Jerome 582

6 (@1P 2,9 1P 2@,

583 7 That is diocese. The word diocese was in early times the larger expression, and contained many provinces. See Canon II of Constantinople, Bright’s edition, and note.

8 (
Mt 5,13 Mt 5,

9 (Lv 9,7 Lv 9,

10 (Tt 1,7 Tt 1,

11 (1Co 11,28 1Co 11,

12 (Mt 7,6 Mt 7,

13 Nb 16,26).

14 (Os 9,4 Os 9,

15 (Mt 7,22 Mt 7,

16 (Mt 5,15 Mt 5,

17 (Mt 6,23–24.

18 (Mt 6,23–24.

584 19 (2Co 6,14, 2Co 6,15 2Co 6,

20 Lv 21,17.

21 Quoted apparently from memory as giving the general sense of passages in Lv xxi, Lv xxii.

22 Quoted apparently from memory as giving the general sense of passages in Lv xxi, Lv xxii.

23 (Gn 1,2 Gn 1,

24 (Jn 5,2 sq).

25 xix. 2.

26 (Is 11,3, Mt 3,3.

27 (Jn 1,29 Jn 1,

28 (Lc 1,43 Lc 1,

29 (Ac 9,17 Ac 9,

585 30 (Mt 11,11 Mt 11,

31 (Mt 11,10 Mt 11,

32 We venture to read ‘decebat0’ instead of ‘dicebat.0’ Otherwise, we may render ‘Thus (the Scripture) said that,0’ etc.

33 (Mc 1,4 Mc 1,

34 (Mc 1,5 Mc 1,

35 (Jn 3,31 Jn 3,

36 (Mt 3,11 Mt 3,

37 (Jn 3,30 Jn 3,

38 (Ac 19,1, sqq).

39 Triple immersion, that is, thrice dipping the head while standing in the water, was the all but universal rule of the Church in early times. There is proof of its existence in Africa, Palestine, Egypt, at Antioch and Constantinople, in Cappadocia and Rome. See Basil, On the H. Sp. §66, and Apostolical Canons. Gregory the Great ruled that either form was allowable, the one symbolizing the Unity of the Godhead, the other the Trinity of Persons.

40 This ceremony together with the kiss of peace and white robes probably dated from very early times. In the fourth century some new ceremonies were introduced, such as the use of lights and salt, the unction with oil before baptism in addition to that with chrism which continued to be administered after baptism.

586 41 At Holy Communion the first prayer of the faithful was said by all kneeling. During the rest of the liturgy all stood. At other times of service the rule was for all to kneel in prayer except on Sundays and between Easter and Whitsuntide.

42 The Arians said He was the creature (made out of nothing) through whom the Father gave being to all other creatures.

43 The Macedonians, who became nearly co-extensive with the Semi-Arians about 360, held that the Spirit not being ‘very0’ God must be a creature and therefore a Servant of God.

44 Sacerdotium—often used by Jerome in a special sense for the Episcopate. He says of Pammachius and of himself (Letter xlv., 3) that many people thought them digni sacerdotio, meaning the Bishopric of Rome).

45 (
Ac 8,26 sq.

46 “The philosophical relations of Arianism have been differently stated. Baur, Newman (The Arians, p. 17), and others, bring it into connection with Aristotle, and Athanasianism with Plato; Petavius, Ritter, and Voigt, on the contrary, derive the Arian idea of God from Platonism and Neo-Platonism. The empirical, rational logical tendency of Arianism is certainly more Aristotelian than Platonic. and so far Baur and Newman are right; but all depends on making either revelation and faith. or philosophy and reason, the starting point and ruling power of theology.” Doctor Schaff in Dict. of Chris. Biog.

47 Baptism was at this time, as a rule, administered by the bishop alone).

48 This was, approximately, the Patripassian form of the heresy, according to which the person of the Father who is one with the Son, was incarnate in Christ, and the Father might then be said to have died upon the cross. The personality of the Holy Ghost appears to have been denied. With varying shades of opinion and modes of expression the doctrine was expounded by Praxeas (circ). a.d. 200), Noetius (a.d. 220), Sabellius (a.d. 225), Beryllus and Paul of Samosata (circ). a.d. 250)).

49 That is the followers of Lucifer, whose see was in Sardinia.

50 (Ps 12,1 Ps 12, Luciferians believed that few or none outside their own sect could saved.

51 (Ps 30,9 Ps 30,

587 52 (Mc 3,27,

53 (Ps 2,8 Ps 2,

54 (Ps 18,15 Ps 18,

55 Lit. In the sun hath he placed his tabernacle, and there is none who can hide himself from the heat thereof. Ps. xix. 6.

56 (Ps 9,6 Ps 9, Vulg. Syr.

57 The allusion is doubtful. It probably refers to some province of Spain (perhaps that of the Ibera or Ebro), in which the views of Lucifer prevailed and which his followers considered almost the sole land of the faithful. The expression, however, is used in a more general sense by Jerome, Letter VI.

58 (Lc 18,8 Lc 18,

59 (Mt 9,22 Mt 9,

60 (Mt 8,10 Mt 8,

61 (Mt 8,26 Mt 8,

62 (Mt 17,20 Mt 17,

588 63 (Mt 9,21 Mt 9,

64 (Mt 9,29).

65 For an account of the “Dated Creed” here referred to, and of the Councils of Seleucia and Ariminum, a.d. 359, see Bright’s History of the Church, a.d. 313–451, fourth edition, pp. 93–100.

66 Principium, the equivalent of the Greek AEArch, which means beginning, or principle, or power.

67 These two propositions constituted the essence of the teaching of Arius.

68 Usia (ousia) is defined by Cyril of Alexandria as that which has existence in itself, independent of everything else to constitute it. A discussion of both it and its companion term hypostasis may be found in Newman’s Arians, Appendix p. 432. Around ousia, or some compound of the word, the great Arian controversy always raged. In asserting that the son was homoousios with the Father, i.e., consubstantial or co-essential, the Church affirmed the Godhead of the Son. But the formula experienced varying fortunes. It was disowned as savouring of heterodoxy by the Council of Antioch (264–269) which was held to decide upon the views of Paulus: was imposed at Nicaea (325): considered inexpedient by the great body of the epis-copate in the next generation: was most cautiously put forward by Athanasius himself (see Stanley’s Hist. of Eastern Church, 1883, p. 240): does not occur in the catecheses of S. Cyril of Jerusalem (347): was momentarily abandoned by 400 bishops at Ariminum who were “tricked and worried” into the act. “They had not,” says Newman, “yet got it deeply fixed in their minds as a sort of first principle, that to abandon the formula was to betray the faith.”

69 The distinguishing principle of the doctrine of Acacius was adherence to Scriptural phraseology. See Bright’s Hist., p. 69.

70 The teaching of Aetius and Eunomius, the Anomoeans, who were the extremists of the Arians. See Robertson’s Hist. of Chris. Ch., fourth edition, pp. 236–237, etc. The other tenets anathematized are Arian or Semi-Arian).

71 Bishop of Singedunum (Belgrade). “He and Valens, bishop of Mursa (in Pannonia) appear at every Synod and Council from 330 till about 370, as leaders of the Arian party, both in the East and West …They are described by Athanasius as the disciples of Arius.” Dict. of Chris. Biog.

72 Constantius.

73 Julian.

589 74 In August 362, “All Egypt seemed to assemble in the city (Alexandria), which blazed with lights and rang with acclamations; the air was fragrant with incense burnt in token of joy; men formed a choir to precede the Archbishop; to hear his voice, to catch a glimpse of his face, even to see his shadow, was deemed happiness.” Bright, p. 115.

75 Bishop of Poictiers (a.d. 350). Died a.d. 368.

76 Bishop of Vercellae in N. Italy. Died about a.d. 270. Both he and Hilary had been sent into exile by Constantius for their opposition to Arianism.

77 That is, the creed of Ariminum).

78 Said to have been the “most prominent and most distinguished man of the entire movement.” Athanasius suggested that he was the teacher rather than the disciple of Arius. He died a.d. 342.

79 Regarded as one of the chief opponents of Athanasius. He and others it is said saved themselves from exile by secretly substituting omoiousio" for omoousio" in the sentence of the Council.

80 Born probably, about a.d. 260. He was made bishop of Caesarea about 313 and lived to be eighty. At the time of the Council he was the most learned man and most famous living writer. He had great influence with Constantine, and was among the most moderate Arians.

81 Eudoxius was deposed from the bishopric of Antioch by the Council of Seleucia, a.d. 359; but the immediate predecessor of Euzoius was Meletius, deposed a.d. 361. Baronius describes him as the worst of all the Arians. Euzoius had been the companion and intimate friend of Arius from an early age. Athanasius (Hist. Arian. p. 858) calls him the “Canaanite.”

82 Saints Athanasius, Hilary of Poictiers, and Eusebius of Vercellae.

83 a.d. 328, when Athanasius was consecrated bishop.

84 See introduction).

590 85 This Hilary was a deacon of Rome, sent by Liberius the bishop with Lucifer and Pancratius to the Emperor Constantius. He joined the Luciferians, and wrote in their interest on the re-baptism of heretics. He appears, however, to have been reconciled before his death.

86 (@1P 3,20 1P 3@,

87 (2Tm 2,20 2Tm 2,

88 Ecc. 11,2.

89 Vulg. for tyIgyIVv] l['

 Pss. 6,xii. and 1Ch 15,21. The meaning is probably “in a lower octave,” or, “in the bass.” According to others, an air, or key in which the psalm was to be sung, or a musical instrument with eight strings.

90 Virg, Georg. 1,154.

91 S. Mt 13,24 sq.

92 (Rm 9,22, Rm 9,23, 2Tm ii. 20, 2Tm 2,21).

93 (1Jn 2,19 1Jn 2,

94 (Pr 14,12 Pr 14,

95 Stephen was willing to admit all heretical baptism even that by Marcionites and Ophites; Cyprian would admit none. The Council was held at Carthage a.d. 255, and was followed by two in the next year.

591 96 Bishop of Rome from May 12, a.d. 254, to Aug. 2, a.d. 257. See note on ch. 25.

97 The words of 1Jn 4,3 would appear to support Jerome’s remark.

98 (
Ac 8,10 Ac 8, the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions Simon is the constant opponent of St. Peter.

99 Commonly regarded as the chief among the Egyptian Gnostics. The Basilidian system is described by Irenaeus (101f).

100 (Ac 6,5, Ap 2,6, Ap ii. 15. As to how far Jerome’s estimate of the character of Nicolas is correct, the article Nicolas in Smith’s Dict. of Bible may be consulted.

101 Jerome here reproduces almost exactly the remark of Pseudo-Tertullian. The Dositheans were probably a Jewish or Samaritan ascetic sect, something akin to the Essenes.

102 The name Pharisee implies separation, but in the sense of dedication to God.

103 Of Antioch. One of the earliest of the Gnostics (second century).

104 The Ophites, whose name is derived from ofi", a serpent, were a sect which lasted from the second century to the sixth. Some of them believed that the serpent of Gn 3,was either the Divine Wisdom, or the Christ himself, come to enlighten mankind. Their errors may in great measure, like those of the Cainites, be traced to the belief, common to all systems of Gnosticism, that the Creator of the world, who was the God of the Jews, was not the same as the Supreme Being, but was in antagonism to Him. They supposed that the Scriptures were written in the interest of the Demiurge or Creator, and that a false colouring being given to the story, the real worthies were those who are reprobated in the sacred writings.

105 The Cainites regarded as saints, Cain, Korah, Dathan, the Sodomites, and even the traitor Judas.

106 The Sethites are said to have looked upon Seth as the same person as Christ.

592 107 Carpocrates, another Gnostic, held that our Lord was the son of Joseph and Mary, and was distinguished from other men by nothing except moral superiority. He also taught the indifference of actions in themselves, and maintained that they take their quality from opinion or from legislation; he advocated community of goods and of wives, basing his views on the doctrine of natural rights. See Mosheim, Cent. ii.

108 Cerinthus was a nativ of Judaea, and after having studied at Alexandria established himself as a teacher in his own country. He afterwards removed to Ephesus, and there became prominent. He held that Jesus and the Christ were not the same person; Jesus was, he said, a real man, the son of Joseph and Mary; the Christ was an emanation which descended upon Jesus at his baptism to reveal the Most High, but which forsook him before the Passion. S. Jn in his Gospel and Epistles combats this error. See Westcott’s Introduction to 1 John, p. 34,(second ed). etc. Cerinthus is said to have been the heretic with whom S. Jn refused to be under the same roof at the bath. To him as author is also referred the doctrine of the Millennium.

109 The Ebionites were mere humanitarians. Whether Ebion ever existed, or whether the sect took its name from the beggarliness of their doctrine, or their vow of poverty, or the poorness of spirit which they professed, is disputed).

110 (
Ap 2,16 Ap 2,

111 Cyprian’s opinion as stated in his reply to the Numidian and Mauritanian bishops (Ep 71) was that converts must be baptized, unless they had received the regular baptism of the Church before falling into heresy or schism, in which case imposition of hands would suffice. The question was afterwards decided against Cyprian’s views by the Council of Aries (a.d. 314), which ordered that if the baptism had been administered in the name of the Trinity, converts should be admitted to the Church by imposition of hands.

112 For Novatus and an account of the dispute between Cyprian and Stephen, see Robertson’s “Hist. of Christian Church,” fourth ed., vol. 1,pp. 120–127.

113 (1Co 11,16 1Co 11,

114 As Deucalion was left alone after the flood, so, Jerome implies, Hilary imagined himself the sole survivor after the flood of Arianism.

115 The advocates on each side could plead immemorial local usage. If imposition of hands was the rule at Rome, synods held at Iconium and at Synnada had established the rule of re-baptism nearly throughout Asia Minor. In Africa the same practice had been sanctioned early in the third century, but it seems to have fallen into disuse long before Cyprian’s time).

116 Bishops of Rome—Julius 337–352; Mc Jan. 18-Oct. 7, 336; Sylvester 314–335.

117 Canon 19.

593 118 Canon 8. The bishop might give him the nominal honour of a bishop.

119 By the “men of the mountain or the plain,” Jerome appears to contemptuously designate the Circumcellions who were an extreme section of the Donatists. They roamed about the country in bands of both sexes, and struck terror into the peaceable inhabitants. They were guilty of the grossest excesses, and no Catholic was safe except in the towns. Robertson’s “Hist. of the Church,” vol. 1,fourth ed. pp. 200, 419, and the original authorities there referred to).

1 Ut ait ille. The sentiment, almost in the same words, is found in Tertullian against Hermogenes, ch. 1.

2 i. 18 sq.

3 S. Mt 1,24, Mt 1,25.

4 (
Ps 6,5).

5 (Dt 22,24, Dt 22,25 Dt 22,

6 (Dt 22,23, Dt 22,24 Dt 22,

7 (Dt 20,7 Dt 20,

8 (Is 7,14 Is 7, Cheyne’s Isaiah, and critical note.

9 S. Lc 2,27.

10 S. Lc 2,41.

11 ib. 2,43.

12 ib. 1,34.

13 S. Lc 2,48.

14 S. Mt 1,20).

594 15 (Is 46,4 Is 46,

16 S. Mt 28,20.

17 (1Co 15,23 sq.

18 (Ps cxxiii. 2. The songs of the up-goings or ascents (twn anabaOmwn Sept., graduum Vulg.), are the fifteen psalms cxx.-cxxxiv.

19 (Ps 119,123 Ps 119,

20 (Gn 35,4, Sept.

21 (Dt 34,5–6).

22 S. Mt 1,20.

23 S. Mt 1,20.

24 S. Lc 2,10 sq.

25 S. Lc 2,14.

26 ib. 2,29.

27 S. Lc 2,33.

595 28 The allusion is to the Old Latin, the Versio Itala. The quotations which follow stand differently in Jerome’s Vulgate, made subsequently (391–404). The argument is that, since the copies of the Latin version substantially agree in the present case, it is futile to suppose variations in the original.

29 (
Gn 38,26 Gn 38,

30 (Lv 12,2–3 margin.

31 (Jr 5,8).

32 S. Lc 2,7.

33 S. Lc 2,4 sq.

34 Nb 18,15.

35 Nb 18,16.

36 S. Lc 2,22 sq.

37 (Ex 12,29).

38 S. Mt 12,46.

39 S. Jn 2,12.

596 40 S. Jn 7,3, Jn 7,4.

41 S. Jn 7,5.

42 S. Mt 13,54, Mt 13,55. S. Mc 6,1–3.

43 (
Ac 1,14 Ac 1,

44 (Ga 2,2 Ga 1,19 Ga 1,

45 (1Co 9,4, 1Co 9,5 1Co 9,

46 S. Mt 27,55, Mt 27,56. For Joses, Jerome has Joseph.

47 S. Marc. 15,40, Marc. 15,41. For Joses, Jerome has Joseph.

48 S. Luc. 24,10.

49 S. Mc 15,47: Mc 16,1).

50 S. Jn 19,25.

597 51 (Ga 1,18, Ga 1,19 Ga 1,

52 (Ga 2,9 Ga 2,

53 But see Judges 6,2.

54 The He Negebh signifies South, and it is probable that the land of Teman was a southern portion of the land of Edom. If Darom be the right reading, it is, apparently, the same as Dedan (Ez 25,13, etc).

55 (Dt 15,12 Dt 15,

56 (Dt 17,15 Dt 17,

57 (Dt 22,1 Dt 22,

58 (Rm 9,3, Rm 9,4).

59 (Gn 13,8, Gn 13,11 Gn 13,

60 (Gn 12,4 Gn 12,

61 (Gn 14,14 Gn 14,

598 62 (Gn 29,11 Gn 29,

63 (Gn 29,15 Gn 29,

64 (Gn 31,36, Gn 31,37 Gn 31,

65 (Ps cxxxiii. 1.

66 (Ps 22,22 Ps 22,

67 S. Jn 20,17.

68 (Is 66,5 Is 66,

69 (1Co 5,11 1Co 5,

70 (Gn 20,11).

71 (Lv 18,9 Lv 18,

72 S. Mt 13,55: S. Mc 6,3.

599 73 That is, Rome.

74 S. Lc 1,18.

75 S. Jn 1,45.

76 That is, Pettau in Upper Pannonia. See Jerome, De Vir. Ill. 74).

77 (
Gn 1,28 Gn 1,

78 Probably a mistranslation of Exod. xxiii. 26.

79 (1Co 7,29 1Co 7,

80 ib. 7,32, 7,33.

81 (1Co 7,34).

82 (Gn 18,11 Gn 18,

83 (Gn 21,12 Gn 21,

600 84 (1Co 7,34 1Co 7,

85 (1Co 7,25 1Co 7,

86 (Mt 24,19, S. Mc 13,17).

1 From this expression and that quoted in the notice above, it would be supposed that Jerome knew Jovinianus and his mode of life. But there is no reason to think that he had this knowledge; and his imputations against his adversary must be taken as the inferences which he draws tom his opinions.

2 Hor. Ars Poet. 139.

3 Pers. Sat. 3,118.

4 Plautus, Pseudolus, 1,1. 23.

Has quidem, pol, credo, nisi Sibylla legerit,

Interpretari alium potesse neminem.

5 The allusion is probably to the Sybilline books.

6 Aen 10,640).

601 7 The philosopher of Ephesus. Flourished about b.c. 513.

8 Ibi est distinctio. Instead of clearness we have to make a choice between possible meanings.

9 Marcion lived about a.d. 150, and was co-temporary with Polycarp, who is said to have had a personal encounter with him at Rome. Unlike other Gnostics he professed to be purely Christian in his doctrines. He is specially noted for his violent treatment of Scripture: he rejected the whole of the Old Testament, while of the New he acknowledged only the Gospel of S. Lc and ten of S, Paul’s Epistles, and from these he expunged whatever he did not approve of. His sect lasted until the sixth century.

10 By birth an Assyrian, and a pupil of Justin Martyr. His followers were called Encratites, or Temperates, from their great austerity. They also bore the names Water-drinkers and Renouncers.

11 (He 13,The Revised Ver. translates “let marriage be, etc.” There is no verb in the original, the sentence being probably designed to be a Christian proverb, and capable of serving either as an assertion or as a precept. The revised rendering is preferred by the chief modern commentators.

12 (
Gn 1,28 Gn 1,

13 For much interesting information relating to counting on the fingers, and for authorities on the subject, see Mayor’s note on Juvenal 10,249).

14 The philosopher of Crotona, in Italy, b.c. 580–510. See some of his sayings in Jerome’s Apology, 3,39–40.

15 The great teacher of the Academy at Athens; lived b.c. 428–389.

16 Surnamed the “Just.” He was the opponent of Themistocles. He fought at Marathon (490), and although in exile did good service at Salamis (480). He was now recalled, and after commanding the Athenians at Plataea (479) died, probably in 468, so poor that he did not leave enough to pay for his funeral.

17 Flourished about b.c. 370. A disciple of Socrates, and founder of the Cyrenaic School of Philosophy; he was luxurious in his life, and held pleasure to be the highest good.

602 18 Epicurus (b.c. 342–270), though a disciple of Aristippus, does not appear to have deserved the odium attached to his name by Jerome and many others. “Pleasure with him was not a mere momentary and transitory sensation, but something lasting and imperishable, consisting in pure and noble enjoyments. that is, in ataraxia and aponia, or the freedom from pain and from all influences which disturb the peace of our mind, and thereby our happiness which is the result of it.” See Zeller’s Socrates and the Socratic Schools (Reichel’s translation), second ed., p. 337 sq.

19 The famous Athenian, talented, reckless and unscrupulous; born about b.c. 450, assassinated 404.

20 (
Gn 2,24 Gn 2,

21 (Mt 19,5 Mt 19,

22 (Gn 1,28 Gn 9,1).

23 (Gn 9,1 Gn 9,

24 (Gn 9,3 Gn 9,

25 (Gn 25,23 Gn 25,

26 (Gn 30,1 Gn 30,

27 (Gn 30,2 Gn 30,

28 Palo. Ap Vers). tent-pin.

603 29 (Ps 72,1 Ps 72,

30 (Ps 72,15 Ps 72,

31 (Is 38,19 Is 38,

32 (1Tm 5,14 1Tm 5,

33 Hebr. 13,4. See note on sec. 3.

34 (1Co 7,39 1Co 7,

35 (1Tm 2,14 1Tm 2,

36 (1Co 7,29).

37 (1Co 7,1 sq.

38 (Pr 6,27, Pr 6,28 Pr 6,

39 Mithras was the God of the Sun among the Persians. His worship was introduced at Rome under the Emperors, and thence spread over the empire.

604 40 Son of Vulcan, king of Athens, and the first to drive a four-in-hand, Virg. G. 3,113: “First to the chariot, Ericthonius dared four steeds to join, and o’er the rapid wheels victorious hang.”

41 (@1P 3,7 1P 3@,

42 (1P 3,2, @1P 3,3@).

43 (1Jn 2,6 1Jn 2,

44 (1Co 7,7 1Co 7,

45 (2Co 2,7 2Co 2,

46 (2Co 2,10 2Co 2,

47 (Ps 45,9, Ps 45,13, Ps xlv. 14.

48 1 Peter 3,7, joined with 1 Peter iv. 10.

49 (1Co 7,8 1Co 7,

50 (Tt 1,12 Tt 1,

51 (1Co 15,33 1Co 15,

52 (Ac 17,28 Ac 17,

605 53 (1Co 7,10 sq).

54 (2Co 6,14 sq.

55 (1Co 7,39 1Co 7,

56 (Ml 2,11, Ml 2,12 Ml 2,

57 R. V. “To the man that doeth this, him that waketh and him that answereth.”

58 (1Co 7,18 sq).

59 But S. Paul hints at a surgical operation. See Josephus, Antiq. Bk. 12,c. 5,sec. 1, where certain apostates from Judaism are said “to have hid their circumcision that even when they were naked [in the gymnasium] they might appear to be Greeks.” See also Celsus, Bk. 7,c. xxv.

60 (Ga 5,19 Ga 5,

61 (1Co 6,17).

62 (1Co 7,25, 1Co 7,26 1Co 7,

63 Ferias nuptiarum. The reference is to 1Co 7,5.

606 64 (Mt 19,10 sq.

65 Jerome uses the Greek word agwnoqeth"—President of the Games.

66 S. Jn 7,37).

67 (Is 56,3 Is 56,

68 (Jr 38,7 Jr 38,

69 (Ac 8,27 Ac 8,

70 (1Co 7,26 1Co 7,

71 (Mt 24,19, &c.

72 (1Co 7,27 1Co 7,

73 (1Co 7,30 sqq).

74 See Ap Ver. Margin.

607 75 See the treatise on the Perp. Virginity of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Rome, 384.

76 Ep. 22,on the guarding of virginity. Rome, 384.

77 Jerome apparently, here, alludes to some early work of Tertullian not now extant.

78 Jerome often alludes to his relation to Gregory, in the year 381; he was present at the council of Constantinople, of which Gregory was then the bishop.

79 This rendering supposes kai memeristai to be joined to the preceding sentence. The Vulgate has et divisus est, and so also the lthiopic Version.

80 S. Jn 15,19.

81 (
1Co 7,35 1Co 7,

82 (1Co 3,10).

83 (1Co 7,37, 1Co 7,38 1Co 7,

84 (Ps 36,27 Ps 36,

85 (Qo 7,16 Qo 7,

608 86 (1Co 7,39, 1Co 7,40 1Co 7,

87 (1Tm 5,11, 1Tm 5,15 1Tm 5,

88 (1Co 7,40 1Co 7,

89 Rom 7,2, Rm 7,3.

90 (1Tm 5,14, 1Tm 5,15).

91 See 1Tm 3,12. Most ancient writers interpreted S. Paul’s words as referring to second marriages after loss of first wife, however happening. And certain Councils decided in the same sense, e.g. Neocaesarea (a.d. 314). Ellicott’s Pastoral Ep., fifth ed., p. 41.

92 (1Tm 5,9 1Tm 5, authorities, however, suppose the words to refer to an order of widows, and pertinently ask, would the Church thus limit her alms.

93 Cor. 6,12.

94 (Ep 5,31, Gn ii.

95 (Ep 5,32 Ep 5,

96 (Ep 5,25, Col 3,9–11.

97 (1Th 4,7).

609 98 Lit. through a virgin. The allusion is, probably, to his baptism by a virgin, i.e., Jn Baptist.

99 But see Gn 4,26.

100 (@1P 3,20 1P 3@,

101 (Ep 1,10 Ep 1,

102 (Ap 1,8 Ap 22,13 Ap 22,

103 (Rm 14,21).

104 (Gn 31,46–49, where the heap itself is called Galeed.

105 (Gn 32,25, Gn 32,28, Gn 32,31 Gn 32,

106 (Gn 35,16, Gn 35,20 Gn 35,

107 (Gn xxxviii.

108 (Gn 38,9 Gn 38,

109 (Ex 4,24–26.

610 110 (Ex 3,5 Ex 3,

111 (@1S 21,4 1S 21@,

112 Lv 21,13, Lv 21,14.

113 The reference is, probably, to Levit. xxii. 13. But the second marriage is not there prohibited, and in the ideal polity of Ezekiel (xliv. 22) a priest might marry the widow of a priest.

114 Lv 21,3.

115 (Dt 20,6, Dt 20,7, where an indulgence, not a prohibition, is clearly indicated.

116 (Ex 38,8 Ex 38, Vulg. “who watched;” Onkelos’ Targum “who assembled to pray,” and so the Syriac Version. The Hebrew word signifies “to go forth to war,” but is applied to the temple service, sort of militia sacra (Gesenius). Hence Ap Version, “the serving women which served at the door of the tent of meeting;” and Margin, “the women which assembled to minister.” Comp. Nb 4,3, Nb 4,23, Nb 4,30, Nb 4,35, Nb 4,39 and 1S 2,22 1S 2,

117 (Ex xxxvii.

118 In Jude 5, instead of “the Lord,” A. B. read Jesus, and this is accepted by many ancient, authorities. Farrar observes (“Early Days of Christianity,” pop. ed., p, 128) “Jesus” is the more difficult, and therefore more probable reading of A. B. It is explained by 1Co 10,4, and the identification of the Messiah with the “Angel of the Lord” (Ex 14,19, Ex 23,20, &c). and with the Pillar of Fire in Philo.

119 (Jos 3,

120 Jerome derives Gilgal from yly

 to uncover: the accepted derivation is from lyy

611 121 (Ex 3,5, Jos. 5,15.

122 (Jos 10,3 Jos 10,

123 (Jos 10,16 Jos 10,

124 S. Lc 16,29.

125 (Rm 5,14 Rm 5,

126 (Gn 31,41 Gn 31,

127 (Gn 37,28 Gn 37,

128 (Gn 32,14 Gn 32,

129 Joshua died at the age of 110 years. Jos 24,29.

130 Timnath-Serah was the original name of Joshua’s inheritance (Jos 19,50), but in Judges 2,9, we find the name changed to Timnath-Heres. Timnath-Serah and the tomb of its illustrious owner were shown in the time of Jerome (Letter 108,13). “Paula wondered greatly that he who assigned men their possessions had chosen for himself a rough and rocky spot.” Jerome is looking at the inheritance with the eyes of an ardent controversialist when he describes it as “the fairest spot in the land of Judah.”

131 (Ps 48,2 Ps 48, correct rendering of the Hebrew is much disputed.

612 132 (Ps 73,2 Ps 73,

133 (Jos 24,28 Jos 24,

134 (Dt 34,6 Dt 34,

135 Worshipped more especially at Lampsacus on the Helles pont. He was regarded as the promoter of fertility in vegetables and animals.

136 (Ps cxxviii. 3).

137 (Gn 6,3 Gn 6, V). Strive or rule in.

138 (Gn 49,17 Gn 49, was of the tribe of Dan.

139 (Jg 11,30, Jg 11,31 Jg 11,

140 (1Tm 3,2 1Tm 3,

141 (Ps xcix. 6.

142 See 1Ch 6,34–38.

613 143 (He 7,3 He 7, Greek word in the text (“without genealogy”) is unknown to secular writers. and occurs here only in the New Test. It cannot mean without descent ). Unmarried appears to be a false inference from this supposed meaning. Ignatius also ( . reckoned Melchizedek among celibates. Ap Version translates, “without genealogy,” i. ancestry was unrecorded. See Farrar’s “Early Days of Christianity,” pop.

144 (1S 2,22 1S 2,

145 See, however, 1Ch 22,8.

146 S. Mt 18,6.

147 S. Mt 5,22.

148 S. Mt 5,27).

149 (Ct 6,8 Ct 6,

150 (@1R 11,3 1R 11@,

151 (1Co 7,29 1Co 7,

152 (Is 38,19 Is 38,

153 (@2R 22,14 2R 22@,

154 (@2R 20,18 2R 20@,

155 (Da 1,3, Da 1,4 Da 1,

156 (Ez 14,14, Ez 14,20 Ez 14,

157 (Ez 18,4 Ez 18,

614 158 (Ez 8,1 Ez 8,

159 (Ez 14,14 Ez 14,

160 Apocryphal additions to Daniel).

161 (Mt 19,27 Mt 19,

162 (Lc 18,29, Lc 18,30 Lc 18,

163 (1Co 9,5 1Co 9, text has been much tampered with by the advocates or opponents of celibacy. The reading first quoted by Jerome is that of F, manuscript of the eighth or ninth century, and is found in Tertullian; the other chief readings introduce the Greek equivalent for sister, either in the sing. or plural. The Ap Version renders, “have we no right to lead about wife that believer” (or sister). Augustine, Tertullian, Theodoret, &c., together with Cornelius-a-Lapide and Estius among the moderns, agree with Jerome in referring the passage to holy women who ministered to the Apostles as they did to the Lord Himself. The third canon of Nicaea is supposed to directed against the practice encouraged by this interpretation of the Apostle’s words.

164 Attributed to Clement by Jerome.

165 (Is 1,9 Is 1,

166 S. Jn 13,25.

167 S. Jn 20,4.

168 S. Jn 21,7 sq).

615 169 S. Mt 16,18.

170 S. Mt 18,18: S. Jn 20,22, Jn 20,23.

171 S. Jn 14,27.

172 S. Mt 20,27: S. Lc 22,26.

173 See this book in Vol. III. of this series.

174 (
Is 40,3 Is 40,

175 S. Jn 1,1.

176 S. Jn 19,26, Jn 19,27.

177 (1Tm 2,13, 1Tm 2,15 1Tm 2,

178 (1Tm 2,8 sqq.

179 Apparently, Eve’s transgression imputed to her descendants).

616 180 The original admits of the rendering “by means of her child-bearing.” But Ellicott and others interpret of the Incarnation.

181 (Ap Version, “sobriety.” Sobermindedness or discretion are given by Ellicott (Notes on translation) as alternative renderings. The word cannot mean chastity, but rather “the well-balanced state of mind resulting from habitual self-restraint” in general.

182 (Pr 6,26?

183 (
Pr 7,27, Pr 9,18.

184 (Pr 21,19 Pr 21,

185 Often mentioned by Seneca. A saying is reported of him: “Ho, traveller, stop. There is a miracle here: a man and his wife not at strife.”

186 (Pr 21,9 Pr 25,24 Pr 25,

187 (Pr 27,15 Pr 27,

188 Supereffluas. Pr 3,21 Sept., He 2,1. The Greek word signifies to fall away like flowing water. See Schleusner on pararruomai. In He 2,1, Ap V. translates “We drift away:” Vaughan, “We be found to have leaked, or ebbed away.”

189 (Pr 30,15, Pr 30,16).

190 (Qo 3,1, Qo 3,2, sqq.

617 191 (Qo 7,10 Qo 7,

192 R.V. “Good as an inheritance.”

193 (Qo 7,28, Qo 7,29 Qo 7,

194 (Qo 9,8 Qo 9,

195 (Ct 1,10, Ct 1,11 Ct 1, of gold with studs of silver.” R.V.

196 (Ct 2,1, Ct 2,10–12.

197 (1Co 7,29 1Co 7,

198 (Ct 2,12 Ct 2,

199 Verse 13).

200 (2Co 2,15 2Co 2,

201 (Ct 2,13, Ct 2,14 Ct 2,

618 202 (Ex 34,33, Ex 34,35 Cor. 3,7 sq.

203 (Is 1,15 Is 1,

204 (Ct 2,16 Ct 2,

205 (Ct 3,7, Ct 3,8 Ct 3,

206 (Ct 4,6 Ct 4,

207 (Ep 5,27 Ep 5,

208 (Ct 4,8 Ct 4,

209 Sept. R.V. “Look from the top of Amana.”

210 (Ct 8,5 Ct 8,

211 (Ps 119,105 Ps 119,

212 (Ct 4,9 Ct 4,

619 213 (Ct 4,9, Ct 4,10 Ct 4,

214 (Ct 5,1 Ct 5,

215 S. Mt 9,17.

216 (Rm 7,6 Rm 7,

217 (Za 8,5 Za 9,17, R. V. “How great is his goodness, and how great is his beauty! Corn shall make the young men flourish, and new wine the maids.”

218 (Ps 45,16, Ps 45,17 Ps 45,

219 (Ct 4,12, Ct 4,13).

220 (Ct 5,10 Ct 5,

221 (Ct 5,16 Ct 5,

222 (Ct 7,1 Ct 7,

223 R. V. “O Prince’s daughter!” Sept., also “daughter of Nadab.

620 224 (Is 7,14 Is 7,

225 Delitzsch remarks, “The assertion of Jerome is untenable.” See Cheyne, critical note on Is. 7,14. The word probably denotes a female, married or unmarried, just attaining maturity. But in every other passage, the context shows that the word is used of an unmarried woman.

226 (Gn 24,42 sq.

227 (Is 37,22 Is 37,

228 (Is 54,1 Is 54,

229 (Jr 2,32 Jr 2,

230 (Jr 31,22).

231 (Jr 1,5 Jr 1,

232 (Jr 39,11 Jr 40,i.

233 (Ez 1,4 Ez 1,

234 (Ez 24,18 Ez 24,

621 235 (1Co 7,25 1Co 7,

236 (Ac 15,28, Ac 15,29 Ac 15,

237 S. Mt 10,10: S. Lc 10,5.

238 S. Mt 19,21.

239 (1Tm 3,2, 1Tm 3,4, Tit. i. 6.

240 Sacerdotes: that is, bishops).

241 (1Co 7,7 1Co 7,

242 (1Tm 3,x.

243 V. supra, c. 27. R. V. “temperate.” Ellicott observes, “under any circumstances the derivative translation Vigilant, Auth., though possibly defensible in the verb, is a needless and doubtful extension of the primary meaning.”

244 R. V. “orderly.” V. above, c. 27.

245 kosmion. R. V. “orderly.”

622 246 Non vinolentum. R.V. “no brawler,” i.e., as the Margin explains, “not quarrelsome over wine.” The original is not thus a mere synonym for nhfalio" in 5,2.

247 (So Chrysostom and Theodoret. The simple meaning appears to suit the context better).

248 (1S 2,and 1S iv.

249 (
1Tm 3,11 1Tm 3,

250 The Code of Constantine, following the Mosaic law, imposed the penalty of death for adultery. See Gibbon, ch. xliv.

251 S. Mt 19,12.

252 (1Co 7,25 1Co 7,

253 “Two rocky islands in the Euxine, that, according to the fable, floated about, dashing against and rebounding from each other, until at length they became fixed on the passage of the Argo between them.”

254 Andabatae.

255 (Mt 19,12 Mt 19,

256 (1Co 7,7).

257 (Ph 2,6–8.

623 258 S. Jn 20,20.

259 S. Jn 20,19.

260 S. Mt 14,28.

261 S. Mt 22,30.

262 (
2Co 5,17 2Co 5,

263 (Rm 6,21, Rm 6,22 Rm 6,

264 (Rm 7,4 sq.

265 (Rm 7,14, Rm 7,24, Rom. vii. 25.

266 (Rm 8,1, Rm 8,2 Rm 8,

267 (Rm 8,5 sq).

268 (Rm 8,11, Rm 8,14 Rm 8,

624 269 R. V. “mind.”

270 (Rm 12,1–3.

271 See ch. 27.

272 (Rm 13,11, Rm 13,12, Rom. xiii. 14.

273 (1Co 3,1, 1Co 3,2,
1Co 3,3 1Co 3,

274 That is, under the dominion of the psyche, or principle of life common to man and the beasts, hence, natural. Opposed to the psyche is the pneuma, capable of being influenced by the Spirit of God. A man thus influenced is pneumatikos or spiritual. See also 1Co xv. 44.

275 (1Co 15,47 sq.

276 (2Co 5,1 sq.

277 (2Co 11,2).

278 (Ga 2,16 Ga 2,

279 (Ga 3,3, Ga 3,4 Ga 3,

625 280 (Ga 5,16, Ga 5,17 Ga 5,

281 Properly, self-control in the wide sense.

282 (Ga 5,24, Ga 5,25 Ga 5,

283 (Ga 6,7, Ga 6,8 Ga 6,

284 (Ep 2,3, Ep 2,4 Ep 2,

285 (Ep 4,22 Ep 4,

286 (Ep 6,24 Ep 6,

287 (Ph 3,20, Ph 3,21 Ph 3,

288 (Ph 4,8 Ph 4,

289 Coloss. 2,11; Coloss. 3,1 sq.

290 (2Tm 2,4 2Tm 2,

626 291 Titus 2,11, Titus 2,12.

292 S. Jn 16,12, Jn 16,13.

293 xxi. 9).

294 (
Mt 11,13 Mt 11,

295 The passage is not found in existing copies of Josephus.

296 S. James 1,16–18.

297 R. V. “can be no variation.” The word “difference,” as used by Jerome, is explained by the context.

298 (Ap 1,5 Ap 1,
299 (1P 1,3–5.

300 Pet. 1,13–16.
301 (1P 1,18, 1P 1,19 1P 1,
302 (1P 1,22, 1P 1,23 1P 1,

303 In Jerome’s rendering ‘living and abiding,0’ are attributes of God. But in the original the participles may be taken as predicates of either word or God. The R. V. refers them to the former.
304 (1P 2,9 1P 2,

305 (1P 4,1 sq.
306 (2P 1,4 2P 1,

627 307 (2P 2,9 sq).
308 (2P 3,3 2P 3,

309 The notorious epicure of the time of Augustus and Tiberius.

310 Paxamus wrote a treatise on cooking, which, Suidas states, was arranged in alphabetical order.

311 (1Jn 2,15 sq.

312 (1Jn 3,2, 1Jn 3,3 1Jn 3,

313 (1Jn 4,7 1Jn 4, V. “that we may have.”

314 Jude, 23.

315 xiv. 1 sq.

316 (Ap 7,5 sq.

317 Apoc. 14,3, Apoc. 14,4).

318 or they may say.

628 319 (2Tm 2,20, 2Tm 2,21 2Tm 2,

320 Virg. Aen 1,317.

321 Virg. Aen. 7,803: id. 11,535.

322 Leos was the hero from whom the tribe Leontis derived its name. Once when Athens was suffering from famine or plague, the oracle at Delphi demanded that his daughters should be sacrificed. The father complied. The shrine called Leocorium was erected by the Athenians to their honour.

323 Jerome’s memory appears to be at fault. When the Greek fleet was on its way to Troy, it was detained by a calm at Aulis. The seer Calchas advised that Iphigenia, daughter of Agamemnon should be sacrificed. See Dict. of Ant.

324 According to the law of Numa, the punishment of a Vestal Virgin for violating the vow of chastity was stoning to death. Tarquinius Priscus first enacted that the offender should be buried alive, after being stripped of her badges of office, scourged and attired like a corpse. “From the time of the triumvirs each [Vestal] was preceded by a lictor when she went abroad; consuls and praetors made way for them, and lowered their fasces; even the tribunes of the plebs respected their holy character, and if any one passed under their litter, he was put to death.”

325 It is said, however, that Claudia (Quinta) was a Roman matron, not a Vestal Virgin. The soothsayers announced that only a chaste woman could move the vessel referred to. Claudia, who had been accused of incontinency, took hold of the rope, and the vessel forthwith followed her). b.c. 204.

326 Seneca).

327 In the year after the death of Alexander (b.c. 323), Leosthenes defeated Alexander’s general Antipater, near Thermopylae. Antipater then threw himself into the town of Lamia (in Phthiotis in Thessaly) which thus gave its name to the war. Leosthenes pressed the siege with great vigour, but was killed by a blow from a stone.

328 Another name for Messana (or Messene,, derived from the Mamertini, a people of Campania, is some of whom were mercenaries in the army of the tyrant Agathocles, and were quartered in the town. At his death (b.c. 282) they rose and gained possession of it.

329 The semi-legendary hero of the second war between Sparta and Messene. He lived about b.c. 270.

629 330 The spring festival held in honour of Hyacinthus, the beautiful youth accidentally slain by Apollo, and from whose blood was said to have sprung the flower of the same name.

331 (He succeeded Plato as president of the Academy (b.c. 347–339). His works are all lost.

332 One of Aristotle’s pupils, and author of a number of works, none of which are extant.

333 Diogenes Laërtius (so named from Laërte in Cilicia), who probably lived in the end century after Christ, in the Third Book of his “Lives of the Philosophers” refers to a treatise by Anaxelides on the same subject. It has therefore been conjectured that Jerome may have written Philosophica Historia for philosophiae.

334 Timaeus of Locri, in Italy, a Pythagorean philosopher, is said to have been a teacher of Plato. There is an extant work bearing his name; but its genuineness is considered doubtful, and it is in all probability only an abridgment of Plato’s dialogue of Timaeus.

335 Damo. Pythagoras is said to have entrusted his writings to her, and to have forbidden her to give them to any one. She strictly observed the command, although she was in extreme poverty, and received many requests to sell them. According to some accounts Pythagoras had another daughter, Myia.

336 Flourished about b.c. 540–510.

337 Clement of Alexandria (died about a.d. 220) in his Stromata (i.e. literally, patchwork) or Miscellanies, Bk. iv., relates the same story and gives the names of the daughters. The Diodorus referred to in the text lived at Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy Sorer (b.c. 323–285), by whom he was said to have been surnamed Cronos or Saturn, on account of his inability to solve at once some dialectic problem when dining with the king, perhaps with a play upon the word chronos (time), or with a sarcastic allusion to Crones as the introducer of the arts of civilized life. The philosopher is said to have taken the disgrace so much to heart, that he wrote a treatise on the problem, and then died in despair. Another account derives his name from his teacher Apollonius Cronus.

338 Born about b.c. 213, died b.c. 129. He was the determined opponent of the Stoics, and maintained that neither our senses nor our understanding gives us a safe criterion of truth.

339 The poetical name of Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor and mother of Romulus and Remus.

340 According to the legend she stabbed herself on the funeral pyre. Jerome ignores the modifications introducedinto the legend by Virgil, who, in defiance of the common chronology, makes Dido a contemporary of Aeneas, and represents her as destroying herself when forsaken by the hero.

630 341 Hasdrubal and his family, with 900 deserters and desperadoes, retired into the temple of Aesculapius, as if to make a brave defence. But the commandant’s heart failed him; and, slipping out alone, be threw himself at the feet of Scipio, and craved for pardon. His wife, standing on the base of the temple, was near enough to witness the sight, and reproaching her husband with cowardice, cast herself with her children into the flames which were now wrapping the Citadel round on all sides). b.c. 146.

342 Son of Nicias the celebrated Athenian general.

343 She succeeded Mausolus and reigned b.c. 352–350.

344 She was the wife of Agron, and assumed the sovereign power on the death of her husband, b.c. 231. War was declared against her by Rome in consequence of her having caused the assassination of an ambassador, and in 228 she obtained peace at the cost of the greater part of her dominions.

345 Cyropaedeia, Book 7,

346 The wife of Candaules, also called Myrsilus. She was exhibited to Gyges, who, after the murder of her husband, married her. Herod. B. i.

347 The story, as is well known, formed the subject of the play by Euripides bearing the heroine’s name, which was brought out about b.c. 438.

348 Protesilaus was the first of the Greeks to fall at Troy. According to some accounts he was slain by Hector. When her husband was slain Laodamia begged the gods to allow her to converse with him for only 3 hours. The request having been granted, Hermes led Protesilaus back to the upper world, and when he died a second time, Laodamia died with him.

349 The wife of L. Tarquinius Collatinus, whose rape by Sextus led to the dethronement of Tarquinius Superbus and the establishment of the republic.

350 Over the Carthaginian fleet near Mylae, 260 b.c.

351 One of the assassins of Julius Caesar. Jerome appears to be at fault here). Porcia, the daughter of Cato by his first wife Atilia, before marrying Brutus in 45 b.c., had been married to M. Bibulus and had borne him three children. He died in 48. After the death of Brutus in 42 she put an end to her own life, probably by the fumes of a charcoal fire.

631 352 Marcia is related to have been ceded by Cato to his friend Hortensius. She continued to live with the latter until his death, when she returned to Cato.

353 It has been conjectured that instead of “Marcia, Cato’s younger daughter,” a few lines above, we should read Porcia.

354 Probably the daughter of Cato by his second wife Marcia.

355 Jerome, apparently, makes a mistake here. Valeria, sister of the Messalas, married Sulla towards the end of his life. Valeria, the widow of Galerius, after the death of her husband in 311, rejected the proposals of Maximinus. Her consequent sufferings are related by Gibbon in his fourteenth chapter).

356 The Greek philosopher to whom Aristotle bequeathed his library and the originals of his own writings. He died b.c. 287, after being President of the Academy for 35 years. If he were the author of the book here referred to, it is not to be found among his extant writings).

357 Cicero at the beginning of the third book of the De Officiis, makes Cato quote this saying as one frequently in the mouth of Publius Scipio.

358 (
Ph 1,23 Ph 1,

359 We hear very little of the two sons of Moses, Getshorn and Eliezer. See Ex 4,20, Ex 18,3, 1Ch xxiii. 14. Their promotion is nowhere recorded, and Moses appointed a person of another tribe to be his successor.

360 See 1S 8,1–4 and ch. 1 Sam. ix.

361 b.c. 46. “What grounds for displeasure she had given him besides her alleged extravagance it is hard to say. His letters to her during the previous year had been short and rather cold.” Watson, Select Letters of Cicero. third ed. p. 397.

362 Hirtius was the friend personal and political of Julius Caesar, and during Caesar’s absence in Africa he lived principally at his Tusculan estate which adjoined Cicero’s villa. Hirtius and Cicero though opposed to each other in politics were on good terms, and the former is said to have received lessons in oratory from the latter.

632 363 But not long after divorcing Terentia he married Publilia, a young girl of whose property he had the management, in order to relieve himself from pecuniary difficulties. She seems to have received little affection from her husband. Watson, p. 397.

364 This statement is without authority. See Long’s Article on Sallust in Smith’s Dict. of Classical Biography.

365 Caecilia Metella, the third of Sulla’s five wives, had previously been married to M. Aemilius Scaurus, consul b.c. 115. She fell ill during the celebration of Sulla’s triumph on account of his victory over Mithridates in 81; and as her recovery was hopeless, Sulla for religious reasons divorced her. She soon afterwards died, and Sulla honoured her memory with a splendid funeral.

366 The famous dictator claimed the name Felix for himself in a speech which he delivered to the people at the close of the celebration of his triumph, because he attributed his success in life to the favour of the gods.

367 But Sulla’s youth and manhood were disgraced by the most sensual vices. He was indebted for a considerable portion of his wealth to a courtesan Nicopolis, and his death in b.c. 78 at the age of 60 was hastened by his dissolute mode of life.

368 Pompey, like Sulla, was married five times. Mucia, his third wife, daughter of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, consul b.c. 95, was divorced by Pompey in 62, and afterwards married M. Aemilius Scaurus, son of the consul by Caecilia and thus stepson of Sulla.

369 Born b.c. 234. died b.c. 149. He was the great-grandfather of Cato of Utica.

370 b.c. 382–336.

371 b.c. 385–322).

372 Born about b.c. 480 at Leontini in Sicily. He is said to have lived 105, or even 109 years. He was held in high esteem at Athens, where he had numerous distinguished pupils and imitators.

373 An Athenian tragic poet, celebrated for his wit.

633 374 See the Andromache.

375 There were two cities of this name, Leptis Magna and Parva, in N. Africa.

376 Or “on another day,” that is, than the marriage day implied in the context.

377 Terence Hecyra II. 1,4.

378 Bk I. ch 8. “Candaules addressed Gyges as follows: ‘Gyges, as I think you do not believe me when I speak of my wife’s beauty (for the ears of men are naturally more incredulous than their eyes), you must contrive to see her naked.0’ But he, exclaiming loudly, answered: ‘Sire, what a snocking proposal do you make, bidding me behold my queen naked! With her clothes a woman puts off her modesty,0’” etc.

379 Perhaps Terence, Phormio I, iii. 21.

380 For these legends, see Classical Dict.

381 The most distinguished disciple and the intimate friend of Epicurus. His philosophy appears to have been of a more sensual kind than that of his master. He made perfect happiness to consist in having a well-constituted body. He died b.c. 277 in the 53rd year of his age, 7 years before Epicurus.

382 Chrysippus (b.c. 280–207) the Stoic philosopher, born at Soli in Cilicia. He opposed the prevailing scepticism and maintained the possibility of attaining certain knowledge. It was said of him “that if Chrysippus had not existed the Porch (i.e., Stoicism) could not have been.” He is reported to have seldom written less than 500 lines a-day, and to have left behind him 705 works.

383 That is Zeus, regarded as presiding over marriages and the tutelary god of races or families.

384 Literally, “Jupiter who causes to stand”: hence Jerome’s play upon the word. Jupiter Stator was the god regarded as supporting, preserving, etc. Cic., Cat. I. 13, 31—“quem (sc. Jovem) statorem hujus urbis atque imperil vere nominamus.”

634 385 The greater number of manuscripts read Sextus, an alternative name for the same person. Jerome in his version of the Chronicon of Eusebius speaks of “Xystus a Pythagorean philosopher” who flourished at the time of Christ’s birth; but there is great difficulty in establishing the identity of the author of the “Sentences.” See also the Prolegomena to Rufinus who translated the Sentences of Xystus, in Vol. III. of this Series.

386 See note above, p. 382.

387 Daughter of P. Scipio Africanus, and wife of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, censor b.c. 169. The people erected a statue to her with the inscription “Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi.”

388 See note p. 376.

389 Wife of Tarquinius Priscus.

390 Theano was the most celebrated of the female philosophers of the Pythagorean school. According to some authorities she was the wife of Pythagoras.

391 Cleobuline, or Cleobule, was celebrated for her riddles in hexameter verse. One on the subject of the year runs thus—“A father has 12 children, and each of these 30 daughters, on one side white, and on the other side black, and though immortal they all die.”

392 Timoclia was a woman of Thebes, whose house at the capture of the city in b.c. 335 was broken into and pillaged by the soldiery. She was herself violated by the commander, whom she afterwards contrived to push into a well.

393 A vestal virgin who proved her innocence of the unchastity imputed to her by setting free a stranded ship with her girdle.

394 The epithet is said to have been given to the goddess at the time when Coriolanus was prevented by the entreaties of the women from destroying Rome.

395 The name for any Korean priest devoted to the service of one particular god. He took his distinguishing title from the deity to whom he ministered, e.g. Flamen Martialis.

635 396 Comp. Tertullian De Monogamia, last chapter—“Fortunae, inquit, muliebri coronam non imponit, nisi univira …Pontifex Maximus et Flaminica (the wife of a Flamen) nubunt semel.”

397 See Origen, Contra Celsum, Bk. VII. The water hemlock, or cowbane, is the variety referred to).

1 This, according to 1,3, is “cannot be overthrown.”

2 (1Jn 3,9,
1Jn 3,10 1Jn 3,

3 (1Jn 5,18 1Jn 5,

4 (1Jn 5,21 1Jn 5,

5 (1Jn 1,8 sq.

6 (Is 65,5 Is 65, from memory. The LXX and Vulg. have like A. V. and Rev., “Come not near me.”

7 (1Jn 2,1).

8 (2Co 6,14, 2Co 6,15 2Co 6,

9 (Ps 51,12 Ps 51,

636 10 (1Jn 2,4 1Jn 2,

11 (1Jn 14,6 1Jn 14,

12 (Jc 2,26 Jc 2,

13 Jerome is perhaps hinting at the opinions of Jovinianus, that there was no other distinction between men than the grand division into righteous and wicked, and drawing from this the inference that whoever had been truly baptized had nothing further to gain by progress in the Christian life.

14 1P 2,22.

15 (Jc 3,2,

16 (Jb 14,4 Jb 14,5, Sept.

17 (Pr 20,9,

18 (Ps 51,5,

19 (Jb 9,20 Jb 9,30,

20 (1Jn 2,1 1Jn 2,2,

21 S. Jn 13,10.

22 S. Mt 16,18.

23 S. Lc 21,31.

24 S. Mt 6,12.

637 25 (1Co 9,27 1Co 9,

26 (2Co 12,7).

27 (2Co 11,3 2Co 11,

28 (2Co 2,10, 2Co 2,11 2Co 2,

29 (1Co 10,13 1Co 10,

30 (1Co 10,12 1Co 10,

31 (Ga 5,7 Ga 5,

32 (1Th 2,18 1Th 2,

33 (1Co 7,5 1Co 7,

34 (Ga 5,16, Ga 5,17 Ga 5,

35 (Ep 6,12 Ep 6,

638 36 (He 6,4 sq.

37 Various dates, ranging between a.d. 126 and a.d. 173, are assigned to the origin of Montanism. In addition to the tenet, that the church has no power to remit sin after baptism (though the power was claimed for the Montanistic prophets) and that some sins exclude for ever from the communion of the saints on earth, although the mercy of God may be extended to them hereafter, Montanus held second marriages to be no better than adultery, proscribed military service and secular life in general, denounced profane learning and amusements of every kind, advocated extreme simplicity of female dress, practised frequent and severe fasting, and inculcated the most rigorous asceticism. The sect produced a great effect on the church and lasted until the sixth century. As is well known, Tertullian in middle life lapsed into Montanism, and he was the most distinguished of its champions. Montanism has been described as an anticipation of the mediaeval system of Rome.

38 The founder of the schism which afterwards bore the name of Novatian was Novatus, a presbyter of Carthage who went to Rome (about a.d. 250) and there co-operated with Novatianus, one of the most distinguished of the clergy of that city. The Novatianists, whose doctrines were near akin in many respects to those of Montanists, assumed the name of Cathari, or Puritans.

39 (He 6,9 He 6,

40 (Jc 1,12 sq).

41 (Si 27,5 Si 27,

42 (Si 2,1 Si 2,

43 (Jc 1,22 sq.

44 (Jc 2,10 Jc 2,

45 (Rm 11,32 Rm 11,
46 (2P 2,9 2P 2,
47 (2P 2,17, 2P 2,18 2P 2,

48 (Pr 16,5 Pr 16,

639 49 Apoc. 2,2 sq.

50 (
Mt 11,13 Mt 11,

51 (1Co 10,ix.

52 (Ps 26,1, Ps 26,2 Ps 26,

53 (Ps 51,1 Ps 51,

54 (2Ch 33,12, 2 Chron. xxxiii. 13).

55 (2R 23,29 sq. 2Ch xxxv. 20 sq.

56 (Za 3,1 sq.

57 Nb 20,13. Ps 106,32.

58 (Jb 5,17 Jb 5,

59 (Jb 7,1 Jb 7,

640 60 Jerome blends two passages, Is. xiv. 12 (in which the Sept. reading is “that sendest to;” R. V. “didst lay low”) and Ez 28,13 sq. In the passage from Isaiah the king of Babylon is compared to Lucifer, i.e. the shining one, the morning star, whose movements the Babylonians had been the first to record. See Sayce, Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments, p. 178, and Cheyne’s Isaiah. The subject of Ezekiel’s prophecy is the Prince of Tyre.

61 (
Lc 10,18 Lc 10,

62 (Jb 40,16, Jb 40,21 Jb 40, V. “He lieth under the lotus trees, in the covert of the reed and the fen.”

63 (Jb 41,34 Jb 41, R. V. “King over the sons of pride.”

64 (Jb 41,13 sq. R. V. for the latter part of the verse has “Round about his teeth is terror, his strong scales are his pride.” Jerome’s words are not found in the existing Septuagint.

65 The Septuagint omits much in this portion of the Book of Job.

66 xli. 27.

67 That is, deriving jumenta from juvo. The derivation, however, is from jungo.

68 (Ps 8,5 sq.

69 The Italian beccafico).

70 1 Rm 14,20: 1Tm 4,5.

641 71 (1Tm 4,3 1Tm 4,

72 Castum. Another reading is Cossum i.e. wood-worms, which were considered a delicacy in Pontus and Phrygia. The reading Castum is supported by Tert., De Iejun. cap. 16: In nostris xerophagiis blasphemias ingerens. Casto Isidis et Cybeles eos adaequas. Compare Arnob. Bk. V., and Jerome’s Letter 107,ad Laetam c. 10, and below c. 7.

73 See note on p. 383.

74 That is, of Side in Pamphylia. He lived in the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Plus, a.d. 117–161. Only two fragments remain of his Greek poem in forty-two books.

75 (He appears to be Flavius the Grammarian to whom reference is made in the Book on Illustrious Men, chap. 80:—Firmianus, quiet Lactantius, Arnobii discipulus, sub Diocletiano principe accitus cure Flavio grammatico, cujus de Medicinalibus versu compositi exstant libri, etc.

76 Born a.d. 23. His Historia Naturalis embraces astronomy, meteorology, geography, mineralogy, zoölogy, and botany and comprises according to the author’s own account 20,000 matters of importance drawn from 2,000 volumes.

77 A native of Cilicia, who probably lived in the second century of the Christian era. He was a Greek physician and wrote a treatise on Materia Medica, in 5 books, which is still extant).

78 (2Co 12,14 2Co 12,

79 (2Co 4,16 2Co 4,

80 (Ph 1,23 Ph 1,

81 (Rm 13,14 Rm 13,

642 82 (Mt 10,9, Mt 19,21, Mc vi. 8.

83 (Mt 19,21 Mt 19,

84 Cor. 15,85.

85 (1Co 6,13 1Co 6,

86 That is, the wood-worm just referred to.

87 Pannonia, of which Valens also was a native.

88 This name, which signifies dwellers in caves, was applied by Greek geographers to various peoples, but especially to the uncivilized inhabitants of the west coast of the Red Sea, along the shores of Upper Egypt and Aethiopia. The whole coast was called Troglodytice.

89 In 376 the Goths were driven out of their country by the Huns. They were allowed by Valens to cross the Danube, but war soon broke out and the emperor was defeated with great slaughter on Aug. 9, 378).

90 The Sarmatians dwelt on the N. E. of the Sea of Azov, E. of the river Don.

91 They were located in the S. E. of Germany.

92 The name given to the great confederacy of German peoples who in a.d. 409 traversed Germany and Gaul, and invaded Spain. In 429 they conquered all the Roman dominions in Africa, and in 455 they plundered Rome. Their kingdom was destroyed by Belisarius in 535.

643 93 A people of Central Asia. Cyrus the Great was slain in an expedition against them.

94 On the Oxus near its entrance into the Caspian Sea.

95 An agricultural people on the W. coast of Pontus.

96 Hyrcania was a province of the Persian Empire, on the S. and S. E. shores of the Caspian or Hyrcanian Sea Jerome draws many of these details from the treatise of Porphyry Peri apoch" emyuciwn.

97 Antinous was drowned in the Nile). a.d. 122. The emperor’s grief was so great that he enrolled his favourite amongst the gods, caused a temple to be erected to his honour at Mantines, and founded the city of Antinoopolis.

98 Ter. Eunuch. 4,5, 6.

99 (
Jr 9,21 Jr 9,

100 An Egyptian perfuming powder.

101 Probably an ointment made from the grape of the wild vine).

102 The celebrated Cynic philosopher. He died at Corinth, at the age of nearly 90, b.c. 323.

103 Academia was a piece of land on the Cephisus about three-quarters of a mile from Athens, originally belonging to the hero Academus. Here was a Gymnasium with plane and olive plantations, etc. Plato had a piece of land in the neighbourhood; here he taught, and after him his followers, who were hence called Academici. Cicero called his villa Academia.

644 104 Flourished about b.c. 320. Though heir to a large fortune he renounced it all, and lived and died as a true Cynic. He was called the “door-opener,” because it was his practice to visit every house at Athens and rebuke its inmates.

105 A common form of Gnostic error revived many centuries afterwards by the Anabaptists.

106 (
1Tm 5,6 1Tm 5,

107 See Cicero, Repub. Bk. III.

108 Sallust). In Cat. ch. 1.

109 (Pr 20,1).

110 The most celebrated physician of antiquity. Born about b.c. 460, died about 357.

111 Born at Pergamum a.d. 130, died probably in the year 200. His writings are considered to have had a more extensive influence on medical science than even those of Hippocrates.

112 Fabricius was censor in b.c. 275, and devoted himself to repressing the prevalent taste for luxury. The story of his expelling from the Senate P. Cornelius Rufinus because he possessed ten pounds’ weight of silver-plate is well-known.

113 Curius Dentatus, Consul b.c. 200 with P. Cornelius Rufinus to whom allusion has just been made, was no less distinguished for simplicity of life than was Fabricius. He was censor b.c. 272).

114 Ep. Lib. I. ep. 2.

645 115 Or, “an ante-room to the closet”—Meditatorium. Comp. Tertullian, Treatise on Fasting, ch. 6.

116 The Peripatetic philosopher, geographer, and historian, a disciple of Aristotle and the friend of Theophrastus.

117 Chaeremon was chief librarian of the Alexandrian library. He afterwards became one of Nero’s tutors.

118 Wars, Book II., ch. 8,2 sq.; Antiquities, Bk. xviii I. 2 sq. Josephus nowhere says that the Essenes abstained from flesh and wine, or fasted daily. Philo commends them for so doing. Jerome here, as above, borrows from Porphyry. The “Wars of the Jews or History of the Destruction of Jerusalem,” are here called the “History of the Jewish Captivity.”

119 Philo the Jew. His exact date cannot be given; but he was advanced in years when he went to Rome (a.d. 40) on his famous embassy in behalf of his countrymen.

120 Neanthes lived about b.c. 241. He was a voluminous writer, chiefly on historical subjects.

121 There were many physicians of this name.

122 The sun-god of the Persians.

123 Supposed to be the same as the Bardesanes born at Edessa in Mesopotamia, who flourished in the latter half of the second century. Jerome again refers to him in the book on Illustrious Men, c. 33).

124 Xenocrates was born b.c. 396, died b.c. 314.

125 Triptolemus was the legendary inventor of the plough and of agriculture.

646 126 Poems ascribed to the mythical Orpheus are quoted by Plato. The extant poems which bear his name are forgeries of Christian grammarians and philosophers of the Alexandrine school; but some fragments of the old Orphic poetry are said to be remaining.

127 Antisthenes was the founder of the Cynic philosophy. He was a devoted disciple of Socrates and flourished about b.c. 366.

128 The distinguished Peripatetic philosopher and historian. He lived, probably, about the time of Ptolemy Philopator (b.c. 222–205).

129 (Gn 6,3,
Gn 6,5).

130 (Gn 8,21, Gn 9,3.

131 (Ex 16,3 Ex 16,

132 Nb 11,4–6.

133 (Dt 32,15 Dt 32, (dilectus). Correctly Jeshurun, that is, the Upright, name of Israel.

134 (Dt 8,12–14.

135 The curious custom of representing Moses with horns arose from a mistake in the Vulgate rendering. The Hebrew verb lwQ

, to emit rays, is derived from a word which, meaning mostly a horn, has in the dual the signification rays of light. See Ha 3,4.

136 Luc. 9,31.

647 137 (Ex 17,8 Ex 17,

138 (Jos 10,13 Jos 10,

139 (1S 14,24 1S 14, “entered into the wood.” The English version follows the Hebrew. The Sept). hrista (Jerome’s prandebat) is perhaps only a repetition of the preceding thought. Another rendering inserts the negative, ouk hrista.

Jerome 582