Basil: letters, hexaemeron - II. WORKS

Sir Thomas Brown (Vulgar Erros) denies the use of a kingfisher as a weather-guage, but says nothing as to the "halcyon days." Kingfishers are rarely seen in the open sea, but haunt estuaries which are calm without any special miracle. Possibly the halcyon was a tern or sea-swallow, which resembles a kingfisher, but they brood on land.

30 Arist., H.A. 9,7).

31 Ar. 6,6 and 9,34. "Melanaetos. . . sola aquilarum foetus suos alit; ceterae. . . fugant." Plin. 10,3. "Pariunt ova terna: excludunt pullos binos: visi sunt et tres aliquando." id. 4, following Musaeus (apud Plutarch, In Mario, p. 426)). w J" triva me;n tivktei, duvo dj eÖn dj aAElegizei. On the osprey, see Arist., H.A. 9,44 and Pliny loc. "Nidos nemo attigit: ideo etiam fuere qui putarent illos ex adverso orbe advolare, nidificant enim in excelsissimis rupibus." cf. also Aelian, ii. 46: gu`pa de; a[rrena ou[ fasi givgnesqaiv pote a Jllav qhleiva" a Jpavso".

32 Arist., Hist. An. 6,6 and 9,15. So Pliny 10,vii. “Nidos nemo attigit: ideo etiam fuere qui putarent illos ex adverso orbe advolare, nidificant enim ix excelsissimis rupibus.” cf. also Aelian, 2,46: gu>;pa de; a[rrena ou[ fasi givgnesqaiv pote aVlla; qhleiva" aJpavsa".

33 This analogy is repeated almost in identical words in Basil’s Hom. 22,De Providentia). cf. also his Com. on Isaiah. St. Ambrose repeats the illustration (Hex. 20). The analogy, even if the facts were true, would be false and misleading. But it is curious to note that were any modern divine desirous of here following in Basil’s track, he might find the alleged facts in the latest modern science, - e.g. in the so-called Parthenogenesis, or virginal reproduction, among insects, as said to be demonstrated by Siebold. Haeckel (Hist. of Creation, Lankester’s ed. ii. p. 198) represents sexual reproduction as quite a recent development of non-sexual reproduction.

34 cf. note on p. 70.

35 The Greek word sterevwma, from stereov", strong, is traceable to the root star, to spread out, and so indirectly associated with the connotation of the Hebrew rakia.

36 Arist., H.A. 8,75. Pliny x. 43. "Lusciniis diebus ac noctibus continuis quindecim garrulus sine intermissu cantus, desante se frondium germine, non in novissimum digna miratu ave."

37 (So also Basil in Hom. on Isaiah iii. 447). cf. Pliny 10,81, "cui et membranaceae pinnae uni."

38 cf. Livy 5,42 and Plutarch, Camillus, or Verg. 8,655. The alternative tradition of the mine is preserved by Servius.

39 cf. Aelian, H.A. 2,46). kai; mevntoi kai; tai`" e Jkdhvmoi" stratiai`" evpontai lu`pe" kai; mavla ge mantikw`" o(ti eiAE" povlemon cwru`sin eiAEdovte" kai; o(ti mavch pa`soe eAErgavzetai nekrou;: kai; tou`to eAEgnwkovte".

cf. Pliny 10,88: "vultures sagacius odorantur."

40 cf. Galen. 6,3.

41 Fialon, quoting the well known ode of Anakreon, "makapivzomevn oe tevttix," and Plato’s theory of the affection of grasshoppers and the muses in the Phaedrus, contrasts the "cantu querulae rumpent arbusta ciacadae" of Vergil (George. 52,328) and points out that the Romans did not share the Greed admiration for the grasshopper’s song.

42 "Insecta multi negarunt spirare, idque ratione persuadentes, quoniam in viscera interiora nexus spirabilis non inesset. Itaque vivere ut fruges, arboresque: sed plurimum interesse spiret aliquid an vivat. Eadem de causa nec sanguinem iis esse qui sit nullis carentibus corde atque jecore. Sic nec spirare ea quibus pulmo deist unde numerosa series quaestionum exoritur. Iidem enim et ovcem esse his negant, in tanto murmure apium, cicadarum sono . . . nec video cur magis possint non trahere animam talia, et vivere, quam spirare sine visceribus." Plin. 11,2.

43 Arist., De Part. An. 4,12.

44 This word is curiously rendered by Eustathius verucae and by Ambrose caulis. Garnier (Praef. in Bas. 28) thinks that the latter perhaps found in some corrupt ms. kravmbn=hn for kavmphn.

45 Arist., H.A. 5,19).

46 (Ps 37,4 Ps 37,

47 (Ps 19,9 and 10, LXX.

48 (Ps 19,10 Ps 19,

49 The kuvboi were marked on all six sides, the aAEstravgaloi on only four, the ends being rounded.

50 With Basil’s description of the gaming tables, presumably of Caesarea, cf. Ovid’s of those of Rome:

"LIra subit, deforme malum, lucrique cupido;

Furgiaque et rixae, sollicitusque dolor.

Crimina dicuntur, resonat clamoribus aether,

Invocat iratos et sibi quisque deos,

Et lacrymis vidi saepe madere genis.

De A.A. iii. 373 seqq

51 "Cernis ut ignavnum corrumpant otia corpus." Ovid, I). Pont. 6. "Facito aliquid operis ut semper Diablous inveniat ie occupatum. Jerome, In R. Monach.

1 (2R 4,39,

2 Fialon thinks that this plain reference to Origen may have been evoked by some criticisms on the IIIrd Homily. (cf. p. 71) St. Basil’s literalism and bold departure from the allegorizing of Origen and from the milder mysticism of Eusebius are remarked on in the Prolegomena.

3 (Rm 1,16 Rm 1,

4 qalh`" kai; oi Stwi[koi; kai; oi J aAEpj auAEtw`n sfairoeidh` th;n gh`n. jAnaxivmandro" livqw kivoni th;n gh`n prosferh` tw`n epipevdwn). [Aaximevnh", trapezoeidh`. Aeuvkippo", tumpanoeidh". Dhmovkrito", diskoeidh` me;n tw` plavtei, koivlhn de; to; mevson. Plut). peri; tw`n aAEresk. iii. 10. Arist. (De. Coelo 2,14) follows Thales. So Manilus I. 235:

"(Ex quo colligitur terrarum forma rotunda."

5 Gen 1,24.

6 cf. note on Hom. 5,p. 76.

7 "Sed, si quaeque suo ritu procedit, et omnes

Faedere naturae certo discrimina servant." Luc. 5,921

8 cf. Plin. 9,84: Verum omnibus his fidem Nili Inundatio affert omnia exedente miraculo: quippe detegente eo musculi reperiuntur inchoato opere genitalis aquae terroeque, jam parte corporis viventes, novissima effigie etiamnum terrena ." So Mela De Nilo 1,9. "Glebis etiam infundit animas, ex ipsoque humo vitalia effing it ," and Ovid, Met. 1,42:

"Sic ubi deseruit madidos septemfluus agros

Nilus, et antiquo sua flumina reddidit alveo,

Aethereoque recens exarsit sidere limus,

Plurima cultores versis animalia glebis Inveniunt."

9 Arist). H.A. 6,16). Ai J eAEgcevlu" givgnontai ek tw`n kaloumevnwn gh`" eAEvtevrwn a) auAEtovmata sunivstatai en tw`phlw` kai; eAEn th` gh` eAEnivkmy. Kai; n)dh eiAEsin wAEmmevnai aiAE me;n eAEkdu;nousai eAEk touvtwn, ai de; eAEn diakvizomevnoi" kai; diairoumevnoi" givgnontai fanepaiv.

10 Arist., Part. An. 4,10, 18). movnon oAErqovn eAEsti tw`n zyvwn o J a[nqowpo".

11 cf. Ps 49,12.

12 (Col 3,1 Col 3,

13 cf. Phil 3,20.

14 (He 12,23).

15 Plut). povt. tw`n. z. K.T.l. celw`nai me;n oAErivganon, galai` de; phvganon, o[tav o[few" favgwsin, eAEpesqivousai.

cf. Pliny 20,68: "Tragoriganum contra viperae ictum efficacissimum."

16 o J dravkwn o J tw` maravqrw to;n oAEfqalmo;n aAEmblnwvptonta leptu;nwn kai; diacaravttwn. Plut). povtepa tw`n z. k.t.l. 731.

17 Ar., Hist. An. 9,6). peri; de th`" tw`n eAEcinwn aivsqh;sew" sumbevbhke pollacou` teqewrh`sqia o[ti metaballontwn bopevwn kai; novtwn oi` me`n eAEn th` gh` ta;" oAEpa;" an Jtw`n metameivbousi oi; dj eAEn tai`" oivkiai" tpefovmenoi metabavllousi pro;" tou`" toivcou".

18 uAEetou` poiei`tai shmei`on o J Arato"

jh) koivlh" muvrmhke" oAEch`" eAEx w[ea pavnta

Qa`sson aAEnhnevgkanto.j

kaitine" ouAEk wAEa; fpavfonsin, aAElla; i[na tou;" aAEpokeimevnou" karpou;" o[tan euAErw`ta sunavgonta" ai[sqwntai kai; fobhqw`si fqopa;n kai; oh`yin aAEnaferovntwn, u Jperbavllei de; pa`san e Jpinoian sunevsew" h J tou` purou` th`" blasthvsew" prokatavlhyi". Plut). pot. tw`n. z. k.t.l. 725.

19 (Ps 104,24 Ps 104,

20 This is the Stoic doctrine. "Stoicorum quidem facilis conclusio est; qui cum finem bonorum esse senserint, congruere naturae, cumque ea convenienter vivere." cf. Cic., De Fin. 3,7, 26, and De Nat. D.i. 14, and Hor., Ep., i. x. 12.. "Vivere naturae si convenienter oporet." So the Stoics’ main rule of life is oAEmologoumevnw" th` fuvsei zh`n. But with Basil this apparent disregard of the doctrine of original sin and the need of grace for redemption must be understood in the light of the catholic doctrine that sin is the corruption of human nature (cf. Art. 9,of Original or Birth Sin), which nature, though corrupt and prone to evil, retains capacities for good. But these capacities do need grace and training). cf. Basil’s Homily on Ps xlv. 166. "What is said about the Saviour had a double sense on account of the nature of the Godhead and the Economy of the incarnation. So, looking to the humanity of God, it is said ’thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity,’ instead of saying ’the rest of men by toil and discipline and careful attention mostly attain a disposition towards good and an aversion from vice. But thou hast a kind of natural relationship to good and alienation from iniquity.’ And so to us, if we will, it is not hard to acquire a love of righteousness and a hatred of iniquity." i.e. In Christ, redeemed humanity loves good, and all men ’naturally’ do need toil and discipline. The heredity of sin is recognised by Basil. (e.g. in Hom. in Famen. 7). Man fell from grace given, and must return to it. (Serm. Ascet. in init). It must always be remembered that questions of original sin, the will, and grace never had the same importance in the Greek as they had in the Latin church). cf. Dr. Travers Smith on St. Basil (c. 9,p. 108) and Böhringer (Das Vierte Fahrhundert. Basil, p. 102) who remarks: Wenner auch noch von einer "Wieder herstellung des freien Willens, den wir zu brauchbaren Gefässen für den Herrn und zu jedem guten Werke fähig Werden" (De spir. sanct. 18) spricht, so hat er dies doch nirgends begründet, obschon er bei der Besprechung der Folgen des Falls zuweilen sich äussert, es sei der Mensch der von dem Schöpfer erhaltenen Freiheit beraubt worden. Im Allgemeinen setzt er den frein Willen auch nach dem Fall im Menschen so gut wieder Voraus, wie vor dem Fall, so dass jene Aeusserungen kaum mehr als den Werth einer Redensart haben. Im Ganzen eriunert seine Darstellung wieder an diejenige des Athanasius, dessen Einfluss Man nicht verkennen kann).

21 In Ep 6,the word is "obey."

22 cf. Ep 6,4.

23 Fialon quotes Luc. 2,367–370:

"Praeterea teneri tremulis cum vocibus haedi

Cornigeras norunt matres, agnique petulci

Balantum pecudes: ita, quod natura reposcit,

Ad sua quisque fere decurrunt ubera lactis."

24 cf. Ovid (Halieut. ad init).:

Accepti mundus legim; dedit arma per omnes,

Admonuuitque sui. Vitulus sic namque minatur,

Qui nondum gerit in tenera jam cornua fronte."

25 cf. Plutarch (pot. twn k.t.l. 726)). oi; de; dialektikol fasi to;n kuvna tw` dia; pleiovnwn diezeugmevnw cpwvmenon eAEn toi`spoluscidevsin aAEtpapoi`" aullogizesqai pro;" e Jauto;n h[toi thvnde to;qhrivon w[pmhken h) thvde h) thvnde : aAElla; mh;n ou[te thvnde ou[te thvnde, thvde loipo;n a[pa. But the dog is said to smell the first, the second, and the third. If he started off on the third without smelling, he would reason. As it is, there is no "syllogism."

26 Also take from Plutarch (povteoa tw`n z. 726), who tells stories of a dog found by King Pyrrhus on a journey, and of Hesiod’s dog).

27 cf. Herod. 3,108. Aristotle (Hist. An. 31) refutes this.

28 cf. Pliny (x. 72): "Tertia die intra utrum catulos excludit, deinde singulos singulis diebus parit, viginti fere numero. Itaque ceterae, tardiatis impatientes, perrumpunt latera, occisa parente). cf. Herod. 3,109.

(So Prundentius (Hamartigenia 583):

 "Sic vipera, ut aiunt,

 Dentibus emoritur fusae per viscera prolis."

See Sir T. Browne’s Vulgur Errors, 3,16 .

29 Pliny (xi. 78) says ruminantibus geminus , but is supposed to be a misreading for quadrigeminus, or ma mistaken interpretation of Aristotle (H.A. 2,19), whom Basil is no doubt following.

30 See Sir T. Browne, Vulgar Errors, iii. 1.

31 Arist). H.A. 8,12 and 9,72. Pliny 7,10.

32 cf). Hom. v. 4).

33 cf. Ps 91,13.

34 cf. St. Mt 7,3.

35 cf. Ps. cxxxix. 14.

36 "E Coelo descendit gvw`qi seautovn" (Juv. 11,27). Socrates, Chilo, Thales, Cleobulus, Bias, Pythagoras, have all been credited with the saying. "L’église chrétienne s’en empara comme de tout ce qu’elle trouvait de grand et de bon dans l’ancienne grèce. Fialon.

St. Basil has a Homily on the text provsece seautw` (Dt 15,9 Dt 15, .

37 (Gn 1,26 Gn 1,

38 cf. He 1,2, 3.

39 (Ph 3,2 Ph 3,

40 The Arians.

41 (He 1,3 He 1,

42 (Col 1,15 Col 1,

43 (Jn 10,30 Jn 10,

44 (Jn 14,9 Jn 14,

45 to; aAEnovmoion. Arius had taught that the Persons are aAEnovmoioi pavmpan aAEllhvlwn.

46 (Gn 1,27 Gn 1,

1 Placed in 357.

2 Another ms. reading is "To Eustathius, Presbyter of Antioch." The benedictine note is "Eustathius was not a Presbyter, but a heathen, as is indicated by Basil’s words, ’Are not these things work of fate, - of necessity, as you would say?’"

3 The word tuvch does not occur in the N.T.

4 w" oudeivs jOdusseuv". The Ben. translation is "citius quam quisquam Ulysses." But the reason of the escape of Ulysses was not his speed, but his stopping the ears of his crew with wax and tying himself to the mast). cf. Hom). Od. 12,158. The "city on the Hellespont," is, according to the Ben. note, Constantinople; but Constantinople is more than 100 m. from the Dardanelles, and Basil could hardly write so loosely.

5 Apparently not the Roman Province of Asia, but what we call Asia Minor, a name which came into use in Basil’s century. The "metropolis" is supposed to mean Caesarea).

6 Nuvsio"=jIndikov"). cf. Soph). Aj. 707. Nyssa was in the Punjab.

1 Placed circa 358, on Basil’s retiring to Pontus. Translated in part by Newman, The Church of the Fathers, p. 131, ed. 1840. With the exception of the passages in brackets [ ], the version in the text is that of Newman.

2 (Mt 16,24 Mt 16,

3 gunaiko;" fulakhv, rather "guardianship of his wife."

4 oiAEketw`n psostasivai, rather "protection of his servants."

5 Rather "for just as it is impossible to write on the wax without previously erasing the marks on it, so is it impossible to communicate divine doctrines to the soul without removing from it its preconceived and habitual notions."

6 The following paragraph is altogether omitted by Newman).

7 Rather "season."

8 Omitted by Newman.

9 Clause omitted by Newman.

10 Omitted by Newman.

11 Here Newman notes that Basil seems sometimes to have fallen short of his own ideal. His translation ends at this point).

12 Basil’s admirable little summary of the main principles of conversation may have been suggested by the recollection of many well know writers. On such a subject no wide reader could be original). cf). inter alios, the a[koue pollav lavlei dj oAElina of Bias; the glw`tta mh` protrecevtw tou` vou` of Pittacus. Aulus Gellius (Noct. Att. I. 15), referring to the

Glwvssh" toi Qhsauro;" eAEn aAEnQrwvpoisin a[pisto"

Feidwlh`" pleivsth de` cavpi" kata; mevtron iAEouvsh"

of Hesiod, says: "Hesiodus poetarum prudentissimus linguam non vulgandam sed recondendam esse dicit, perinde ut thesaurum. Ejusque esse in promendo gratiam pluriman, si modesta et parca et modulata sit."

On the desirability of gentleness in blame, cf. Ambrose, In Lucam.: "Plus proficit amica correctio quam accusatio turbulenta: illa pudorem incutit, haec indignationem movet."

13 This was the mark of the old heathen philosophers). cf. Aristoph., Birds 1282, eAErruvpwn eAEswkravtwn.

14 aAEskhth;", firstly an artisan, came to = aAEqlhth;", and by ecclesiastical writers is used for hermit or monk. The eAErhmith", or desert dweller, lives either in retreat as an anchoret, or solitary, monacov", whence "monk;" or in common with others, in a koinovbion, as a "coenobite." All would be aAEskhtaiv.

1 Placed at the beginning of the retreat in Pontus.

2 A governor of Cappadocia, friendly to Basil and to Gregory of Nazianzus. (cf. Greg., Ep. cxciv).

3 i.e. the staff or baton used at Sparta for dispatches. The strip of leather on which the communication was to be mad is said to have been rolled slantwise round it, and the message was then written lengthwise. The correspondent was said to have a staff of a size exactly corresponding, and so by rewinding the strip could read what was written). Vide Aulus Gellius 17,9.

4 Plutarch pol. paragg.. 22,h) to; tou` Dhmosqivnou" o[ti nu`n ouAEk e[sti Dhmosqevnh" aAElla` kai` Qesmoqevth" h) corhgo;" h) stefanhfovro").

5 Rep. 6,10). oi|on eAEn ceimw`ni koniortou` kai; zavlh" u;po; pneu;mato" feromevnou u Jpo; teicivon a`posta;".

6 Vide Prolegomena.

1 Placed about 358. Olympius sends Basil a present in his retreat, and he playfully remonstrates.

2 cf. Letters xii., xiii., lxiii., lxiv., and ccxi.

3 The founder of the Stoic school.

4 The tpivbwn, dim). tribw;nion, or worn cloak, was emblematic of the philosopher and later of the monk, as now the cowl). cf. Lucian, Pereg. 15, and Synesius, Ep. 147.

5 Cleanthes, the Lydian Stoic, was hence called frevantlo", or well drawer. On him vide Val. Max. 8,7 and Sen., Ep. 44.

1 Placed about 358.

2 cf. Letter 290. The identification of the two Nectarii is conjectural. "Tillemont is inclined to identify Basil’s correspondent with the future bishop of Constantinople, but without sufficient grounds." D.C.B. see).

3 cf. Lc 13,16 and 2Co 12,7.

4 cf. Lm 2,18.

5 (Jb 1,21 Jb 1,

1 To be placed with Letter V.

2 i.e. from his knowledge of what Emmelia had been to him. Yet to the celibate the wife of Nectarius might have anticipated the well known retort of Constance to Pandulph in King John).

3 (Mt 10,29 Mt 10,

4 2 Mac. 7,

1 i.e. Gregory of Nazianzus.

1 This important letter was written a.d. 360, when Basiil, shocked at the discovery that Dianius, the bishop who had baptized him, had subscribed the Arian creed of Ariminum, as revised at Nike (Theod., Hist. Ecc. II. xvi)., left Caesarea, and withdrew to his friend Gregory at Nazianzus. The Benedictine note considers the traditional title an error, and concludes the letter to have been really addressed to the monks of the Coenobium over which Basil had presided. But it may have been written to monks in or near Caesarea, so that title and sense will agree.

2 patriv" seems to be used of the city or neighbourhood of Caesarea, and so far to be in favour of Basil’s birth there).

3 i.e. the life of the city, presumably Nazianzus, from which he is writing.

4 cf. the Arian formula h\n pote; o(te ouAEk h\n.

5 (Jn 4,14 Jn 4,

6 (Jr 2,13 Jr 2,

7 cf. p. 16, note. This is one of the few instances of St. Basil’s use of the word qeov" of the Holy Ghost.

8 For the four elements of ancient philosophy modern chemistry now catalogues at least sixty-seven. Of these, earth generally contains eight; air is a mixture of two; water is a compound of two; and fire is the visible evidence of a combination between elements which produces light and heat. On the "elements" of the Greek philosophers vide Arist., Met.i. 3. Thales (†c. 550). b.c.) said water; Anaximenes (†c). b.c. 480) air; and Heraclitus (†c). b.c. 500) fire. To these Empedocles (who "ardentem frigidus Aetnam insiluit, c). b.c. 440) added a fourth, earth.

9 Asserted at Seleucia and Ariminum.

10 cf). D. Sp. S. § 4 on Aetius’ responsibility for the Anomoean formula).

11 ro; oAEmoouvsion.

12 (Ps 82,6 Ps 82,

13 (Ps xcvi. 5, LXX.

14 (2Co 12,4 2Co 12,

15 (Ps 102,15 Ps 102,

16 (1Tm 6,16 1Tm 6,

17 (Rm 16,27 Rm 16,

18 (Lc 18,19 Lc 18,

19 (Jb 9,8 Jb 9,

20 (Dt 6,13, LXX., where the text runs kuvsion to;n qeovn sou fobhqhvsh. St. Basil may quote the version in Mt iv. 10 and Lc 4,8, psoskunhvsei". The Hebrew=fear.

21 (Dt 32,39, LXX.

22 (Dt 32,12, LXX.

23 (1S 7,4,

24 (1Co 8,5, 6.

25 (Mt 16,19 Mt 16,

26 i.e. of His work on earth as God manifest in the flesh). Vide note, p. 7.

27 (Jn 17,3 Jn 17,

28 (Jn 14,1 Jn 14,

29 cf. note, p. 7.

30 (Jn 6,5y, R.V. The Greek is eAEgw; zw` dia; to;n patevpa , i.e. not through or by the Father, but "because of" or "on account of" the Father. "The preposition (Vulg). propter patrem’>) describes the ground or object, not the instrument or agent (by, through dia; tou` p).. Complete devotion to the Father is the essence of the life of the Son; and so complete devotion to the Son is the life of the believer. It seems better to give this full sense to the word than to take it as equivalent to ’by reason of;’ that is, ’I live because the Father lives.’" Westcott, St. John ad loc.

31 (Jn 11,25).

32 (Jn 6,57, R.V.

33 With this striking exposition of Basil’s view of the spiritual meaning of eating the flesh and drinking the blood, f. the passage from Athanasius quoted by Bp. Harold Browne in his Exposition of the XXXIX. Articles, p. 693. It is not easy for Roman commentators to cite passages even apparently in support of the less spiritual view of the manducation, e.g. Fessler, Inst. Pat. i. 530, and the quotations under the word "Eucharistia," in the Index of Basil ed Migne. Contrast Gregory of Nyssa, in chap 37,of the Greater Catechism.

34 (Jn 14,28 Jn 14,

35 (Jn 1,14 Jn 1,

36 (Ps 8,5 Ps 8,

37 (He 2,9 He 2,

38 Isa 53,2, 3. LXX.

39 cf. Lc 10,30.

40 (Jn 1,3 Jn 1,

41 tou`to oiAEkonomei`.

42 tw` stenw th`" proqesmiva". n J proqesmiva sc). h Jmevra was in Attic Law a day fixed beforehand before which money must be paid, actions brought, etc). cf. Plat). Legg, 954, D. It is the "time appointed" of the Father in Ga 4,2.

43 oivkonouei`.

44 (Ac 1,7 Ac 1,

45 cf. Jn 15,3, "Now ye are clean through the word."

46 (Mc 13,32 Mc 13,

47 The Ben. note is Totahaec explicandi ratio no sua sponte deducta, sed vi pertracta multis videbitur. Sed illud ad excusandum difficilius, quod ait Basilius angelorum scientiam crassam esse, si comparetur cum ea quae est facie ad faciem. Videtur subtilis explicatio, quam nic sequitur, necessitatem ei imposuisse ita de angelis sentiendi. Nam cum diem et horam idem esse statueret, ac extremam beatitudinem; illud Scriptura, sed neque angeli sciunt, cogebat illis visionem illam quae fit facie ad faciem, denegare; quia idem de illis non poterat dici ac de Filio eos de se ipsis scire id quod sunt nescire quod non sunt. Quod si hanc hausit opinionem ex origenis fontibus, qui pluribus locis eam insinuat, certe cito deposuit. Ait enim tom P. p. 320). Angelo" in divinum faciem continenter intento" oculo" habere. Idem docet in Com. Is. p. 515, n. 185, et De Sp. S. cap. XVI.

48 dia; tw`n aAEllotrivwn). cf. 1Co 13,12, where St. Paul’s word is e[soptpon. St. Basil’s kavtoptron may rather be suggested by 2Co 3,18, where the original is katoptrizovmenoi.

49 (Jn 6,40 Jn 6,

50 kovsmwn. The Ben. note quotes Combefis as saying, "Dura mihihic vox: sit pro stoiceivwn, per cognata corpori elementa," and then goes on, sed hac in re minus vidit vir eruditus; non enim idem sonat illa vox ac mundi, quasi plures ejusmodi mundos admittat Basilius; sed idem ac ornatus, sive ut ait Basilius in Epist. 6,ta; pepi; gh`n kavllh, pulchritudines quae sunt circa terram. In Com. in Is. n. 58, p. 422). Ecclesia dicitur prevpousin e Jauth` kosmivoi" kekosmhuevnh, convenientibus sibi ornamentis instructa eadem voce utitur Gregorius Nazianz. Ep. cvii.

51 (Jn 14,28 Jn 14,

52 (Mt 20,23). cf. n). Theodoret, p. 28.

53 (1Co 15,24 1Co 15,

54 (Ac 1,6, 7.

55 (Jn 17,21 and 22, slightly varied.

56 Basil also refers to this passage in the treatise, C). Eunomium I. 20: "Since the Son’s origin (aAErch;) is from (avpov) the Father, in this respect the Father is greater, as cause and origin (w J" ai[tio" kai aAEochv). Whence also the Lord said thus my Father is greater than I, clearly inasmuch as He is Father (kaqo; pathvr). Yea; what else does the word Father signify unless the being cause and origin of that which is begotten by Him?" And in 3,1: "The Son is second in order (tavxei) to the Father, because He is from Him (avpov) and in dignity (aAExiwvmati) because the Father is the origin and cause of His being." Quoted by Bp. Westcott in his St. John in the additional notes on 14,16, 28, pp. 211 seqq., where also will be found quotations from other Fathers on this passage).

57 The text of Pr 8,22 in the LXX. is kuvriose[ktoisev me aAErchn o Jdw`n auAEtou` ei" e)oga auAEtou". The rendering of A.V. is "possessed," with "formed" in the margin.

The Hebrew verb occurs some eighty times in the Old Testament, and in only four other passages is translated by possess, viz., Gn 14,19, 22, Ps 139,13, Jer 32,15, and Zec. 11,5. In the two former, though the LXX. renders the word in the Psalms eAEkthvsw, it would have borne the sense of "create." In the pasage under discussion the Syriac agrees with the LXX., and among critics adopting the same view Bishop Wordsworth cites Ewald, Hitzig, and Genesius. The ordinary meaning of the Hebrew is "get" or "acquire," and hence it is easy to see how the idea of getting or possessing passed in relation to the Creator into that of creation. The Greek translators were not unanimous and Aquila wrote eAEkthvsato. The passage inevitably became the Jezreel or Low Countries of the Arian war, and many a battle was fought on it. The depreciators of the Son found in it Scriptural authority for calling Him ktivsma, e.g. Arius in the Thalia, is quoted by Athanasius in Or. c. Ar. I. 3,§ 9, and such writings of his followers as the Letter of Eusebius of Nicomedia to Paulinus of Tyre cited in Theod., Ecc. Hist. I. v., and Eunomius as quoted by Greg. Nyss., c. Eunom. II. 10; but as Dr. Liddon observes in his Bampton Lect. (p. 60, ed. 1868), "They did not doubt that this created Wisdom was a real being or person."

e[ktise was accepted by the Catholic writers, but explained to refer to the manhood only, cf. Eustathius of Antioch, quoted in Theod., Dial. I. The view of Athanasius will be found in his dissertation on the subject in the Second Discourse against the Arians, pp. 357–385 of Schaff & Wace’s edition). xf. Bull, Def. Fid. Nic. II. 6,8.

58 Heb 3,1.

59 cf. 2 Cor. 5,21.

60 (1Co 15,28). i.e. Because the Son then shall be subjected, He is previously a)nupovtakto", not as being "disobedient" (1Tm 1,9), or "unruly" (Tt 1,6 Tt 1,10), but as being made man, and humanity, though subject unto Him, is not yet seen to be "put under Him" (He 2,8).

61 (Ac 9,4 Ac 9,

62 (Mt 25,36 Mt 25,

63 cf. Is 53,4 and Mt 8,17.

64 (Jn 5,19 Jn 5,

65 (2Co 11,5 2Co 11,

66 (Ps 19,91 Ps 19,

67 (Rm 1,4 Rm 1,

68 (Rm 8,2).

69 In Letter cciv. The name of Diavbolo" is more immediately connected with Diabavllein, to caluminate. It is curious that the occasional spelling (e.g. in Burton) Divell, which is nearer to the original, and keeps up the association with Diable, Diavolo, etc., should have given place to the less correct and misleading "Devil."

70 Wisdom 1,7.

71 (Ps 139,7 Ps 139,

72 paraywyh` aAEpo; tou` mhv o[nto" eiAE" to; ei\nai. For paragwghv it is not easy to give an equivalent; it is leading or bringing with a notion of change, sometimes a change into error, as when it means a quibble. It is not quite the Ben. Latin "productio." It is not used intransitively; if there is a paragwgh;, there must be o J paravgwn, and similarly if there is evolution or development, there must be an evolver or developer.

73 (Ps 33,6). tw` pneuvmati tou` stovmato" auAEtou`, LXX.

74 (2Co 5,17 2Co 5,

75 cf. Gn 3,19.

76 cf. Ps 103,30.

77 (1Co 6,19 1Co 6,

78 The Greek word naov" (naivw) = dwelling-place. The Hebrew probably indicates capacity. Pour "temple," from the latin Templum (tevmeno" - TAM) is derivatively a place cut off.

79 (He 3,4 He 3,

80 (Mt 4,10 Mt 4, note on p. .

81 (1Co 2,10, 11. On the derivation of Qeov" from qevw (tivqhmi) or qeavomai, cf. Greg. Naz.

Skeat rejects the theory of connexion with the Latin Deus, and thinks that the root of tiqhmi may be the origin.

82 (Ep 6,17 Ep 6,

83 (Ps 118,16 Ps 118, B. "doeth valiantly," A.V). eAEpoivhse duvna min, LXX.

84 (Ex 15,6 Ex 15,

85 (Lc 11,20 Lc 11,

86 (Mt 12,28).

87 (Mt 5,8 Mt 5,

88 (Lc 17,21, eAEnto;" uAEmw`n. Many modern commentators interpret "in you midst." "among you" So Alford, who quotes Xen., Anab. I. x 3 for the Greek, Bp. Walsham How. Bornemann. Meyer. The older view coincided with that of Basil; so Theophylact, Chrysostom, and with them Olshausen and Godet.

To the objection that the words were said to the Pharisees, and that the kingdom was not in their hearts, it may be answered that our Lord might use "you" of humanity, even when addressing Pharisees. He never, like a merely human preacher, says "we."

89 Wisdom 8,4.

90 (Ps 18,33 Ps 18,

91 cf. Pr 6,6.

92 (Si 11,3 Si 11, ascription of this book to Solomon is said by Rufinus to confined to the Latin church, while the Greeks know it as the Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach (vers. Orig., Hom. in Num. xvii)..

93 Attributed to Cleobulus of Lindos. Thales is credited with the injunction mevtrw cpw`). cf.. my note on Theodoret, Ep. cli. p. 329.

1 To be ascribed to the same period as the preceding.

2 In Lucian (Hermot. 54) the proverb is traced to a story of Pheidias, who, "after a look at a claw, could tell how big the whole lion, formed in proportion would be." A parallel Greed adage was eAEkton` kraspevdou to; pa`n u Jfasma). Vide Leutsch., Corp. Paraemiog. Graec. I. 252.

3 i.e. of Alexandria).

4 i.e. Sabellius. Basil is the first writer who asserts his Aftican birth. In Ep. ccvii. he is "Sabellius the Libyan." His active life was Roman; his views popular in the Pentapolis.

5 ouAE tauto;n tw` u Jpokeimevnw`. Aristotle, Metaph. 6,3, 1, says, mavlista dokei` ei\nai ouAEsiva to; u Jpokeivmenon to; prw`ton. On the distinction between o Jmoouvsio" and tauto;n tw` u Jpokeimevnw, cf. Athan., Exp. Fid. ii., and Greg. Nyss answer to Eunomius, Second Book, p 254 in Schaff and Waces’s ed). Vide also Prolegg. to Athan., p. 31,in this series. Epiphanius says of Noetus, monotuvpw" tun auAEto;n patevra kai; Ui;o;n kai a[gion pneu`ma. . . h Jghsavmeno" (Haeres. 57,2) and of Sabellius, Dogmativzei ou|to" kai; oi J aAEpj auAEtou` Sabellianoi; to;n auAEto;n ei\nai Patevra to;n auAEto;n Uio;n to;n auAEto;n ei\nai a[gion pneu`ma, w J" ei\nai e;n mia` ivpostavsei trei`" oAEnomasiva". (Haeres. 62,i).

6 Sabellius.

7 Dionysius of Rome.

8 o)moion kaij ouAEsivan

9 a[parallavktw".

10 i.e. at the Acacian council of Constantinople in 360, at which fifty bishops accepted the creed of Arminum as revised at Nike, proscribing ou;sia and i povsrasi", and pronounced the Son to be "like the Father, as say the Holy Scriptures." cf. Theod. II. 16,and Soc. II. 41,In 366 Semiarian deputies from the council of Lampsacus represented to Liberius at Rome that kata; pavnta o]moio" and oAEmoouvsio" were equivalent.

11 lavqe biwvoa" is quoted by Theodoret in Ep. 62,as a saying of"one of the men once called wise." It is attributed to Epicurus. Horace imitates it in Ep. I. 17,10: "Nec vixit male qui natus moriensque fefellit." So Ovid). Tristia III. 4,25: "crede mihi; bene qui latuit, bene vixit," and Eurip., Iph. in Aul. 17:

Zhlw` se;, gevrou,

Zhlw`dj a Jndrw`n o]" aAEkindunon

Bivon eAExepevra"j a;gnw;" a Jklehv"..

Plutarch has an essay on the question, eiv kalw`" e Jivrhtai to; lavqe biwvoa".

Basil: letters, hexaemeron - II. WORKS