, let us bring before us that hymn and unfold it all, that seeing the profit thereof, we too may chant it constantly over our table, and quell the rude motions of the belly, introducing both the manners and laws of those angels into our houses. For you ought indeed to go there and reap these fruits; but since ye are not willing, at least through our words, hear this spiritual melody, and let every one after his meal say these words, beginning thus.
“Blessed God.” For the apostolic law they straightway fulfill, that commands, “Whatsoever we do in word or in deed, that we do it in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, giving thanks to God and the Father by Him.”17
Next, the thanksgiving takes place not for that one day only, but for all their life. For, “Who feedest me,” it is said, “from my youth up.” And a lesson of self-command is drawn thence, that when God feeds, we must not take thought. For if upon a king’s promising thee to furnish thy daily food out of his own stores, thou wouldest be of good hope for the future; much more, when God gives, and all things pour upon thee as out of fountains, shouldest thou be freed from all anxiety. Yea, and to this very intent they so speak, that they may persuade both themselves, and those that are made disciples by them, to put off all worldly care.
Then, not to have thee suppose that for themselves only they offer up this thanksgiving, they further say, “Who givest food to all flesh,” giving thanks in behalf of all the world; and as fathers of the whole earth, so do they offer up their praises for all, and train themselves to a sincere brotherly love. For it is not even possible they should hate them, in behalf of whom they thank God, that they are fed.
Seest thou both charity introduced by their thanksgiving, and worldly care cast out, both by the preceding words, and by these?For if He feed all flesh, much more them that are devoted to him; if them that are entangled in worldly cares, much more them that are freed from the same.
To establish this, Christ Himself said, “How many sparrows do ye exceed in value?”18 And He said it, teaching them not to put their confidence in wealth and land and seeds; for it is not these that feed us, but the word of God?
Hereby they stop the mouths, both of the Manichaeans, and of them of Valentinus, and of all that are diseased in their way. For sure this Being is not evil, who sets his own stores before all, even before them that blaspheme Him.
Then comes the petition: “Fill our hearts with joy and gladness.” With what manner of joy then, doth it mean? the joy of this world?God forbid: for had they meant this, they would not have occupied summits of mountains, and deserts, nor wrapt themselves in sackcloth; but that joy they mean, which hath nothing in common with this present life, the joy of angels, the joy above.
And they do not simply ask for it, but in great excess; for they say not, “give,” but, “fill,” and they say not “us,” but “our hears.” For this is especially a heart’s joy; “For the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace.”19
Thus, because sin brought in sorrow, they request that through joy righteousness may be implanted in them, for no otherwise might joy be engendered.
“That, always having all sufficiency, we may abound unto every good work.”20 See how they fulfill that word of the gospel which saith, “Give us this day our daily bread,” and how they seek even this for spiritual ends. For their phrase is, “That we may abound unto every good work.” They said not, “That we may do our duty only,” but “even more than what is enjoined,” for, “that we may abound,” means this. And while of God they seek sufficiency in things needful, themselves are willing to obey not in sufficiency only, but with much abundance, and in all things. This is the part of well-disposed servants, this of men strict in goodness, to abound always, and in all things.
Then again reminding themselves of their own weakness, and that without the influence from above nothing noble can be done; having said, “that we may abound unto every good work,” they add, “in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom unto Thee be glory, honor, and might forever. Amen;” framing this end like their commencement by a thread of thanksgiving.
8. After this again, they seem to begin afresh, but they are keeping to the same argument. As Paul also in the beginning of an epistle, having closed with a doxology, where he says, “According to the will of our God and Father, to whom be glory forever. Amen;”21 begins the subject again on which he was writing. And again in another place when he had said, “They worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator,who is blessed forever: Amen;”22 he completed not his discourse, but begins again.
Therefore neither let us blame these our angels, as acting disorderly, for that having closed with a doxology they begin again the sacred hymns. For they follow apostolical laws, beginning from a doxology, and ending therein, and after that end making a commencement again.
Wherefore they say, “Glory be to Thee, O Lord; glory be to Thee, O Holy One; glory be to Thee, O King; that Thou hast given us food to make us glad.”
Since not for the greater things only, but also for the lesser, we ought to give thanks. And they do give thanks for these also, putting to shame the heresy of the Manichaeans, and of as many as affirm our present life to be evil. For lest for their high self-command, and contempt of the belly, thou shouldest suspect them as abhorring the meat, like the heretics aforesaid, who choke themselves23 to death; they by their prayer teach thee, that not from abhorrence of God’s creatures they abstain from most of them, but as exercising self-restraint.
And see how after thanksgiving for His past gifts, they are importunate also for the greater things, and dwell not upon the matters of this life, but mount above the heavens, and say, “Fill us with the Holy Ghost.” For it is not even possible to approve one’s self as one ought, not being filled with that grace; as there is no doing anything noble or great, without the benefit of Christ’s influences.
As therefore when they had said, “That we may abound unto every good work,” they added, “In Christ Jesus;” so here also they say, “Fill us with the Holy Ghost, that we may be found to have been well-pleasing before Thee.”24
Seest thou how for the things of this life they pray not, but give thanks only; but for the things of the Spirit, they both give thanks and pray. For, “seek ye,” saith He, “the kingdom of heaven, and all these things shall be added unto you. “25
And mark too another kind of severe goodness in them; their saying, namely, “That we may be found to have been well-pleasing in Thy sight, not being ashamed.” For “we care not,” say they, “for the shame that proceeds from the many, but whatever men may say of us, laughing, upbraiding, we do not so much as regard it; but our whole endeavor is not to be put to shame then.” But in these expressions, they bring in also the river of fire, and the prizes, and the rewards.
They said not, “that we be not punished,” but, “that we be not ashamed.”26 For this is to us far more fearful than hell, to seem to have offended our Lord.”
13 [Here uJpevr does not occur., the text agreeing with the received.—R.]
14 Mt 16,37. [Some Mss. of the Homily ommit aJgivwn, and read th;n pra`xin for ta; e[rga (see note 1 p 342 R. V.—R.]
15 1Co 15,41.
16 [th;n pra`xin, the reading accepted in R. V..—R.]
17 Dt 32,15 [LXX.]
18 Dt 6,11-12.
19 Col 3,17.
20 Lc 12,7. [Very freely cited.]
21 Dt 8,3 Mt 4,4.
22 Ga 5,22.
23 2Co 9,8.
24 Ga 1,4-5.
25 Rm 1,25
26 ajpagxonizontwn, a strong figurative expression, as it seems, for the unhallowed self-tormenting of the Manich’ans. In Hom. XLII., the word is applied to Saul, “choking with envy” towards David).
But since the more part and the grosser sort are not in fear of this, they add, “When Thou renderest to every man according to his works.” Seest thou how greatly these strangers and pilgrims have benefitted us, these citizens of the wilderness, or rather citizens of the Heavens? For whereas we are strangers to the Heavens, but citizens of the earth, these are just the contrary.
And after this hymn, being filled with much compunction, and with many and fervent tears, so they proceed to sleep, snatching just so much of it as a little to refresh themselves. And again, the nights they make days, spending them in thanksgivings and in the singing of psalms.
But not men only, but women also practise this self-denial, overcoming the weakness of their nature by the abundance of their zeal.
Let us be abashed then at their earnestness, we who are men, let us cease to be fastened to the things present, to shadow, to dreams, to smoke. For the more part of our life is passed in insensibility.
For both the first period of our life is full of much folly, and that again which travels on to old age, makes all the feeling that is in us wither away, and small is the space between, that is able feelingly to enjoy pleasure; or rather, not even that hath a pure participation thereof, by reason of innumerable cares and toils, that harrass it.
Wherefore, I pray, let us seek the unmovable and eternal goods, and the life that never has old age.
For even one dwelling in a city may imitate the self-denial of the monks; yea, one who has a wife, and is busied in a household, may pray, and fast, and learn compunction. Since they also, who at the first were instructed by the apostles, though they dwelt in cities, yet showed forth the piety of the occupiers of the deserts: and others again who had to rule over workshops, as Priscilla and Aquila.
And the prophets too, all had both wives and households, as Isaiah, as Ezekiel, as the great Moses, and received no hurt therefrom in regard of virtue.
These then let us also imitate, and continually offer thanksgiving to God, continually sing hymns to Him; let us give heed to temperance, and to all other virtues, and the self-denial that is practised in the deserts, let us bring into our cities; that we may appear both well-pleasing before God, and approved before men, and attain unto the good things to come, by the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom and with whom be unto the Father, glory, honor, and might, together with the holy and life-giving Spirit, now and always and world without end. Amen.27
27 [In some Mss. the two paragraphs which follow are omitted, “and not be ashamed” being juined with this clause.—R.]
Chrysostom hom. on Mt 54