Augustin: confessions




Encouraged by the assured co-operation of competent Patristic scholars of Great Britain and the United States, I have undertaken the general editorship of a Select Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church. It is to embrace in about twenty-five large volumes the most important works of the Greek Fathers from Eusebius to Photius, and of the Latin Fathers from Ambrose to Gregory the Great.

The series opens with St. Augustin, the greatest and most influential of all the Christian Fathers. Protestants and Catholics are equally interested in his writings, and most of all in his Confessions, which are contained in this volume. They will be followed by the works of St. Chrysostom, and the Church History of Eusebius.

A few words are necessary to define the object of this Library, and its relation to similar collections.

My purpose is to furnish ministers and intelligent laymen who have no access to the original texts, or are not sufficiently familiar with ecclesiastical Greek and Latin, with a complete apparatus for the study of ancient Christianity. Whatever may be the estimate we put upon the opinions of the Fathers, their historical value is beyond all dispute. They are to this day and will continue to be the chief authorities for the doctrines and usages of the Greek and Roman Churches, and the sources for the knowledge of ancient Christianity down to the age of Charlemagne. But very few can afford to buy, or are able to use such collections as Migne痴 Greek Patrology, which embraces 167 quarto volumes, and Migne痴 Latin Patrology which embraces 222 volumes.

The three leaders of the now historic Anglo-Catholic movement of Oxford, Drs). Pusey, Newman, and Keble, began, in 1837, the publication of A Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic Church, anterior to the Division of the East and West. Translated by Members of the English Church, Oxford (Jn Henry Parker) and London (J. G. F. & J. Rivington). It is dedicated to 展illiam Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of all England. The editors were aided by a number of able classical and ecclesiastical scholars. Dr. Pusey, the chief editor and proprietor, and Dr. Keble died in the communion of the church of their fathers to which they were loyally attached; Dr. Newman alone remains, though no more an Anglican, but a Cardinal of the Church of Rome. His connection with the enterprise ceased with his secession (1845).

The Oxford Library was undertaken not so much for an historical, as for an apologetic and dogmatic purpose. It was to furnish authentic proof for the supposed or real agreement of the Anglo-Catholic school with the faith and practice of the ancient church before the Greek schism. The selection was made accordingly. The series embraces 48 vols. It is very valuable as far as it goes, but incomplete and unequal. Volume followed volume as it happened to get ready. An undue proportion is given to exegetical works; six volumes are taken up with Augustin痴 Commentary on the Psalms, six with Gregory痴 Commentary on Job, sixteen with Commentaries of Chrysostom; while many of the most important doctrinal, ethical, and historical works of the Fathers, as Eusebius, Basil, the two Gregorys, Theodoret, Maximus Confessor, Jn of Damascus, Hilary, Jerome, Leo the Great, were never reached.

In 1866, Mr. T. Clark, Lord Provost of Edinburgh, and an Elder in the Free Church of Scotland, who has done more than any publisher for the introduction of German and other foreign theological literature to the English reading community, began to issue the valuable Ante-Nicene Christian Library, edited by Ap Alexander Roberts, D. D., and James Donaldson, LL. D., which was completed in 1872 in 24 volumes, and is now being republished, by arrangement with Mr. Clark, in America in 8 volumes under the editorship of Bishop A). Cleveland Coxe, D. D. (18841886). Mr. Clark, in 1871, undertook also the publication of a translation of select works of St). Augustin under the editorial care of Ap Marcus Dods, D. D., of Glasgow, which was completed in 15 volumes. The projected translation of Chrysostom was abandoned from want of encouragement.

3 Thus Episcopal divines of England, and Presbyterian divines of Scotland have prepared the way for our American enterprise, and made it possible.

We must also briefly mention a similar collection which was prepared by Roman Catholic scholars of Germany in the interest of their Church, namely the Bibliothek der Kirchenv舩er. Auswahl der vorzglichsten patristichen Werke in deutscher Uebersetzung, herausgegeben unter der Oberleitung von Dr. Valentin Thalhofer (Domdekan und Prof. der Theol. in Eichst舩t, formerly Professor in Munich). Kempten., Kselsche Buchhandlung. 18691886. Published in over 400 small numbers, three or four of which make a volume. An alphabetical Index vol. is now in course of preparation by Ulrich Uhle (Nos. 405) sqq).. The series was begun in 1869 by Dr. Fr. X. Reithmayr, Prof. of Theol. in Munich, who died in 1872. It embraces select writings of most of the Fathers. Seven volumes are devoted to Letters of the Popes from Linus to Pelagius II. (a.d. 67590).

典he Christian Literature Company, who republish Clark痴 鄭nte-Nicene Library, asked me to undertake the editorship of a Nicene and Post-Nicene Library to complete the scheme. Satisfactory arrangements have been made with Mr. Clark and with Mr. Walter Smith, representing Dr. Pusey痴 heirs, for the use of their translations, as far as our plan will permit. Without such a preliminary arrangement I would not have considered the proposal for a moment.

I have invited surviving authors of older translations to revise and edit their work for the American series, and I am happy to state that I received favorable replies. Some of them are among the list of contributors, others (including Cardinal Newman) have, at least, expressed a kindly interest in the enterprise, and wish it success.

The Nicene and Post-Nicene Library will be more complete and more systematic as well as much cheaper than any which has yet appeared in the English language. By omitting the voluminous Patristic commentaries on the Old Testament we shall gain room for more important and interesting works not embraced in the Oxford or Edinburgh series; and by condensing three or more of these volumes into one, and counting upon a large number of subscribers, the publishers think themselves justified in offering the Library on terms which are exceedingly liberal, considering the great expense and risk. It will be published in the same handsome style as their Ante-Nicene Library.

May the blessing of the Great Head of the Church accompany and crown this work.

Philip Schaff.

New York, October, 1886.
Prolegomena: St. Augustin痴 Life and Work


From Schaff痴 Church History, Revised Edition Vol. III. pp. 9881028
Chief Events in the Life of St. Augustin.

(as Given, Nearly, in the Benedictine Edition).

354. Augustin born at Tagaste, Nov. 13; his parents, Patricius and Monnica; shortly afterwards enrolled among the Catechumens.

370. Returns home from studying Rhetoric at Madaura, after an idle childhood, and from idleness falls into dissipation and sin).

371. Patricius dies; Augustin supported at Carthage by his mother, and his friend Romanianus; forms an illicit connection).

372. Birth of his son Adeodatus).

373. Cicero痴 Hortensius awakens in him a strong desire for true wisdom).

374. He falls into the Manichaean heresy, and seduces several of his acquaintances into it. His mother痴 earnest prayers for him; she is assured of his recovery).

376. Teaches Grammar at Tagaste; but soon returns to Carthage to teach Rhetoric揚ains a prize).

379. Is recovered from study of Astrology謡rites his books De pulchro et apto.

382. Discovers the Manichaeans to be in error, but falls into scepticism. Goes to Rome to teach Rhetoric).

5 385. Removes to Milan; his errors gradually removed through the teaching of Ambrose, but he is held back by the flesh; becomes again a Catechumen).

386. Studies St. Paul; converted through a voice from heaven; gives up his profession; writes against the Academics; prepares for Baptism).

387. Is baptized by Bishop Ambrose, with his son Adeodatus. Death of his mother, Monnica, in her fifty-sixth year, at Ostia).

388. Aug. revisits Rome, and then returns to Africa. Adeodatus, full of promise, dies).

389. Aug. against his will ordained Presbyter at Hippo by Valerius, its Bishop).

392. Writes against the Manichaeans).

394. Writes against the Donatists).

395. Ordained Assistant Bishop to Valerius, toward the end of the year).

396. Death of Bishop Valerius. Augustin elected his successor).

397. Aug. writes the Confessions, and the De Tinitate against the Arians).

398. Is present at the fourth Council of Carthage).

6 402. Refutes the Epistle of Petilianus, a Donatist).

404. Applies to Caecilianus for protection against the savageness of the Donatists. 408. Writes De urbis Romae obsidione.

411. Takes a prominent part in a conference between the Catholic Bishops and the Donatists).

413. Begins the composition of his great work De Civitate Dei, completed in 426).

417. Writes De gestis Palaestinae synodi circa Pelagium.

420. Writes against the Priscillianists).

424. Writes against the Semipelagians).

426. Appoints Heraclius his successor).

428. Writes the Retractations.

429. Answers the Epistles of Prosper and Hilary).

430. Dies Aug. 28, in the third month of the siege of Hippo by the Vandals).
St. Aurelius Augustin

Bishop of Hippo
The Confessions of St. Augustin

In Thirteen Books

Translated and Annotated by J.g. Pilkington, M.a., Vicar of St. Mark痴, West Hackney; And Sometime Clerical Secretary of the Bishop of London痴 Fund.

典hou has formed us for Thyself, and our hearts are restless till they find rest in Thee.迫Confessions, 1,1.

典he joy of the solemn service of Thy house constraineth to tears, when it is read of Thy younger son [Lc 15,24] 奏hat he was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found./痘Ibid. viii, 6).
Translator痴 Preface


的f St. Augustin, says Nourrisson,1 塗ad left nothing but his Confessions and the City of God, one could readily understand the respectful sympathy that surrounds his memory. How, indeed, could one fail to admire in the City of God the flight of genius, and in the Confessions, what is better still, the effusions of a great soul? It may be safely predicted, that while the mind of man yearns for knowledge, and his heart seeks rest, the Confessions will retain that foremost place in the world痴 literature which it has secured by its sublime outpourings of devotion and profound philosophical spirit. There is in the book a wonderful combination of childlike piety and intellectual power. Desjardins idea,2 that, while in Augustin痴 other works we see the philosopher or the controversialist, here we see the man, is only to be accepted as a comparative statement of Augustin痴 attitude in the Confessions; for philosophy and piety are in many of his reflections as it were molten into one homogeneous whole. In his highest intellectual flights we find the breathings of faith and love, and, amid the profoundest expressions of penitential sorrow, gleams of his metaphysical genius appear.

It may, indeed, be from the man痴 showing himself so little, as distinguished from the philosopher, that some readers are a little disappointed in the book. They have expected to meet with a copiousness of biographic details, and have found, commingled with such as are given, long disquisitions on Manichaeanism, Time, Creation, and Memory. To avoid such disappointment we must ascertain the author痴 design. The book is emphatically not an autobiography. There is in it an outline of the author痴 life up to his mother痴 death; but only so much of detail is given as may subserve his main purpose. That purpose is clearly explained in the fourth section of his Tenth Book. It was that the impenitent on reading it might not say, 的 cannot, and 都leep in despair, but rather that, looking to that God who had raised the writer from his low estate of pride and sin to be a pillar of the Church, he might take courage, and 殿wake in the sweetness of His grace, by which he that is weak is made strong; and that those no longer in sin might rejoice and praise God as they heard of the past lusts of him who was now freed from them.3 3This, his design of encouraging penitence and stimulating praise, is referred to in his Retractations,1 and in his Letter to Darius.2

8 These two main ideas are embodied in the very meaning of the title of the book, the word confession having, as Augustin constantly urges, two meanings. In his exposition of the Psalms we read: 鼎onfession is understood in two senses, of our sins, and of God痴 praise. Confession of our sins is well known, so well known to all the people, that whenever they hear the name of confession in the lessons, whether it is said in praise or of sin, they beat their breasts.3 Again: 鼎onfession of sin all know, but confession of praise few attend to.4 典he former but showeth the wound to the physician, the latter giveth thanks for health.5 He would therefore have his hearers make the sacrifice of praise their ideal, since, in the City of God, even in the New Jerusalem, there will be no longer confession of sin, but there will be confession of praise.6 It is not surprising, that with this view of confession he should hinge on the incidents of his life such considerations as tend to elevate the mind and heart of the reader. When, for example, he speaks of his youthful sins,7 he diverges into a disquisition on the motives to sin; when his friend dies,8 he moralizes on death; and葉o give one example of a reverse process揺is profound psychological review of memory9 recalls his former sin (which at times haunts him in his dreams), and leads up to devout reflections on God痴 power to cleanse from sin. This undertone of penitence and praise which pervades the Confessions in all its episodes, like the golden threads which run through the texture of an Eastern garment, presents one of its peculiar charms.

It would not be right to overlook a charge that has been brought against the book by Lord Byron. He says, 鄭ugustin in his fine Confessions makes the reader envy his transgressions. Nothing could be more reckless or further from the truth than this charge. There is here no dwelling on his sin, or painting it so as to satisfy a prurient imagination. As we have already remarked, Augustin痴 manner is not to go into detail further than to find a position from which to 兎dify the reader, and he treats this episode in his life with his characteristic delicacy and reticence. His sin was dead; and he had carried it to its burial with tears of repentance. And when, ten years after his baptism, he sets himself, at the request of some, to a consideration of what he then was at the moment of making his confessions,10 he refers hardly at all to this sin of his youth; and such allusions as he does make are of the most casual kind. Instead of enlarging upon it, he treats it as past, and only speaks of temptation and sin as they are common to all men. Many of the French writers on the Confessions11 institute a comparison in this matter between the confessions of Augustin and those of Rousseau. Pressens12 draws attention to the delicacy and reserve which characterise the one, and the arrogant defiance of God and man manifested in the other. The confessions of the one he speaks of as 砥n grand acte de repentir et d誕mour; and eloquently says, 的n it he seems, like the Magdalen, to have spread his box of perfumes at the foot of the Saviour; from his stricken heart there exhales the incense most agreeable to God葉he homage of true penitence. The other he truly describes as uttering 殿 cry of triumph in the very midst of his sin, and robing his shame in a royal purple. Well may Desjardins13 express surprise at a book of such foulness coming from a genius so great; and perhaps his solution of the enigma is not far from the truth, when he attributes it to an overweening vanity and egotism.14

It is right to point out, in connection with this part of our subject, that in regard to some at least of Augustin痴 self-accusations,15 there may be a little of that pious exaggeration of his sinfulness which, as Lord Macaulay points out in his essays on Bunyan,16 frequently characterises deep penitence. But however this may be, justice requires us to remember, in considering his transgression, that from his very childhood he had been surrounded by a condition of civilisation presenting manifold temptations. Carthage, where he spent a large part of his life, had become, since its restoration and colonization under Augustus Caesar, an 兎xceeding great city, in wealth and importance next to Rome.17 鄭frican Paganism, says Pressens,18 努as half Asiatic; the ancient worship of nature, the adoration of Astarte, had full licence in the city of Carthage; Dido had become a mythological being, whom this dissolute city had made its protecting divinity, and it is easy to recognise in her the great goddess of Phoenicia under a new name. The luxury of the period is described by Jerome and Tertullian, when they denounce the custom of painting the face and tiring the head, and the prodigality that would give 25,000 golden crowns for a veil, immense revenues for a pair of ear-rings, and the value of a forest or an island for a head-dress. And Jerome, in one of his epistles, gives an illustration of the Church痴 relation to the Pagan world at that time, when he represents an old priest of Jupiter with his grand-daughter, a catechumen, on his knee, who responds to his caresses by singing canticles.19 It was a time when we can imagine one of Augustin痴 parents going to the Colosseum, and enjoying the lasciviousness of its displays, and its gladiatorial shows, with their contempt of human life; while the other carefully shunned such scenes, as being under the ban of the teachers of the Church.20 It was an age in which there was action and reaction between religion and philosophy; but in which the power of Christianity was so great in its influences on Paganism, that some received the Christian Scriptures only to embody in their phraseology the ideas of heathenism. Of this last point Manichaeanism presents an illustration. Now all these influences left their mark on Augustin. In his youth he plunged deep into the pleasures of his day; and we know how he endeavoured to find in Manichaeanism a solution of those speculations which haunted his subtle and inquiring mind. Augustin at this time, then, is not to be taken as a type of what Christianity produced. He is to a great extent the outgrowth of the Pagan influences of the time. Considerations such as these may enable us to judge of his early sin more justly than if we measured it by our own privileges and opportunities.

The style of Augustin is sometimes criticised as not having the refinement of Virgil, Horace, or Cicero. But it should be remembered that he wrote in a time of national decay; and further, as Desjardins has remarked in the introduction to his essay, he had no time 鍍o cut his phrases. From the period of his conversion to that of his death, he was constantly engaged in controversy with this or that heresy; and if he did not write with classical accuracy, he so inspired the language with his genius, and moulded it by his fire,21 that it appears almost to pulsate with the throbbings of his brain. He seems likewise to have despised mere elegance, for in his Confessions,22 when speaking of the style of Faustus, he says, 展hat profit to me was the elegance of my cup-bearer, since he offered me not the more precious draught for which I thirsted? In this connection the remarks of Collenges23 are worthy of note. He says, when anticipating objections that might be made to his own style: 的t was the last of my study; my opinion always was what Augustin calls diligens negligentia was the best diligence as to that; while I was yet a very young man I had learned out of him that it was no solecism in a preacher to use ossum for os, for (saith he) an iron key is better than one made of gold if it will better open the door, for that is all the use of the key. I had learned out of Hierom that a gaudry of phrases and words in a pulpit is but signum insipientiae. The words of a preacher, saith he, ought pungere, non palpare, to prick the heart, not to smooth and coax. The work of anorat or is too precarious for a minister of the gospel. Gregory observed that our Saviour had not styled us the sugar but the salt of the earth, and Augustin observeth, that through Cyprian in one epistle showed much of a florid orator, to show he could do it, yet he never would do so any more, to show he would not.

There are several features in the Confessions deserving of remark, as being of special interest to the philosopher, the historian or the divine.

1. Chiefest amongst these is the intense desire for knowledge and the love of truth which characterised Augustin. This was noticeable before his conversion in his hungering after such knowledge as Manichaeanism and the philosophy of the time could afford.24 It is none the less observable in that better time, when, in his quiet retreat at Cassiciacum, he sought to strengthen the foundations of his faith, and resolved to give himself up to the acquisition of divine knowledge.25 It was seen, too, in the many conflicts in which he was engaged with Donatists, Manichaeans, Arians, and Pelagians, and in his earnest study of the deep things of God. This love of knowledge is perhaps conveyed in the beautiful legend quoted by Nourisson,26 of the monk wrapped in spirit, who expressed astonishment at not seeing Augustin among the elect in heaven. 滴e is higher up, he was answered, 塗e is standing before the Holy Trinity disputing thereon for all eternity.

While from the time of his conversion we find him holding on to the fundamental doctrines of the faith with the tenacity of one who had experienced the hollowness of the teachings of philosophy,27 this passion for truth led him to handle most freely subjects of speculation in things non-essential.28 But whether viewed as a controversialist, a student of Scripture, or a bishop of the Church of God, he ever manifests those qualities of mind and heart that gained for him not only the affection of the Church, but the esteem of his unorthodox opponents. To quote Guizot痴 discriminating words, there was in him ce m駘ange de passion et de douccur, d誕utorite et de sympathie, d団tendue d弾sprit et de rigueur logique, qui lui donnait un si rare pouvoir.29

2. It is to this eager desire for truth in his many-sided mind that we owe those trains of thought that read like forecasts of modern opinion. We have called attention to some such anticipations of modern thought as they recur in the notes throughout the book; but the speculations on Memory, Time, and Creation, which occupy so large a space in Books Ten and Eleven, deserve more particular notice. The French essayists have entered very fully into these questions. M. Saisset, in his admirable introduction to the De Civitate Dei,30 reviews Augustin痴 theories as to the mysterious problems connected with the idea of Creation. He says, that in his subtle analysis of Time, and in his attempt at reconciling 鍍he eternity of creative action with the dependence of things created,he has touched with a bold and delicate hand one of the deepest mysteries of the human mind, and that to all his glorious titles he has added another, that of an ingenious psychologist and an eminent metaphysician. Desjardins likewise commends the depth of Augustin痴 speculations as to Time,31 and maintains that no one痴 teaching as to Creation has shown more clearness, boldness, and vigor預voiding the perils of dualism on the one hand, and atheism on the other.32 In his remarks on Augustin痴 disquisitions on the phenomena of Memory, his praise is of a more qualified character. He compares his theories with those of Malebranche, and, while recognising the practical and animated character of his descriptions, thinks him obscure in his delineation of the manner in which absent realities reproduce themselves on the memory.33

We have had occasion in the notes to refer to the Unseen Universe.The authors of this powerful 鄭pologia for Christianity propose it chiefly as an antidote to the materialistic disbelief in the immortality of the soul amongst scientific men, which has resulted in this age from the recent advance in physical science; just as in the last century English deism had its rise in a similar influence. It is curious, in connection with this part of our subject, to note that in leading up to the conclusion at which he arrives, M. Saisset quotes a passage from the City of God,34 which contains an adumbration of the theory of the above work in regard to the eternity of the invisible universe.35 Verily, the saying of the wise man is true: 典he thing that hath been, it is that which shall be; and that which is done, is that which shall be done: and there is no new thing under the sun.36

3. We have already, in a previous paragraph, briefly adverted to the influence Christianity and Paganism had one on the other. The history of Christianity has been a steady advance on Paganism and Pagan philosophy; but it can hardly be denied that in this advance there has been an absorption預nd in some periods in no small degree熔f some of their elements. As these matters have been examined in the notes, we need not do more than refer the reader to the Index of Subjects for the evidence to be obtained in this respect from the Confessions on such matters as Baptism, False Miracles, and Prayers for the Dead.

4. There is one feature in the Confessions which we should not like to pass unnoticed. A reference to the Retractations37 will show that Augustin highly appreciated the spiritual use to which the book might be put in the edification of the brethren. We believe that it will prove most useful in this way; and spiritual benefit will accrue in proportion to the steadiness of its use. We would venture to suggest that Book X., from section 37 to the end, may be profitably used as a manual of self-examination. We have pointed out in a note, that in his comment on Ps 8 he makes our Lord痴 three temptations to be types of all the temptations to which man can be subjected; and makes them correspond in their order, as given by St. Matthew, to 鍍he Lust of the Flesh, the Lust of the Eyes, and the Pride of Life, mentioned by St. John.38 Under each of these heads we have, in this part of the Confessions, a most severe examination of conscience; and the impression is deepened by his allegorically likening the three divisions of temptation to the beasts of the field, the fish of the sea, and the birds of the air.39 We have already remarked, in adverting to allegorical interpretation,40 that where 鍍he strict use of the history is not disregarded, to use Augustin痴 expression, allegorizing, by way of spiritual meditation, may be profitable. Those who employ it with this idea will find their interpretations greatly aided, and made more systematic, by realizing Augustin痴 methods here and in the last two books of the Confessions,預s when he makes the sea to represent the wicked world, and the fruitful earth the Church.41

9 It only remains to call attention to the principles on which this translation and its annotations have been made. The text of the Benedictine edition has been followed; but the head-lines of the chapters are taken from the edition of Bruder, as being the more definite and full. After carefully translating the whole of the book, it has been compared, line by line, with the translation of Watts42 (one of the most nervous translations of the seventeenth century), and that of Dr. Pusey, which is confessedly founded upon that of Watts. Reference has also been made, in the case of obscure passages, to the French translation of Du Bois, and the English translation of the first Ten Books alluded to in the note on Bk. 9,ch. 12. The references to Scripture are in the words of the Authorized Version wherever the sense will bear it; and whenever noteworthy variations from our version occur, they are indicated by references to the old Italic version, or to the Vulgate. In some cases, where Augustin has clearly referred to the LXX. in order to amend his version thereby, such variations are indicated.43 The annotations are, for the most part, such as have been derived from the translator痴 own reading. Two exceptions, however, must be made. Out of upwards of four hundred notes, some forty are taken from the annotations in Pusey and Watts, but in every case these have been indicated by the initials E. B. P. or W. W. Dr. Pusey痴 annotations (which will be found chiefly in the earlier part of this work) consist almost entirely of quotations from other works of Augustin. These annotations are very copious, and Dr. Pusey explains that he resorted to this method 菟artly because this plan of illustrating St. Augustin out of himself had been already adopted by M. Du Bois in his Latin editionand it seemed a pity not to use valuable materials ready collected to one痴 hand. The far greater part of these illustrations are taken from that edition. It seemed the most proper course, in using such notes of Du Bois as appeared suitable for this edition, to take them from Dr. Pusey痴 edition, and, as above stated, to indicate their source by his initials. A Textual Index has been added, for the first time, to this edition, and both it and the Index of Subjects have been prepared with the greatest possible care.J. G. P.

St. Mark痴 Vicarage, West Hackney, 1876.

1 Adv. Academicos, 1. 2,c. 2, ァ 5: 摘tiam mihi ipsi de me incredibile incendium concitarunt. And in several passages of the Civitas Dei (viii. 312 22,27) he speaks very favourably of Plato, and also of Aristotle, and thus broke the way for the high authority of the Aristotelian philosophy with the scholastics of the middle age).

2 (He died, according to the Chronicle of his friend and pupil Prosper Aquitanus, the 28th of August, 430 (in the third month of the siege of Hippo by the Vandals); according to his biographer Possidius he lived seventy-six years. The day of his birth Augustin states himself, De vita beata, ァ 6 (tom. 1,300): Idibus Novemoris mihi natalis dies erat.

3 (He received baptism shortly before his death).

1 Conf. 1,1: Fecisti nos ad Te, et inquietum est cor nostrum, donec requiescat in Te. In all his aberrations, which we would hardly know, if it were not from his own free confession, he never sunk to anything mean, but remained, like Paul in his Jewish fanaticism, a noble intellect and an honorable character, with burning love for the true and the good).

2 For particulars respecting the course of Augustin痴 life, see my work above cited, and other monographs. Comp. also the fine remarks of Dr). Baur in his posthumous Lectures on Doctrine-History (1866), vol. 1,Part 2,p. 26 sqq. He compares the development of Augustin with the course of Christianity from the beginning to his time, and draws a parallel between Augustin and Origen.

3 Conf. 9,c. 8: Quae me parturivit et carne, ut in hanc temporalem, et carde, ut in aeternam lucem nascerer. L. v. 9: Non enim satis eloquor, quid erga me habebat anima, et quanto majore sollicitudine nie partur iebat spiritu, quam carne pepererat. In De dono persev. c. 20, he ascribes his conversion under God 鍍o the faithful and dairy tears of his mother.

4 Conf. 50,9,c. 11: Tantum illud vos rogo, ut ad Domini altare memineritis mei, ubs fuertis. This must be explained from the already prevailing custom of offering prayers for the dead, which, however, had rather the form of thanksgiving for the mercy of God shown to them, than the later form of intercession for them).

5 (He is still known among the inhabitants of the place as 鍍he great Christian (Rumi Kebir)). Gibbon (ch. 33,ad ann. 430) thus describes the place which became so famous through Augustin: 典he maritime colony of Hippo, about two hundred miles westward of Carthage, had formerly acquired the distinguishing epithet of Regius, from the residence of the Numidian kings; and some remains of trade and populousness still adhere to the modern city, which is known in Europe by the corrupted name of Bona. Sallust mentions Hippo once in his history of the Jugurthine War. A part of the wealth with which Sallust built and beautified his splendid mansion and gardens in Rome, was extorted from this and other towns of North Africa while governor of Numidia. Since the French conquest of Algiers Hippo Regius was rebuilt under the name of Bona and is now one of the finest towns in North Africa, numbering over 10,000 inhabitants, French, Moors, and Jews).

6 (He mentions a sister, soror mea, sancta proposita [monasterii], without naming her, Epist.211, n. 4 (ed. Bened)., alias Ep. 109. He also had a brother by the name of Navigius).

7 Possidius says, in his Vita Aug.: 鼎aeterum episcopatu suscepto multo instantius ac ferventius, majore auctoritate, non in una tantum regione, sed ubicunque rogatus venisset, verbum satutis alacriter, ac suaviter pullulante atque crescente Domini ecclesia, praedicavit.

8 Possidius, c. 28, gives a vivid picture of the ravages of the Vandals, which have become proverbial. Comp. also Gibbon, ch. xxxiii.

258 9 I freely combine several passages).

10 Comp). Opera, tom. 6,p. 117 (Append).; Daniel: Thesaurus hymnol. 1,116 sqq., and 4,203 sq., and Mone: Lat. Hymner, 1,422 sqq., Mone ascribes the poem to an unknown writer of the sixth century, but Trench (Sacred Latin Poetry, 2d ed., 315) and others attribute it to Cardinal Peter Damiani, the friend of Pope Hildebrand (d. 1072). Augustin wrote his poetry in prose).

11 Possidius says, Vita, c. 31: Testamentum nullum fecit, guia unde faceret, pauper Dei non habuit. Ecclesiae bibliothecam omnesgue codices diligenter posteris custodiendos semper jubebat.

12 The inhabitants escaped to the sea. There appears no bishop of Hippo after Augustin. In the seventh century the old city was utterly destroyed by the Arabians, but two miles from it Bona was built of its ruins. Comp. Tillemont, 13,945, and Gibbon, ch. 33,Gibbon says, that Bona, 妬n the sixteenth century, contained about three hundred families of industrious, but turbulent manufacturers. The adjacent territory is renowned for a pure air, a fertile soil, and plenty of exquisite fruits. Since the French conquest of Algiers, Bona was rebuilt in 1832, and is gradually assuming a French aspect. It is now one of the finest towns in Algeria, the key to the province of Constantine, has a public garden, several schools, considerable commerce, and a population of over ten thousand of French, Moors, and Jews, the great majority of whom are foreigners. The relics of St. Augustin have been recently transferred from Pavia to Bona. See the letters of abb Sibour to Poujoulat sur la translation de ia relique de saint Augustin de Pavie Hippone, in Poujoulat痴 Histoire de saint Augustin, tom. 1,p. 413 sqq).

13 Even in Africa Augustin痴 spirit reappeared from time to time notwithstanding the barbarian confusion, as a light in darkness, first in Vigilius, bishop of Thapsus, who, at the close of the fifth century, ably defended the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity and the person of Christ, and to whom the authorship of the so-called Athanasian Creed has sometimes been ascribed; in Fulgentius, bishop of Ruspe, one of the chief opponents of Semi-Pelagianism, and the later Arianism, who with sixty catholic bishops of Africa was banished for several years by the Arian Vandals to the island of Sardinia, and who was called the Augustin of the sixth century (died 533); and in Facundus of Hermiane (died 570), and Fulgentius Ferrandus, and Liberatus, two deacons of Carthage, who took a prominent part in the Three Chapter controversy).

14 Or, as he wrote to a friend about the year 410, Epist. 120, C. 1, ァ 2 (tom. 2,p. 347, ed. Bened. Venet.; in older ed.
Ep 122): Ut quod credis intelligasnon ut fidem resinas, sed ea quae fidei firmitate jam tenes, etiam rationis luce conspicias. He continues, ibid. c. 3: Absit namque, ut hoc in nobis Deus oderit, in quo nos reliquis animalibus exccellentiores creavit. Absit, inquam, ut ideo credamus, ne rationem accipiamus vel quaeramus; cum etiam credere non possemns, nisi rationales animas haberemus. In one of his earliest works, Contra Academ. 50,3,c. 20, ァ 43, he says of himself: Ita sum affectus, ut quid sit verum non credendo solum, sed etiam intelligendo apprehendere impatienter desiderem.

15 EaVn mhV pisteuvshte, onvdeV mhV sunte. But the proper translation of the Hebrew is: 的f ye will not believe [in me, YB]

for YB]

], surely ye shall not be established (or, not remain).

16 Comp). De praed. sanct. cap. 2, ァ 5 (tom. 10,p. 792): Ipsum credere nihil aliud est quam cum assensione cogiitare. Nom enim omnis qui cogitat, credit, cum ideo cogitant, plerique ne credant: sed cpgitat omnis qui credit, et credendo cogitat et cogitando credit. Fides si non cogitetur, nulia est. Ep. 120, cap. 1, ァ 3 (tom. 2,347), and Ep. 137, c. 4, ァ 15 (tom. 2,408): 的ntellectui fides aditum aperit, infidelitas claudit. Augustin痴 view of faith and knowledge is discussed at large by Gangauf, Metaphysische Psychologie des heil. Augustinus, 1,pp. 3176, and by Nourrisson, La phliosophie de saint Augustin, tom. ii. 282290).

17 Prosper Aquitanus collected in the year 450 or 451 from the works of Augustin 392 sentences (see (the Appendix to the tenth vol. of the Bened. ed. p. 223 sqq., and in Migne痴 ed. of Prosper Aquitanus, col. 427496), with reference to theological purport and the Pelagian controversies. We recall some of the best which he has omitted:

259 哲ovum Testamentum in Vetere latet, Vetus in Novo pates.

泥istingue tempora, et concordabit Scriptura.

鼎or nostrum inquietum est, donec requiescat in Te.

(Da quod jubes, et jube quod vis.

哲on vincit nisi veritas, victoria veritatis est caritas.

填bi amor, ibi trinitas.

擢ides praecedit intellectum.

泥eo servire vera libertas est.

哲ulia infelicitas frangit, quem felicitas nulla corrumpit.

The famous maxim of ecclesiastical harmony: In necessarlis unitas, in dublis (or, non ccessarlis) libertas, in omnibus (in utrisque) caritas,迫which is often ascribed to Augustin, dates in this form not from him, but from a much later period. Dr). Lucke (in a special treatise on the antiquity of the author, the original form, etc., of this sentence, Gttingen, 1850) traces the authorship to Rupert Meldenius, an irenical German theologian of the seventeenth century. Baxter, also, who lived during the intense conflict of English Puritanism and Episcopacy, and grew weary of the 吐ury of theologians, adopted a similar sentiment. The sentence is held by many who differ widely in the definition of what is 渡ecessary and what is 電oubtful. The meaning of 田harity in all things is above doubt, and a moral duty of every Christian, though practically violated by too many in all denominations).

18 Vorlesungen ber die christl. Dogmengeschichte, vol. 1. P. 11. p. 30 sq.

260 19 It is sometimes asserted that he had no knowledge at all of the Greek. So Gibbon, for example, says (ch. xxxiii).: 典he superficial learning of Augustin was confined to the Latin language. But this is a mistake. In his youth he had a great aversion to the glorious language of Hellas because he had a bad teacher and was forced to it (Confi.i. 14). He read the writings of Plato in a Latin translation (vii. 9). But after his baptism, during his second residence in Rome, he resumed the study of Greek with greater zest, for the sake of his biblical studies. In Hippo he had, while presbyter, good opportunity to advance in it, since his bishop, Aurelius, a native Greek, understood his mother tongue much better than the Latin. In his books he occasionally makes reference to the Greek. In his work Contra Jul. i. c. 6 ァ 21 (tom. 10,510), he corrects the Pelagian Julian in a translation from Chrysostom, quoting the original). 摘go ipsa verba Graeca quae a Joanne dicta sunt ponam diaV tou`to kaiV taV paidia baptizomen, kaivtoi avmarthvmata ouVk e歡onta, quod est Latine: Ideo et infantes baptizamus, quamvis peccata non habentes. Julian had freely rendered this: cum non sint coinquinati peccato, and had drawn the inference: Sanctus Joannes Constantinopolitanus [Jn Chrysostom] negat esse in parvulis originale peccatum. Augustin helps himself out of the pinch by arbitrarily supplying propria to avmarthvmata, so that the idea of sin inherited from another is not excluded. The Greek fathers, however, did not consider hereditary corruption to be proper sin or guilt at all, but only defect, weakness, or disease. In the City of God, lib. 19,c. 23, he quotes a passage from Porphyry痴 eVk logiwn filosofia, and in book 18,23, he explains the Greek monogram icunv". He gives the derivation of several Greek words, and correctly distinguishes between such synonyms as gennavw and tiktw, euvchv and proseuchv, pnohv and pneu`ma. It is probable that he read Plotin, and the Panarion of Epiphanius or the summary of it, in Greek (while the Church History of Eusebius he knew only in the translation of Rufinus). But in his exegetical and other works he very rarely consults the Septuagint or Greek Testament, and was content with the very imperfect Itala, or the improved version of Jerome (the Vulgate). The Benedictine editors overestimate his knowledge of Greek. He himself frankly confesses that he knew very little of it. De Trinit. 1. iii Procaem. (敵raaecae linguae non sit nobis tantus habitus, ut talium rerum libris legendis et intelligendis ullo modo reperiamur idonei), and Contra literas Petiliani (written in 400),1. 2,c. 38 (摘t ego quidem Graecae linguae perparum assecutus sum, et prope nihil). On the philosophical learning of Augustin may be compared Nourrissonl). c. ii. p. 92 sqq).

20 Ellies Dupin (Biblioth馮ue eccl駸iastique, tom. 3,1 partie, p. 818) and Nourrisson (l. c. tom. 2,p. 449) apply to Augustin the term magnus opinator, which Cicero used of himself. There is, however, this important difference that Augustin, along with his many opinions on speculative questions in philosophy and theology, had very positive convictions in all essential doctrines, while Cicero was a mere eclectic in philosophy).

21 (He was not 妬ntoxicated with the exuberance of his own verbosity, as a modern English statesman (Lord Beaconsfield) charged his equally distinguished rival (Mr. Gladstone) in Parliament).

22 In his Retractations, he himself reviews ninety-three of his works (embracing two hundred and thirty-two books, see 2,67), in chronological order: in the first book those which he wrote while a layman and presbyter, in the second those which he wrote when a bishop. See also the extended chronological index in Schnemann痴 Biblioth. historico-literaria Patrum Latinorum, vol. ii (Lips, 1794), p. 340 sqq. (reprinted in the supplemental volume, xii., of Migne痴 ed. of the Opera, p. 24) sqq).; and other systematic and alphabetical lists in the eleventh volume of the Bened. ed (p. 494 sqq., ed. Venet)., and in Migne, tom. 11,

23 For this reason the Benedictine editors have placed the Retractations and the Confessions at the head of his works).

24 (He himself says of them, Retract. 1. ii. c. 6: Maltis fratribus eos [Confessionum libros tredecim] multum placuisse et, placere scio. Comp). De donon perseverantiae, c. 20: 轍uid autem meorum opusculorum freguentius et deleciabilius innotescere potuit qam libri Confessionum mearum? Comp). Ep.. 231 Dario comiti).

25 Schnnemann (in the supplemental volume of Migne痴 ed. of Augustin, p. 134 sqq). cites a multitude of separate editions of the Confessions in Latin, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, English, and German, from A.D. 1475 to 1776. Since that time several new editions have been added. One of the best Latin editions is that of Karl von Raumer (Stuttgart, 1856), who used to read the Confessions with his students at Erlangen once a week for many years. In his preface he draws a comparison between them and Rousseau痴 Confessions and Hamann痴 Gedanken ber meinen Lebenslauf. English and German translations are noticed above in the Lit. Dr. Shedd (in his ed., Pref. p. xxvii) calls the Confessions the best commentary yet written upon the seventh and eighth chapters of Romans. 典hat quickening of the human spirit, which puts it again into vital and sensitive relations to the holy and eternal; that illumination of the mind, whereby it is enabled to perceive with clearness the real nature of truth and righteousness; that empowering of the will, to the conflict of victory葉he entire process of restoring the Divine image in the soul of man擁s delineated in this book, with a vividness and reality never exceeded by the uninspired mind.賠 的t is the life of God in the soul of a strong man, rushing and rippling with the freedom of the life of nature. He who watches can almost see the growth; he who listens can hear the perpetual motion; and he who is in sympathy will be swept along.

26 We mean his sexual sins. He kept a concubine for sixteen years, the mother of his only child, Adeodatus, and after her separation he formed for a short time a similar connection in Milan; but in both cases he was faithful. Conf. IV. 2 (unam habebamservans tori fidem): VI. 15. Erasmus thought very leniently of this sin as contrasted with the conduct of the priests and abbots of his time. Augustin himself deeply repented of it, and devoted his life to celibacy).

27 Nourrisson(1. c. tom. 1,p. 19) calls the Confessions 田et ouvrage unique, souvent imit, toujours parodi, o il s誕ccuse, se condamne et s檀umilie, pri駻e ardente, r馗it entrainant, metaphysique incomparable, histoire de tout un monde qui se refl騁e dans l檀istoire d une ame. Comp. also an article on the Confessions in 典he Contemporary Review for June, 1867, pp 133160).

28 (
Pr 10,19 Pr 10, verse (ex multiloquio non effugies peccatum) the Semi-Pelagian Gennadius (De viris illustr. sub Aug.) applies against Augustin in excuse for his erroneous doctrines of freedom and predestination).

29 (Mt 12,36).

261 30 1Co 11,31. Comp. his Prologus to the two books of Retractationes).

31 J. Morell Mackenzie (in W Smith痴 Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 1,p. 422) happily calls the Retractations of Augustin 登ne of the noblest sacrifices ever laid upon the altar of truth by a majestic intellect acting in obedience to the purest conscientiousness.

32 In tom. 1,of the ed. Bened., immediately after the Retractationes and Confessiones, and at the close of the volume. On these philosophical writings, see Brucker: Historia critica philosophiae, Lips. 1766, tom. 3,pp. 485507: H Ritter: Geschichte der Philosphie, vol. 6,p. 153 sqq.; Ueberweg, History of Philosophy, I. 333346 ().: Erdmann, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, I. 231240: Bindemann, 50,c. I. 282 sqq). Huber, l. c. I. 242 sqq.; Gangauf, l. c. p. 25 sqq., and Nouerisson, l. c. ch. 1,and 2,Nourrisson makes the just remark (i. p. 53): 鉄i la philosophie est la recherch de la verit, jamais sans douse il ne s弾st rencontre une ame plus philosophe que celle de saint Augustin. Car jamais ame n誕 support avec plus d impatience les anxi騁駸 du doute et n誕 fait plus d efforts pour dissiper les fantomes de l弾rreur.

33 Or on the question: 填trum omnia bona et mala divinae providentie ordo contineat? Comp. Retract. 1,3).

34 Augustin, in his Confessions (l. ix. c. 6), expresses himself in this touching way about this son of his illicit love: 展e took with us [on returning from the country to Milan to receive the sacrament of baptism] also the boy Adeodatus, the son of my carnal sin, Thou hadst formed him well. He was but just fifteen years old, and he was superior in mind to many grave and learned men. I acknowledge Thy gifts, O Lord, my God, who createst all, and who canst reform our deformities: for I had no part in that boy but sin. And when we brought him up in Thy nurture, Thou, only Thou, didst prompt us to it; I acknowledge Thy gifts. There is my book entitled, De magistro: he speaks with me there. Thou knowest that all things there put into his mouth were in his mind when he was sixteen years of age. That maturity of mind was a terror to me; and who but Thou is the artificer of such wonders? Soon Thou didst take his life from the earth; and I think more quietly of him now, fearing no more for his boyhood, nor his youth, nor his whole life. We took him to ourselves as one of the same age in Thy grace, to be trained in Thy nurture; and we were baptised together; and all trouble about the past fled from us. He refers to him also in De vita beata, ァ 6: 典here was also with us, in age the youngest of all, but whose talents, if affection deceives me not, promise something great, my son Adeodatus. In the same book (ァ 18), he mentions an answer of his: 滴e is truly chaste who waits on God, and keeps himself to Him only.

35 The books on grammar, dialectics, rhetoric, and the ten Categories of Aristotle, in the Appendix to the first volume of the Bened. ed., are spurious. For the genuine works of Augustin on these subjects were written in a different form (the dialogue) and for a higher purpose, and were lost in his own day. Comp. Retract. 1,c. 6. In spite of this, Prantl). (Geschichte der Logik in Abendlande, pp. 665674, cited by Huber, l. c. p. 240) has advocated the genuineness of the Principia dialecticae, and Huber inclines to agree). Gangauf, l. c. p. 5, and Nourrisson, 1,p. 37, consider them spurious).

36 `H mavuhsi" onjk a殕lo ti hj ajnavmsi". On this Plato, in the Phaedo, as is well known, rests his doctrine of pre-existence. Augustin was at first in favor of the idea, Solit. 2,co, n. 35; afterwards he rejected it, Retract. 1,4, ァ 4: but after all he assumes in his anthropology a sort on unconscious, yet responsible, pre-existence of the whole human race in Adam as its organic head, and hence taught a universal fall in Adam痴 fall.

37 History of Philosophy, vol. 1,333 sq., translated by Pro. Geo. S. Morris).

38 In the Bened. ed. tom. 7,Comp. Retract. 2,43, and Ch. Hist. III. ァ 12. The City of God and the Confessions are the only writings of Augustin which Gibbon thought worth while to read (chap. xxxiii).). Huber (l. c. p. 315) says: 鄭ugustin痴 philosophy of history, as he presents it in his Civitas Dei, has remained to this hour the standard philosophy of history for the church orthodoxy, the bounds of which this orthodoxy, unable to perceive in the motions of the modern spirit the fresh morning air of a higher day of history, is scarcely able to transcend. Nourrisson devotes a special chapter to the consideration of the two cities of Augustin, the City of the World and the City of God (tom. 2,4388). Compare also the Introduction to Saisset痴 Traduction de la Cit de Dieu, Par. 1855, and Reinken痴 (old Cath. Bishop), Geschichtsphilosophie des heil. Aug. 1866. Engl. translation of the City of God by Dr. Marcus Dods, Edinburgh, 1872, 2 vols., and in the second vol. of this Library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers).

39 Separately edited by Krabinger, Tubingen, 1861.

40 This work is also incorporated in the Corpus haereseoloicum of Fr. Oehler, tom. 1,pp. 192225).

262 41 Contra Epist. Manichaei quam vocant fundamenti, 1. 1,2).

42 The earliest anti-Manichaean writings (De libero arbitrio; De moribus eccl. cath. et de Moribus Manich.) are in tom. 1,ed. Bened.; the latter in tom viii.

43 Tom. 8,p. 611 sqq.

Augustin: confessions