NPNF2-01 Eusebius 678

678 110 [Maximin, ruler of the Eastern provinces of the empire.—Bag.]

111 (He was defeated by Licinius, who had much inferior forces. Compare Prolegomena, under Life, and references).

1 Literally, “the flatterers and time-servers about him.”

2 Or “openly.”

3 [The reading in the text is toutwn, but should be pantwn, of all Christians, as it is in Hist. Eccles. Bk. 10, c. 8, from which this passage is almost verbally taken.—Bag.]

4 This seems to intend some exoneration of Constantine, explaining why he was what the heathen called “faithless” towards Licinius.

5 Soothsayers and priests. These were technically “augurs” and “haruspices.”Compare for their functions the articles Augur, Divinatio, and Haruspices, in Smith, Dict. Gr. and Rm Ant.

6 Literally, “shield-bearers,” but here relates to a chosen body of guards, as in the Macedonian army. Compare Liddell and Scott, Lex. s.v). upaspisth".

7 The whole passage seems altogether too appropriate to receive ready credence; but it is worth noting here how Eusebius “quotes his authors,” and seems to give the thing for what it is worth, keeping perhaps the same modicum of reservation for the hearers’ relative imagination and memory, when relating after the events, that the modern reader does.

8 [Licinius was suspected of having secretly countenanced Bassianus (who had married Constantine’s sister Anastasia, and received the rank of Caesar) in a treasonable conspiracy. Vide Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 14.—Bag.] Compare Prolegomena, underLife.

9 Or “remedy”; i.e. that which keeps off harm.

679 10 [Palin, “again,” alluding to the former miracle, the vision of the cross, which Eusebius does not venture to attest himself, but relates on the word and oath of Constantine. Vide Bk. 1, cc. 28 and 30.—Bag.]

11 “Slaves,” a word which has frequently been used by Eusebius in this literal sense.

12 This idiom here is nearly the English, “followed on the heels” of any one.

13 (
Ex 9,12 Ex 9,

14 [This tabernacle, which Constantine always carried with him in his military expeditions, is described by Sozomen, Bk. 1, c. 8: see English translation.—Bag.]

15 [Alluding to Ex 33,7, &c.—Bag.]

16 [“He consented to leave his rival, or, as he again styled Li-cinius, his friend and brother, in the possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt; but the provinces of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Dacia, Macedonia, and Greece, were yielded to the Western empire, and the dominions of Constantine now extended from the confines of Caledonia to the extremity of Peloponnesus.”—Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. XIV.—Bag.]

17 [Gibbon (chap. XIV). says that the reconciliation of Constantine and Licinius maintained, above eight years, the tranquillity of the Roman world. If this be true, it may be regarded as one proof that our author’s work is rather to be considered as a general sketch of Constantine’s life and character than as a minutely correct historical document.—Bag.] There is either a strange lack of perspective in this account, or else Eusebius omits all account of the first wars with Licinius (314) which resulted in the division of territory mentioned in the above note. This latter view is plausible on comparison with the account in the Church History. In this view the conditions referred to above relate to the terms on which Licinius was spared on Constantia’s request, and what follows is the explanation of the alleged oath-breaking of Constantine in putting Licinius to death.

18 “With one shout and charge.” This does not agree with the account of the final struggle by which Licinius came into Constantine’s power, as generally given, and lends some probability to the view that after he had been captured he again revolted).

19 Like very many other things which Eusebius tells of Constantine, that which was entirely customary with other emperors as well as Constantine has the appearance of being peculiar to him. Victor is a common title of various emperors.

20 [In the gynaecia (gunaikeia), or places where women, and subsequently slaves of both sexes, were employed in spinning and weaving for the emperor). Vide infra, ch. 34.—Bag.] See note on ch. 34).

680 21 “The value of our narrative”is the rendering of Molzberger.“The powerfulness of his language.”—1709.

22 Compare Epitome in Sozomen, 1. 8.

23 There is a curious unanimity of effort on the part of theological amateurs, ancient and modern, to prove that those upon whom the tower in Siloam fell were guiltier than others. This was the spirit of Lactantius and it is not to be wondered at that Constantine should adopt such a peculiarly self-satisfying doctrine).

24 Compare Lactantius, On the deaths of the persecutors (De M. P)., and the Church History of Eusebius.

25 Literally “beneath the earth,” referring of course to the Graeco-Roman conception of Hades.

26 [“I said, under the guidance,” &c. It seems necessary to supply some expression of this kind, in order to preserve the sense, which is otherwise interrupted by the division (in this instance, at least, manifestly improper) into chapters.—Bag.]

27 Glossed by Molzberger as “political dishonor.”

28 In the Greek houses there were separate suites for men and women. Compare article Domus, in Smith, Dict. of Gr. and Rm Antig.

29 [That is, the free subject of inferior rank, accustomed to labor for his subsistence, but not to the degradation of slavery.]

30 [This seems to be the subscription or signature in the emperor’s own handwriting, which is referred to at the end of ch. 23.—Bag.]

31 [That is, the proconsuls, the vicars (or vice-praefects), and counts, or provincial generals.—Bag.]

681 32 [The power of the four Praetorian Praefects in the time of Constantine is thus described by Gibbon: “1. The Praefect of the East stretched his ample jurisdiction into the three parts of the globe which were subject to the Romans, from the cataracts of the Nile to the banks of the Phasis, and from the mountains of Thrace to the frontiers of Persia. 2. The important provinces of Pannonia, Dacia, Macedonia, and Greece once acknowledged the authority of the Praefect of Illyricum. 3. The power of the Praefect of Italy was not confined to the country from whence he derived his title; it extended over the additional territory of Rhaetia as far as the banks of the Danube, over the dependent islands of the Mediterranean, and over that part of the continent of Africa which lies between the confines of Cyrene and those of Tingitania. 4. The Praefect of the Gauls comprehended under that plural denomination the kindred provinces of Britain and Spain, and his authority was obeyed from the wall of Antoninus to the fort of Mount Atlas.”—Decline and Fall, chap. 17.— Bag.]

33 [That is, private sacrifices: for it appears that the idolatrous temples were allowed to be open for public worship.—Bag.]

34 [Licinius, thus designated for the subtlety of his character.—Bag.] More probably for his wickedness, and perhaps with thought of the “dragon” of the Book of Revelation. The word is drakwn, not ofi". It is the latter which is used in the LXX, where the English version speaks of the serpent as the “subtlest.” For historical and symbolical use of the words, compare Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship (Lond., 1874), and Conway,Demonoloy and Devil Lore (N.Y., 1879, 2 5,)).

35 Or “fixed,” “appointed.”

36 By a conjectural reading Stroth makes this “fools,” instead of “useless,” and renders, “For fools would not otherwise recognize the charm of virtue.”

37 [The remark of Valesius in reference to the difficulty of this chapter appears probable; viz. that it is partly to be attributed to Constantine’s own want of clearness, and partly to his translator, who has rendered obscure Latin into still more obscure Greek.—Bag.]

38 The word means “having no share with,” and sometimes “disinherited.” It may perhaps mean, “I have been accustomed to think of the former emperors as having been deprived of their possessions on account,” &c.

39 [The persecution of the Christians, with its attendant horrors, being the act, not of foreign enemies, but of their countrymen and fellow-citizens.—Bag.]

40 This is translated by Molzberger, “Therefore the priests let their hair hang down,” &c).

41 swfrosunh.

42 Compare, on all this, the Church History and notes, and also the Prolegomena to this work).

43 Or “groves.”

682 44 [Onper katafusin dedwka". The clause is thus rendered by Valesius: “Nos splendidissimam domum veritatis tuae, quam nas-centibus nobis donasti, retinemus.” This seems almost as unintelligible as the original. The translation above attempted yields, perhaps, a sense not inconsistent with the general scope of the passage.—Bag.] 1709 renders “according to nature.” Molzberger has “through no merit on our part.” Stroth renders “characteristically” or “as our own natural possession” (i.e. eigenthumlich), and is confirmed by Heinichen, while Christophorson has “natura” and Portesius “a natura.” The last is the best translation “by nature.” As a matter of interpretation Bagster is probably wrong and Stroth substantially right. Whether Constantine had the Epistle to the Romans in mind or not, he had the same thought as Paul that men “by nature” have the “truth of God,” but exchange this for a lie (Rm 1,25 Rm 2,14 cf. Rom. xi. Rm 21 and Rm 11,24). This suggests, however, another possible meaning, that the truth is known “through the things that are made” (Rm 1,20). For various philosophical usages of fusi", compare interesting note in Grant, Ethics of Aristotle, 1 (Lond. 1885), 483, 484.

45 Probably meaning rains.

46 [Constantine seems here to allude to the Gentile deities as powers of evil, capable, if unrestrained by a superior power, of working universal ruin.—Bag.]

47 The editorial “we” used by Bag. throughout these edicts has been retained, although the first person singular is employed throughout in the original.

48 For literature relating to Arianism, compare Literature at the end of article by Schaff, in Smith and Wace, Dict. 1 (1877), 159, and in the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia, 1, p. 137.

49 “Demoniacal.” 1709 renders “diabolical.”

50 It was at Alexandria that the controversy with Arius arose.He was called to account by Alexander of Alexandria who summoned one council and then another, at which Arius and his followers were excommunicated.

51 [The Melitians, or Meletians, an obscure Egyptian sect, of whom little satisfactory is recorded.—Bag.] Compare Blunt, Dict. of Sects, Heresies, &c. (1874), 305–308.

52 [Hosius, bishop of Cordova.—Bag.] Hosius had already been for some time a trusted adviser, having acted for Constantine also in the Donatist matters. Compare on Hosius the full article of Morse in Smith and Wace.

53 By “acting as umpire.”

54 [Licinius, whose prohibition of synods is referred to in Bk. 1, ch. 51. The disputes here mentioned are those between the Catholic Christians and the Donatists, a very violent sect which sprung up in Africa after the persecution by Diocletian.—Bag.]

683 55 [Africa: alluding to the schism of the Donatists.—Bag.]

56 Or “mutual.”

57 [The word nomo" seems to be commonly used by Eusebius as a general term for Divine revelation; as we employ the word “Scripture.”—Bag.]

58 The plain English “stuck to” represents the idea of Heinichen (animo infixisses infixunique teneres)followed by Molz (mit unkluger Hartnackigkeit festhieltest).Bag. had “gave utterance to,” and with this Vales., 1709, and Str. correspond.

59 Bag., “The meeting of the synod was prohibited.”

60 On “forgiveness.”

61 Rendered “forbearance” above.

62 [The emperor seems at this time to have had a very imperfect knowledge of the errors of the Arian heresy. After the Council of Nice, at which he heard them fully explained, he wrote of them in terms of decisive condemnation in his letter to the Alexandrian church. Vide Socrates’ (Qo Hist., Bk.
1Ch 9 Bag.] Neither at this time nor at any time does Constantine seem to have entered very fully into an appreciation of doctrinal niceties. Later he was more than tolerant of semi-Arianism. He seems to have depended good deal on the “explanations” of others, and to have been led in somewhat devious path in trying to follow all).

63 [Hosius of Cordova, mentioned above, ch. 63.—Bag.]

1 Compare contrast with the other emperors in Prolegomena, under Life.

2 Eusebius expressly states that Constantine’s words had little result in conversion. It is meant here that the success of one who relied on God itself proved the vanity of idols.

684 3 This may perhaps mean “ordered to be inscribed” or “wrote it to be his safeguard.” This form of Bag. is a satisfactory paraphrase.

4 Their bindings were adorned with precious stones according to Cedrenus. Compare Prolegomena, Character, Magnificence.

5 [Politeutwn andrwn, here, apparently, the Decurions, who formed the corporations of the cities, and were subject to responsible and burdensome offices. Vide Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 17.—Bag.] So Valesius maintains, and has been generally if not universally followed. Though it might be overventuresome to change the translation therefore, it befits the sense better and suits the words admirably to apply to the different classes, Peregrini and Cives. This distinction did not fully pass away until the time of Justinian (Long, art). Civitas, in Smith, Dict. Gr. and Rm Ant.), and it seems certain that Eusebius meant this.

6 This above is a sort of resume of the life of Constantine. For illustration of the various facts mentioned, compare the latter part of the Church History and the various acts and documents in this Life. Compare also Prolegomena, under Life, and especially under Character. It seems now and then to be like a little homily on the glory of having the shoe on the other foot—the glory of having done to others what others had done to them.

7 Note the explicit testimony of Eusebius here, and compare Prolegomena, under Religious Characteristics.

8 Especially the book of Revelation, and Isaiah as quoted below.

9 [Literally, by encaustic painting. See Bk. 1, ch. 3, note.—Bag.]

10 (
Is 27,1 Is 27, is not taken from the Septuagint translation, as it corresponds with the Hebrew against the LXX. It differs in the word used for “terrible,” and none of the editions (or at least not the Vatican, Holmes and Parsons, Van Ess, or Tischendorf) and none of the mss. cited by Holmes and Parsons, have the phrase “in the sea” as the Hebrew. Grabe has this latter as rations reading (ed. Bagster, 16º, p. 74), but there is hardly possibility that it is the true reading.

11 The famous rocks in the Euxine which were wont to close against one another and crush all passing ships, and by which the Argo was said (Od. 12. 69) to be the only ship which ever passed in safety).

12 For endless literature of the Paschal controversy, compare articles in all the religious encyclop‘dias. especially perhaps Steitz, in the Schaff-Herzog; and for history and discussion of the question itself, see Hensley’s art). Easter, in Smith and Cheetham, Dict.

13 By some this phrase is joined to the preceding paragraph,—strangers …“in this as in other respects,” and so Bag. translates, but the division followed here is that of Hein.

685 14 “Beasts of burden.”

15 The probably apocryphal version of the summoning letter given by Cowper (Syr. Misc.) from the Syriac gives the reason of the choice of Nicaea, “the excellent temperature of the air” there.

16 The standard work on councils is Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, available to the English reader in the translation of Clark, Oxenham, &c. (Edinb. 1872 sq)., a work so thoroughly fundamental that a general reference to it will serve as one continuous note to matters relating to the councils held under Constantine.

17 = Africa.

18 It is noted that this evidence of the presence of foreign bishops—“missionary bishops,” so to speak—is confirmed by Gelasius and also by the roll of the members.

19 [Hosius of Cordova.—Bag.]

20 [It has been doubted whether Rome or Constantinople is here intended. The authority of Sozomen and others is in favor of the former. See English translation, published as one volume of this series.—Bag.] Also in this series).

21 (
Ac 2,5 sqq.

22 The number present is given variously as three hundred (Socrates), three hundred and eighteen (Athanasius, &c)., two hundred and seventy (Theodoret), or even two thousand (cf. Hefele). It has been conjectured that the variation came from the omission of names of the Arians (cf. note of Heinichen, Vol. 3, P. 506–507), or that it varied during the two months and more.

23 This is the way it is interpreted by Sozomen, 1, 17. The phrase, which is literally “of middling character,” is translated by Molz. and others as if it meant “mild” or “modest,” as if it referred in some way to the doctrine of the mean.

24 [Hence it seems probable that this was the last day of the Council; the entire session of which occupied more than two months, and which was originally held in a church.—Bag.] The exact dates of the Council are controverted, but it seems that it ended August 25, having probably begun June 14.

686 25 Compare Prolegomena, under Physical and Mental Characteristics.

26 [The authority of Sozomen and other writers seems to decide that this was Eusebius himself.—Bag.]

27 The earnest desire of Constantine to promote peace in the church makes one judge with leniency the rather arbitrary and very mechanical method he often took to secure it. As over against the unity of form or the unity of compromise, there is one only real unity—a unity in the truth, being one in the Truth. The secret of peace is reason with right.

28 The extant signatures are of doubtful authenticity. Compare Hefele, p. 269.

29 Compare Prolegomena, Life.

30 At the risk of seeming trivial in sober and professedly condensed annotation, one cannot help noting that the human nature of ancient and modern councils is the same,—much controversy and more or less absenteeism, but all present at dinner.

31 For notice of these couches, see Smith, Dict. Gr. and Ram. Ant., article Lectica.

32 [The idea seems to be (as explained by Valesius) that if they joined the Jews in celebrating this feast they would seem to consent to their crime in crucifying the Lord.—Bag.] He carried out his reprobation of the Jews in his actions in discriminating laws at least, and perhaps in actual persecution).

33 [AEAgcinoia. This word is one of a class ot expressions frequently used by Eusebius, and which, being intended as titles of honor, like “Excellency,” &c., should, where possible, be thus rendered. In the present instance it is applied to the heads of the churches collectively.—Bag.] More probably in this case it is not the title, but means “your sagacity.”

34 Rather “sagacity” and “wisdom.”

35 Rather “sagacity” and “wisdom.”

687 36 [Valesius explains this as referring to the conduct of the Jews in professing to acknowledge God as their king, and yet denying him by saying, “We have no king but Caesar.”—Bag.]

37 This Hein. regards as the correct meaning, although “equally valid,” or “authoritative,” has been regarded as possible).

38 Or “such were the injunctions which the emperor laid especially on their consciences.”

39 Continuation of the Arian controversy).

40 On the site of the sepulchre, compare Besant, Sepulchre, the Holy, in Smith and Cheetham, 2 (1880), 1881–1888. He discusses (a) Is the present site that fixed upon by the officers of Constantine? and (b) Was that site certainly or even probably the true spot where our Lord was buried? Compare also reports of the Palestine Exploration Fund Survey, Jerusalem, 1884, p. 429–435 (Conder)).

41 [Licinius appears to be meant, whose death had occurred a.d. 326, in which year the alleged discovery of the Lord’s sepulchre took place.—Bag.]

42 The word used is the technical “camera,” meaning properly a certain style of vaulted ceiling, but here it is perhaps the generic ceiling if the specific word below means panel ceiling.

43 This is the word for the Lacunaria or panel ceilings, a style of ceiling where “planks were placed across these beams at certain intervals leaving hollow spaces” “which were frequently covered with gold and ivory and sometimes with paintings.” Compare article Domus, in Smith, Dict. Gr. and Nora. Ant. The passage may mean either “with respect to the ceiling …whether …wainscoted” or “with respect to the Camera …whether panel ceiled.”

44 [Apparently referring (says Valesius) to Ap 21,2: “And I, John, saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God, out of heaven” &c.; an extraordinary nay almost ludicrous application of Scripture, though perhaps characteristic of the author’s age.—Bag.] And it may be said characteristic of Eusebius himself, for it is not his only sin in this regard.

45 It would seem from this description that the paneling was like that of Santa Maria Maggiore at Rome, a horizontal surface rather than the pointed roof paneled.

46 Whether this means two series, one underground and one above (Molz. and many), or not, is fully discussed by Heinichen in a separate note (Eusebius, vol. 3, P. 520–521).

688 47 [These inner porticos seem to have rested on massy piles, because they adjoined the sides of the church, and had to bear its roof, which was loftier than any of the rest.—Bag.] Translated by Molz. “Quadrangular supports.” “In Architecture a cubic mass of building, to serve for bearings.”—Liddell and Scott.

48 [Apparently the altar, which was of a hemispherical, or rather hemicylindrical form—Bag.] Also a much-discussed question. Compare Heinichen, vol. 3, p. 521–522.

49 [In front of the larger churches there was generally a street, or open space, where a market was held on the festival of the Martyr to whom the church was dedicated. Regard was also had, in this arrangement, to architectural effect, the object being that nothing should interfere with the view of the front of the church). Vide Valesius in loc.Bag.]

50 Some idea of various features of this building may be gathered from the cuts and descriptions of other basilicas in Fergusson, History of Architecture, 1 (1874), 400 sq.; Lübke, Geschickte der Architektur, 1 (Lpg. 1875), 229 sq.; Langl.’s series of Bilder zur Geschichte, &c.

51 Compare Prolegomena, p. 411.

52 Compare Wordsworth, Helena, in Smith and Wace, Dict. 2 (1880), 881 sq. That she was made empress is shown also by the coins. Cf. coins in Eckhel.

53 [Ps 131,7. Septuagint.—Bag.] Engl. Vers. Ps 132,7, “We will worship at his footstool.”

54 [Literally, beneath the earth. It seems to have been characteristic of the age of Eusebius to invest the more prominent circumstances connected with the Lord’s life on earth with a degree of romance and mystery equally inconsistent with Scripture and with probability. It is obvious that Scripture furnishes no authority for the caves either of the nativity or ascension. See ch. 41, supra.Bag.] Compare discussion by Andrews, Cave of the Nativity in his Life of our Lord (N. Y)., 77–83.

55 [Alluding probably, to the discourse in Mt xxiv., delivered by our Lord to the disciples on the Mount of Olives.—Bag.]

56 According to some apocryphal accounts Constantine owed his conversion to his mother (compare the apocryphal letters mentioned under Writings, in the Prolegomena), but Eusebius, below (ch. 47), seems to reverse the fact.

57 [These words seem to savor of Origen’s doctrine, to which Eusebius was much addicted. Origen believed that, in the resurrection, bodies would be changed into souls, and souls into angels, according to the testimony of Jerome. See Valesius in loc.Bag.]

689 58 The date of Helena’s death is usually placed in 327 or 328. Compare Wordsworth, l.c. Since she was eighty years old at the time of her death she must have been about twenty-five when Constantine was born).

59 Compare note above. It is said (Wordsworth) that while silver and copper coins have been found with her name, none of gold have yet come to light.

60 Perhaps the largest “panel.” The restored church of St. Paul, outside the walls at Rome, has a paneled ceiling with a very large central panel.

61 [Nicomedia, where Constantine had besieged Licinius, and compelled him to surrender; in memory of which event he built this church.—Bag.]

62 This doctrine, which appears again and again in Eusebius and in Constantine, has a curiously interesting bearing at present theological controversies in America, and England for that matter. It may be called the doctrine of the “eternal Christ,” as over against the doctrine of the “essential Christ,” or that which seems to make his existence begin with his incarnation—the “historical Christ.” He had historical existence from the beginning, both as the indwelling and as the objective, and one might venture to think that advocates of these two mews could find a meeting-ground, or solution of difficulty at least, in this phrase which represents him who was in the beginning with God and is and ever shall be, who has made all things which have been made, and is in all parts of the universe and the world, among Jews and Gentiles.

63 [The English version in this passage (
Gn 18,1), and others, has “plains,” though the Septuagint and ancient interpreters generally render it, as here, by “oak,” some by “terebinth” (turpentine tree), the Vulgate by “convallis.”—Bag.] The Revised Version (1881–1885) has “oaks.”

64 The writer of this history says the letter was addressed to him, while it is really to Macarius. On this ground the Eusebian authorship of the book has been challenged, but of course Eusebius is among “the rest of the bishops.”

65 [Eutropia, mother of his empress Fausta.—Bag.]

66 [These objects of idolatrous worship were probably figures intended to represent the angels who had appeared to Abraham.—Bag.] More probably they were some form of images obscenely worshiped.

67 Better “Reverences,” and so throughout).

68 [On the coast of Cilicia, near Issus.—Bag.]

690 69 [By Jupiter, for restoring Hippolytus to life, at Diana’s request.—Bag.]

70 Through another reading translated by Val., 1709, Bag., “stolen by impostors.” Stroth has “impiously employed for magicians arts.”

71 (
Ph 1,18 Ph 1, “is preached,” not “let Christ preached.”

72 “Believed to have been Strategus Musonius” (Venables).

73 [Eustathius, bishop of Antioch, whose deposition, on the ground of a charge of immorality, by the partisans of Eusebius of Nicomedia, had occasioned the disturbances alluded to in the text.—Bag.] There is a view that this whole trouble was the result of an intrigue of Eusebius to get the better of Eustathius, who was in a sense a rival. Compare for very vigorous expression of this view, Venables, Eustathius of Antioch, in Smith and Wace, Dict.

74 This is rather literal, and the paraphrase of Molz. may be better, “no foreign bishops.”

75 To the various and controverted translations of this passage it may be ventured to add one, “we ourselves desire your judgment to be fortified by good counsels.”

76 The other point of view has been alluded to. It seems on the face of it, in this unanimous endorsement by the church, as if Eusebius had had the right of it in his quarrel with Eustathius; but on the other hand, it is to be remembered that this wonderful harmony in the church had come about from the fact that Eustathius and all who sympathized with him had withdrawn, and only the party of Eusebius was left. It would be like a “unanimous” vote in Parliament with all the opposition benches empty. The endorsement of his own party does not count for much.

77 [Alluding to the deposition of Eustathius, who had been charged with the crime of seduction. The reader who consults the original of this chapter, especially the latter part of it, may judge of the difficulty of eliciting any tolerable sense from an obscure. and possibly corrupted, text.—Bag.] The translator (Bag.) shows ingenuity in this extracting of the general sense from the involved Greek of the writing of Constantine or the translation as it supposably is. But the very fact of the obscurity shown in this and in his oration alike is conclusive against any thought that the literary work ascribed to Constantine was written by Eusebius).

78 Canon 15 (or 14) of the “Apostolical Canons.” Cf. ed. Bruns. 1 (Berol. 1839), 3.

79 The word has thus generally been rendered by Bag., and does probably refer to their official title, although in this case and occasionally he translates “friends.”

691 80 [George (afterwards bishop of Laodicea) appears to have been degraded from the office of presbyter on the ground of impiety, by the same bishop who had ordained him. Both George and Euphronius were of the Arian party, of which fact it is possible that Constantine was ignorant.—Bag.] Georgius was at one time or another Arian, semi-Arian, and Anomoean, and is said to have been called by Athanasius “the most wicked of all the Arians” (Venables in Smith and Wace, Dict. 2. 637). He was constantly pitted against Eustathius, which accounts for his appearance at this time. Euphronius was the one chosen at this time. Compare Bennett, Euphronius, in Smith and Wace, Dict. 2. 297).

81 [Mt 7,15, Mt 7,16.] Quoted perhaps from memory, or else this text is defective, for this reads, “will come” where all N. T). mss. have “come.”

82 Sufficiently good general accounts of these various heresies may be found in Blunt). Dict. of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought, Lond. 1874, p. 382–389, Novatians; p. 612–614, Valentintans; p. 296–298, Marcionites; p. 515–517, Samosatenes (Paultans); p. 336–341, Montanists (Cataphrygians). Or see standard Encyclopaedias.

83 There is throughout this Life a curious repetition in the details of action against heretics of precisely the same things which Christians complained of as having been done to them. The idea of toleration then seems to have been much as it was in pre-reformation times, or, not to judge other times when there is a beam in our own eye, as it is in America and England to-day,—the largest toleration for every one who thinks as we do, and for the others a temporary suspension of the rule to “judge not,” with an amended prayer, “Lord, condemn them, for they know not what they do,” and a vigorous attempt to force the divine judgment).

84 Here again it is worth noting, for history and for edification, that books were prohibited and heretics treated just as the Christians did not like to “be done by,” by the heathen.

85 This famous “church unity,” for which Constantine has been blessed or execrated, as the case might be, in all the ages since, was hardly more complete than modern unified churches where all the members held different pet doctrines and are prepared to fight for them to the bitter end).

1 Compare Prolegomena, under Character, for the criticism of this conduct from those who viewed it from another point of view.

2 For directly contrary account of his taxations, compare Prolegomena, under Character.

3 In reality it may have been less childish than Eusebius makes it appear, for it probably refers to cases where it was a matter of just equalization of claims, where each party thought his claim just).

4 [Probably the Goths are meant, as in Socrates’ (Qo Hist. Bk.
1Ch 18 Bag.] Compare for his Gothic wars, references in Prolegomena, under Life.

5 To the number of 300,000, according to Anonymus Valesianus.This was in the year 334.

NPNF2-01 Eusebius 678